|The Temporalis; the zygomatic arch and Masseter have been removed.|
|Origin||Temporal lines on the parietal bone of the skull.|
|Insertion||Coronoid process of the mandible.|
|Artery||Deep temporal arteries|
|Nerve||Deep temporal nerves, branch(es) of the anterior division of the mandibular nerve (V3)|
|Actions||Elevation and retraction of mandible|
The temporal muscle, also known as the temporalis, is one of the muscles of mastication. It is a broad, fan-shaped muscle on each side of the head that fills the temporal fossa, superior to the zygomatic arch so it covers much of the temporal bone. 
In humans, it arises from the temporal fossa and the deep part of temporal fascia. It passes medial to the zygomatic arch and inserts onto the coronoid process of the mandible, with its insertion extending into the retromolar fossa posterior to the most distal mandibular molar.  In other mammals, the muscle usually spans the dorsal part of the skull all the way up to the medial line. There, it may be attached to a sagittal crest, as can be seen in early hominins like Paranthropus aethiopicus.
The temporal muscle is covered by the temporal fascia, also known as the temporal aponeurosis.
The temporalis is derived from the first pharyngeal arch in development.
As with the other muscles of mastication, control of the temporal muscle comes from the third (mandibular) branch of the trigeminal nerve. Specifically, the muscle is innervated by the deep temporal nerves.
If the entire muscle contracts,the main action is to elevate the mandible, raising the lower jaw. Elevation of the mandible occurs during the closing of the jaws. If only the posterior part contracts, the muscle moves the lower jaw backward. Moving the lower jaw backward causes retraction of the mandible. Retraction of the jaw often accompanies the closing of the jaws. 
When lower dentures are fitted, they should not extend into the retromolar fossa to prevent trauma of the mucosa due to the contraction of the temporalis muscle. 
- Illustrated Anatomy of the Head and Neck, Fehrenbach and Herring, Elsevier, 2012, page 98
- Human Anatomy, Jacobs, Elsevier, 2008, page 194
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Temporal muscles.|
- LUC temp
- SUNY Labs 27:04-0100 - "Infratemporal Fossa: The Temporalis Muscle"
- The anatomical basis for surgical preservation of temporal muscle, Kadri, et al, J Neurosurg 2004, 100:517–522 at http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/documents/singerlab/files/Kadri%20et%20al.pdf
- Temporalis Muscle Transfer, The Methodist Hospital System, Houston, TX, at http://www.methodistfacialparalysis.com/temporalis/