Higher-order singular value decomposition
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In multilinear algebra, there does not exist a general decomposition method for multi-way arrays (also known as N-arrays, higher-order arrays, or data-tensors) with all the properties of a matrix singular value decomposition (SVD). A matrix SVD simultaneously computes
- (a) a rank-R decomposition and
- (b) the orthonormal row/column matrices.
These two properties can be captured separately by two different decompositions for multi-way arrays.
Property (a) is extended to higher order by a class of closely related constructions known collectively as CP decomposition (named after the two most popular and general variants, CANDECOMP and PARAFAC). Such decompositions represent a tensor as the sum of the n-fold outer products of rank-1 tensors, where n is the dimension of the tensor indices.
Property (b) is extended to higher order by a class of methods known variably as Tucker3, N-mode SVD, and N-mode principal component analysis (PCA). (This article will use the general term "Tucker decomposition".) These methods compute the othonormal spaces associated with the different axes (or modes) of a tensor. The Tucker decomposition is also used in multilinear subspace learning as multilinear principal component analysis. This terminology was coined by P. Kroonenberg in the 1980s, but it was later called multilinear SVD and HOSVD (higher-order SVD) by L. De Lathauwer.
Historically, much of the interest in higher-order SVDs was driven by the need to analyze empirical data, especial in psychometrics and chemometrics. As such, many of the methods have been independently invented several times, often with subtle variations, leading to a confusing literature. Abstract and general mathematical theorems are rare (though see Kruskal with regard to the CP decomposition); instead, the methods are often designed for analyzing specific data types. The 2008 review article by Kolda and Bader provides a compact summary of the history of these decompositions, and many references for further reading.
The concept of HOSVD was carried over to functions by Baranyi and Yam via the TP model transformation  . This extension led to the definition of the HOSVD based canonical form of tensor product functions and Linear Parameter Varying system models  and to convex hull manipulation based control optimization theory, see TP model transformation in control theories.
CP decomposition 
A CP decomposition of an N-way array X, with elements , is
where is the i-th element of the vector , etc.
Tucker decomposition 
In 1966, L. Tucker proposed a decomposition method for three-way arrays (inappropriately referred to as a 3-mode "tensors") as a multidimensional extension of factor analysis. This decomposition was further developed in the 1980s by P. Kroonenberg, who coined the terms Tucker3, Tucker3ALS (an alternating least squares dimensionality reduction algorithm), 3-Mode SVD, and 3-Mode PCA. In the intervening years, several authors developed the decomposition for N-way arrays. Most recently, this work was treated in an elegant fashion and introduced to the SIAM community by L. De Lathauwer et al. who referred to the decomposition as an N-way SVD, multilinear SVD and HOSVD.
Let the SVD of a real matrix be , then it can be written in an elementwise form as
and give, in a certain sense optimal, orthonormal basis for the column and row space, is diagonal with decreasing elements. N-mode SVD can be defined by the multidimensional generalization of this concept:
where the matrices and the core tensor should satisfy certain requirements (similar ones to the matrix SVD), namely
- Each is an orthogonal matrix (called n-mode singular matrix).
- Two subtensors of the core tensor are orthogonal i.e., if .
- The subtensors in the core tensor are ordered according to their Frobenius norm, i.e. for n = 1, ..., N.
The HOSVD can be built from several SVDs, as follows:
Given a tensor, T of shape , the ith singular tensor is given by making a matrix,
- , the matrix corresponding to .
taking its left singular vectors, .
The core tensor is then the tensor product of those s.
Main applications are extracting relevant information from multi-way arrays. Used in factor analysis, face recognition (TensorFaces), human motion analysis and synthesis, and many other signal processing endeavours, such as Genomic Signal Processing.
It is also used in tensor product model transformation-based controller design. In multilinear subspace learning, it is modified to multilinear principal component analysis for gait recognition.
- Kruskal, J. B. (1989). "Rank, decomposition, and uniqueness for 3-way and N-way arrays". In R. Coppi & S. Bolasco (Eds.), Multiway data analysis (pp. 7–18). Amsterdam: Elsevier. [ PDF ].
- Kolda, Tamara G.; Bader, Brett W. "Tensor Decompositions and Applications". SIAM Rev. 51: 455–500 (46 pages). CiteSeerX: 10.1.1.153.2059.
- P. Baranyi (April 2004). "TP model transformation as a way to LMI based controller design". IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics 51 (2): 387–400.
- P. Baranyi and D. Tikk and Y. Yam and R. J. Patton (2003). "From Differential Equations to PDC Controller Design via Numerical Transformation". Computers in Industry, Elsevier Science 51: 281–297.
- P. Baranyi and L. Szeidl and P. Várlaki and Y. Yam (July 3–5 2006). "Definition of the HOSVD-based canonical form of polytopic dynamic models". 3rd International Conference on Mechatronics (ICM 2006). pp. 660–665. Unknown parameter
- Ledyard R. Tucker (September 1966). "Some mathematical notes on three-mode factor analysis". Psychometrika 31 (3): 279–311. doi:10.1007/BF02289464.
- P. M. Kroonenberg (1983). "Three-mode principal component analysis: Theory and applications". DSWO Press, Leiden.
- Lieven De Lathauwer, Bart De Moor and Joos Vandewalle (April 2000). "A multilinear Singular Value Decomposition". SIAM 21 (4).
- L. Omberg, G. H. Golub and O. Alter (November 2007). "A Tensor Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition for Integrative Analysis of DNA Microarray Data From Different Studies". PNAS 104 (47): 18371–18376. doi:10.1073/pnas.0709146104.
- L. Omberg, J. R. Meyerson, K. Kobayashi, L. S. Drury, J. F. X. Diffley and O. Alter (October 2009). "Global Effects of DNA Replication and DNA Replication Origin Activity on Eukaryotic Gene Expression". Molecular Systems Biology 5 (1): 312. doi:10.1038/msb.2009.70.
- C. Muralidhara, A. M. Gross, R. R. Gutell and O. Alter (April 2011). "Tensor Decomposition Reveals Concurrent Evolutionary Convergences and Divergences and Correlations with Structural Motifs in Ribosomal RNA". Public Library of Science (PLoS) One 6 (4): e18768. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018768.
- Haiping Lu, K.N. Plataniotis and A.N. Venetsanopoulos, "A Survey of Multilinear Subspace Learning for Tensor Data", Pattern Recognition, Vol. 44, No. 7, pp. 1540–1551, Jul. 2011.
- H. Lu, K. N. Plataniotis, and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, "MPCA: Multilinear principal component analysis of tensor objects," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 18–39, Jan. 2008.