Tensiomyography

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Tensiomyography (TMG) is a unique, noninvasive technological procedure that facilitates the measurement of the contractile properties of superficial skeletal muscles. Originally designed for use by medical professionals, TMG has successfully transitioned from medicine, through sports medicine and is now being effectively utilized in sports training programs and post trauma rehabilitation. Because of its non-invasive nature, tensiomyography provides rapid accurate diagnostic data without any discomfort, or disruption of the routine of the person whose muscles are being assessed

TMG is noninvasive method and technology and as such it is the only method that:

  • Enables measurements in a laboratory or on site (from general diagnostics in laboratory to on location diagnostics during training or competition process)
  • Enables diagnostics of muscle type (muscle fibers types) and status (fatigue, potentiation, etc.)
  • Enables diagnostics of muscle functional, temporal and morphological symmetry
  • Enables evaluation of muscle synchronization
  • Enable functional muscle weakness/latent injury detection "in situ" and fast (in less than 5 min)

Main advantages of tensiomyography in comparison with other muscle diagnostic methods (for example Electromyography) are:

  • Selectivity
  • Simplicity
  • Objectivity
  • Repeatability
  • Unique Information

History[edit]

The TMG method was developed by a group of experts from various fields at the Faculty for Electrical Engineering at the University of Ljubljana. Many other institutions cooperated and were the method's early users and implementers. Among these were the Rehabilitation Institute in Ljubljana, the Orthopaedic Hospital in Valdoltra and the Olympic Committee of Slovenia. The most successful Slovenian national teams participated as well, including the Slovenian national football team and the Slovenian men's national ice hockey team (both were competitors in the World Championships in their sports).

The inventor of the method, Vojko Valenčič, was a leading researcher and the head of the Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging and Muscle Biomechanics. He was aided in his work by three research assistants and the human and technical resources provided by a close working relationship with the Department of Electronics at the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.

The TMG method was invented in the late 1980s and was from then on improved through many prototypes and developed to the stage where clinical application of the method was possible. Although TMG was initially intended for medical use, the method was also introduced into sports medicine and athletic training in 1996. In recent years, the development and application of the method has shifted more towards sports and, in cooperation with Mr. Srdjan Djordjevič, a biologist and one of the most renowned athletic trainers in Slovenia, numerous new ways of using TMG in sports have been developed and tested in practice on top athletes.

Procedure[edit]

A TMG measurement consists of four simple steps:

1. A special sensor is placed on the muscle to be measured. The sensor contains a rod designed to register the muscle's contraction.

2. Muscle contraction is induced artificially with an electrostimulator.

3. The contraction of the muscle under isometric conditions results in a muscle belly which radially displaces the sensor rod.

4. The TMG sensor is connected to a computer running specially designed software that records the displacement of the sensor rod during the test and plots the radial displacement of the sensor rod against time.

Muscle contraction time is statistically highly correlated with the ratio of fast to slow muscle fibres. Using muscle contraction time as measured by the TMG method, a muscle can be classified as slow (tonic) or fast (phasic).

Applications of TMG[edit]

TMG has been successfully applied in many different areas of usage. TMG was originally designed for medical use where it is being used in optimization of rehabilitation processes. Apart from medicine TMG is also being used in the military and veterinary fields. However TMG is most widely spread in the field of elite sport where it can be easily applied in most sports, especially in those where explosiveness is needed, i.e.:

Sports[edit]

TMG is used by world’s most prominent athletes, sports clubs and national federations:

Sport Organizations:

  • EXOS, USA
  • Bundesamt für Sport BASPO, Swiss
  • Northeastern University Athletics, USA
  • University of Iowa Olympic centre, USA
  • UK Athletics, UK
  • Heilongjiang Sports Science center,China
  • Núcleo de Alto Rendimento Esportivo, Brazil
  • Institute for Sports Medicine of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan
  • INEFC Institute for Physical Education of Catalonia, Spain
  • UK Sport Institute, UK
  • Institute for Sport, Slovenia
  • Hebei Sports Science Center,China
  • Institute for sport research Bucharest, Romania
  • Chengdu Sport Institute, China
  • Scottish Institute of Sport, UK
  • Inner Mongolia Science Center,China
  • National Sports Medicine Centre, Republic of Belarus

Professional football:

  • FC Manchester City, UK
  • FC Barcelona, Spain
  • FC Real Madrid, Spain
  • FC Manchester United, UK
  • FC Bayer Leverkusen, Germany
  • FC Milan, Italy
  • FC Liverpool, UK
  • FC Al Hilal, Saudi Arabia
  • FC Galatasaray, Turkey
  • FC Atletico Madrid, Spain
  • FC Chelsea, UK
  • FC Spartak Moscow, Russia
  • FC Santos Laguna, Mexico
  • FC BATE Borisov, Belarus
  • FC Lokomotiv Moskva, Russia
  • Fc Maribor, Slovenia
  • FC Ferencvaros, Hungary
  • FC Parma, Italy
  • FC Ajaccio, France
  • FC Udinese Calcio, Italy
  • FC Granada, Spain
  • FC Newcastle United, UK
  • FC Genoa, Italy
  • FC Fiorentina, Italy
  • FC Spezia Calcio, Italy
  • FC Lazio, Italy
  • FC Atletico Bilbao, Spain
  • FC Almeria, Spain
  • FC Racing Santander, Spain
  • FC Atalanta, Italy
  • FC Villareal, Spain
  • FC Catania, Italy
  • FC Valladolid, Spain
  • FC, Osasuna, Spain
  • FC Publikum, Slovenia
  • FC Kelag Karnten, Austria
  • FC Partizan, Srbija
  • FC Interblock, Slovenia
  • FC Bari Calcio, Italy
  • FC Dimao Zagreb, Croatia

Sport federations:

  • Hockey federation of Russia, Russia
  • Speed skating federation, Russia
  • Football federation of Spain, Spain
  • Football federation of Italia, Italy
  • Football federation of Latvia, Latvia
  • Football federation of UAE
  • Basketball federation of Slovenia, Slovenia
  • Biathlon federation of Belarus
  • Football federation of Slovenia, Slovenia
  • Athletic federation of Slovenia, Slovenia
  • Ski federation of Slovenia, Slovenia
  • Ski jumping federation of Slovenia, Slovenia
  • Judo federation of Portugal, Portugal
  • Swimming federation of Serbia

Professional Basketball:

  • BCM Gravelines Basketball, France
  • BC Union Olimpija, Slovenia
  • BC Khimki, Russia

Individual athletes:

  • Merlene Ottey, Olympic Athlete
  • Fernando Torres, Chelsea FC
  • Maria Sharapova, ATP Tennis player
  • Rafael Nadal, ATP Tennis player
  • Julien Lizeroux, FIS Skier
  • Nenad Krstić, Serbian national basketball player

Medical[edit]

TMG is used by eminent medical institutions:

  • MASS General hospital, USA
  • Quiron Grupo Hospitalario, Barcelona, Spain
  • Medyarthros clinic, Guadalajara, Mexico
  • Rehabilitation Hospital Soča, Slovenia
  • Preobraghensky clinic, Russia
  • Think Fitness, Football Performance & Injury Clinic, UK
  • Sichuan Orthopaedic Hospital,China
  • VF Sport, Functional Evaluation, Seville, Spain
  • Centre for sport medicine CMŠ, Slovenia
  • Novaelite clinic, Spain
  • NeuroExcellence clinic, Portugal
  • Cortsen Fysioterapi, Denmark
  • Centar Dr. Gifing, Beograd, Serbia
  • General hospital Izola, Slovenia

Research[edit]

TMG is used by world’s leading research institutions:

  • Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
  • Duke University, USA
  • Medical University Gottingen, Germany
  • University of Mainz, Germany
  • University of Bochum, Germany
  • Kokushikan University, Japan
  • University of Brussels, Belgium
  • University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
  • Yan Bian University,China
  • The Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong
  • Manchester Metropolitan University, UK
  • University of Malaya, Malaysia
  • North West University Potchefstroom, South Africa
  • University of Primorska, Slovenia
  • University of Maribor, Slovenia
  • University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Stirling University, Scotland, UK
  • University of Costa Rica, Costa Rica
  • University of Craiova, Romania
  • University of Barcelona, INEF Barcelona, Spain
  • University of Granda, Spain
  • University of Lerida, Spain
  • University of Seville, Spain
  • University of Vigo, Spain
  • University of Bath, UK
  • University of Castilla la Mancha, INEF Toledo, Spain
  • European University of Madrid, Spain
  • Beijing sport university, China
  • Nanjing Sport university, China
  • University of Belgrade, Serbia

Work[edit]

TMG is used by eminent occupational health institutions:

  • US Military, USA
  • Orthopaedic Hospital Valdoltra, Slovenia
  • Stubičke toplice, Croatia
  • Slovenian Army, Slovenia

References[edit]

  • Noninvasive Estimation of Myosin Heavy Chain Composition in Human Skeletal Muscle, 2011, Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011 Sep;43(9):1619-25. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31821522d0.PMID 21552151. Simunič B, Degens H, Rittweger J, Narici M. Mekjavič IB, Pišot R. Institute for Kinesiology Research, Science and Research Centre Koper, University of Primorska, Koper, Slovenia
  • Tensiomyography in Physical Rehabilitation of High Level Athletes, 2010, Journal The Open Sports Sciences Journal, 2010, 3, 47-48, Pedro S. Dias, Joan S. Fort, Daniel A. Marinho, Albano Santos and Mário C. Marques University of Beira Interior, Sport Sciences Department (UBI, Covilhã, Portugal). Universidade de Barcelona, Instituto Nacional de Educação Física da Catalunha, (INEFC, Barcelona, Spain). Research Centre in Sports, Health and Human Development (CIDESD, Vila Real, Portugal)
  • Monitoring of muscle activation changes after acl surgery, 2012, XXI International conference on sports rfhabjutation and traumatology. Tramullas JA, Sports Medicine Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
  • Physical activity program effects on the functional efficiency of flexors and extensor’s knee and ankle in Alzheimer’s patients, 2011, Journal European Geriatric Medicine. 2S. Pág.: S154. ISSN: 1878-7659. Sarmiento, S.; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Rodríguez-Matoso, De Saa, Bartolomé de la Rosa, García-Manso, J.M.University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
  • Atrophy dynamics of quadriceps muscles during 35 days of bed rest, 2008, EJAP Bedrest 2008. Šimunic Boštjan, Križaj Dejan, Rittweger Jörn, Narici Marco, Mekjavic B Igor, Pišot Rado Institute for Kinesiology Research, Science and Research Centre of Koper, University of Primorska, Slovenia Laboratory for Bioelectromagnetics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia Institute for Biophysical and Clinical Research into Human Movement, Manchester Metropolitan University,UK Department of Automation, Biocybernetics and Robotics, Institute of Josef Stefan, Slovenia
  • Evaluation of the Ability to Make Non-invasive Estimation of Muscle Contractile Properties on the Basis of the Muscle Belly Response, 2001, Med Biol Eng Comput. 2001 Jan;39(1):51-5. JCR IF (1999): 1.004; SE, x: 0.661 (13/76), computer science, interdisciplinary applications, x: 1.055 (16/43), engineering, biomedical, x: 1.014 (9/19), medical informatics. PMID 11214273, R. Dahmane, V. Valenčič, N. Knez, I. Eržen Institute of Anatomy, Medical Faculty, Ljubljana, Slovenia Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Effect of high-load and high-volume resistance exercise on the tensiomyographic twitch response of biceps brachii 2012 Journal J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2012 Aug;22(4):612-9. ISSN: 1050-6411 doi: 10.1016/j.jelekin.2012.01.005. Epub 2012 Feb 15. PMID 22341590, García-Manso, Rodríguez-Matoso, Sarmiento, De Saa, Vaamonde, Rodríguez-Ruiz, Da Silva-Grigoletto. Laboratorio de Análisis y planificación del entrenamiento deportivo, Physical Education Department, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
  • Neuromuscular Investigation in Diabetic Polyneuropathy (Case report) 2009 Journal Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2009;50(2):283-290. PMID 19434324. Rusu, Calina, Avramescu, Paun, Vasilescu Department of Sport Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Craiova, Craiova, Romania.
  • Strength and endurance of knee extensors in subjects after paralytic poliomyelitis, 2005. Disabil Rehabil. 2005 Jul 22;27(14):791-9. PMID 16096231. Grabljevec, Burger, Kersevan, Valencic, Marincek. Institute for Rehabilitation Ljubljana, and University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Slovenia.
  • Inter-Rater Reliability of Muscle Contractile Property Measurements Using Non-Invasive Tensiomyography, 2010, J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2010 Aug;20(4):761-doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2010.02.008. Epub 2010 Mar 16. PMID 20236839 Tous-Fajardo, Moras, Rodríguez-Jiménez, Usach, Doutres, Maffiuletti. Sports Science Research Group, Institut Nacional d'Educacio Fisica de Catalunya, Centro de Barcelona, Avda. de l'Estadi s/n, Anella Olimpica de Montjuic, Barcelona, Spain.

External links[edit]