Temple of Reason
A Temple of Reason (French: Temple de la Raison) was, during the French Revolution, a temple for a new belief system created to replace Christianity: the Cult of Reason, which was based on the ideals of atheism and humanism. This "religion" was supposed to be universal and to spread the ideas of the revolution, summarized in its "Liberté, égalité, fraternité" motto, which was also inscribed on the Temples.
The symbols of Christianity were covered up and they were replaced by the symbols of the Cult of Reason. In the Churches of Reason, there were specially created services that were meant to replace the Christian liturgy.
For instance, at the Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris, on November 10, 1793, a special ritual was held for the "Feast of Reason": the nave had an improvised mountain on which stood a Greek temple dedicated to Philosophy and decorated with busts of philosophers. At the base of the mountain was located an altar dedicated to Reason, in front of which was located a torch of Truth. The ceremony included the crowd paying homage to an actress dressed in blue, white, red (the colours of the Republic), personificating Liberty.
Churches transformed into Temples of Reason
After Catholicism was banned in 1792, many of its churches were turned into Temples of Reason, including:
- the Notre-Dame de Paris Cathedral (November 10, 1793)
- Église Saint-Sulpice, Paris
- Église Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis
- the basilique Saint-Denis,
- the church of Les Invalides,
- the church of Thomas d'Aquino,
- the Panthéon de Paris,
- the church Saint Pierre from Montmartre,
- the Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Reims,
- the Cathédrale Saint-Pierre-et-Saint-Paul de Troyes,
- the Notre Dame de Versailles Church,
- Église Saint-Pierre de Caen,
- and many others
- James A. Herrick, "The Making of the New Spirituality", InterVarsity Press, 2004 ISBN 0-8308-3279-3, p. 75-76