Tensor derivative (continuum mechanics)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The derivatives of scalars, vectors, and second-order tensors with respect to second-order tensors are of considerable use in continuum mechanics. These derivatives are used in the theories of nonlinear elasticity and plasticity, particularly in the design of algorithms for numerical simulations.[1]

The directional derivative provides a systematic way of finding these derivatives.[2]

Derivatives with respect to vectors and second-order tensors[edit]

The definitions of directional derivatives for various situations are given below. It is assumed that the functions are sufficiently smooth that derivatives can be taken.

Derivatives of scalar valued functions of vectors[edit]

Let f(v) be a real valued function of the vector v. Then the derivative of f(v) with respect to v (or at v) in the direction u is the vector defined as

\frac{\partial f}{\partial \mathbf{v}}\cdot\mathbf{u} = Df(\mathbf{v})[\mathbf{u}] = \left[\frac{d }{d \alpha}~f(\mathbf{v} + \alpha~\mathbf{u})\right]_{\alpha = 0}

for all vectors u.

Properties:

1) If f(\mathbf{v}) = f_1(\mathbf{v}) + f_2(\mathbf{v}) then \frac{\partial f}{\partial \mathbf{v}}\cdot\mathbf{u} =  \left(\frac{\partial f_1}{\partial \mathbf{v}} + \frac{\partial f_2}{\partial \mathbf{v}}\right)\cdot\mathbf{u}

2) If f(\mathbf{v}) = f_1(\mathbf{v})~ f_2(\mathbf{v}) then \frac{\partial f}{\partial \mathbf{v}}\cdot\mathbf{u} =  \left(\frac{\partial f_1}{\partial \mathbf{v}} \cdot \mathbf{u} \right)~f_2(\mathbf{v}) + f_1(\mathbf{v})~\left(\frac{\partial f_2}{\partial \mathbf{v}}\cdot\mathbf{u} \right)

3) If f(\mathbf{v}) = f_1(f_2(\mathbf{v})) then \frac{\partial f}{\partial \mathbf{v}}\cdot\mathbf{u} =  \frac{\partial f_1}{\partial f_2}~\frac{\partial f_2}{\partial \mathbf{v}}\cdot\mathbf{u}

Derivatives of vector valued functions of vectors[edit]

Let f(v) be a vector valued function of the vector v. Then the derivative of f(v) with respect to v (or at v) in the direction u is the second order tensor defined as

 \frac{\partial \mathbf{f}}{\partial \mathbf{v}}\cdot\mathbf{u} = D\mathbf{f}(\mathbf{v})[\mathbf{u}] = \left[\frac{d }{d \alpha}~\mathbf{f}(\mathbf{v} + \alpha~\mathbf{u} ) \right]_{\alpha = 0}

for all vectors u.

Properties:
1) If \mathbf{f}(\mathbf{v}) = \mathbf{f}_1(\mathbf{v}) + \mathbf{f}_2(\mathbf{v}) then \frac{\partial \mathbf{f}}{\partial \mathbf{v}}\cdot\mathbf{u} =  \left(\frac{\partial \mathbf{f}_1}{\partial \mathbf{v}} + \frac{\partial \mathbf{f}_2}{\partial \mathbf{v}}\right)\cdot\mathbf{u}
2) If \mathbf{f}(\mathbf{v}) = \mathbf{f}_1(\mathbf{v})\times\mathbf{f}_2(\mathbf{v}) then \frac{\partial \mathbf{f}}{\partial \mathbf{v}}\cdot\mathbf{u} =  \left(\frac{\partial \mathbf{f}_1}{\partial \mathbf{v}}\cdot\mathbf{u}\right)\times\mathbf{f}_2(\mathbf{v}) + \mathbf{f}_1(\mathbf{v})\times\left(\frac{\partial \mathbf{f}_2}{\partial \mathbf{v}}\cdot\mathbf{u} \right)
3) If \mathbf{f}(\mathbf{v}) = \mathbf{f}_1(\mathbf{f}_2(\mathbf{v})) then \frac{\partial \mathbf{f}}{\partial \mathbf{v}}\cdot\mathbf{u} =  \frac{\partial \mathbf{f}_1}{\partial \mathbf{f}_2}\cdot\left(\frac{\partial \mathbf{f}_2}{\partial \mathbf{v}}\cdot\mathbf{u} \right)

Derivatives of scalar valued functions of second-order tensors[edit]

Let f(\boldsymbol{S}) be a real valued function of the second order tensor \boldsymbol{S}. Then the derivative of f(\boldsymbol{S}) with respect to \boldsymbol{S} (or at \boldsymbol{S}) in the direction \boldsymbol{T} is the second order tensor defined as

\frac{\partial f}{\partial \boldsymbol{S}}:\boldsymbol{T} = Df(\boldsymbol{S})[\boldsymbol{T}] = \left[\frac{d }{d \alpha}~f(\boldsymbol{S} + \alpha~\boldsymbol{T})\right]_{\alpha = 0}

for all second order tensors \boldsymbol{T}.

Properties:
1) If f(\boldsymbol{S}) = f_1(\boldsymbol{S}) + f_2(\boldsymbol{S}) then  \frac{\partial f}{\partial \boldsymbol{S}}:\boldsymbol{T} =  \left(\frac{\partial f_1}{\partial \boldsymbol{S}} + \frac{\partial f_2}{\partial \boldsymbol{S}}\right):\boldsymbol{T}
2) If f(\boldsymbol{S}) = f_1(\boldsymbol{S})~ f_2(\boldsymbol{S}) then  \frac{\partial f}{\partial \boldsymbol{S}}:\boldsymbol{T} =  \left(\frac{\partial f_1}{\partial \boldsymbol{S}}:\boldsymbol{T}\right)~f_2(\boldsymbol{S}) + f_1(\boldsymbol{S})~\left(\frac{\partial f_2}{\partial \boldsymbol{S}}:\boldsymbol{T} \right)
3) If f(\boldsymbol{S}) = f_1(f_2(\boldsymbol{S})) then  \frac{\partial f}{\partial \boldsymbol{S}}:\boldsymbol{T} =  \frac{\partial f_1}{\partial f_2}~\left(\frac{\partial f_2}{\partial \boldsymbol{S}}:\boldsymbol{T} \right)

Derivatives of tensor valued functions of second-order tensors[edit]

Let \boldsymbol{F}(\boldsymbol{S}) be a second order tensor valued function of the second order tensor \boldsymbol{S}. Then the derivative of \boldsymbol{F}(\boldsymbol{S}) with respect to \boldsymbol{S} (or at \boldsymbol{S}) in the direction \boldsymbol{T} is the fourth order tensor defined as

\frac{\partial \boldsymbol{F}}{\partial \boldsymbol{S}}:\boldsymbol{T} = D\boldsymbol{F}(\boldsymbol{S})[\boldsymbol{T}] = \left[\frac{d }{d \alpha}~\boldsymbol{F}(\boldsymbol{S} + \alpha~\boldsymbol{T})\right]_{\alpha = 0}

for all second order tensors \boldsymbol{T}.

Properties:
1) If \boldsymbol{F}(\boldsymbol{S}) = \boldsymbol{F}_1(\boldsymbol{S}) + \boldsymbol{F}_2(\boldsymbol{S}) then  \frac{\partial \boldsymbol{F}}{\partial \boldsymbol{S}}:\boldsymbol{T} =  \left(\frac{\partial \boldsymbol{F}_1}{\partial \boldsymbol{S}} + \frac{\partial \boldsymbol{F}_2}{\partial \boldsymbol{S}}\right):\boldsymbol{T}
2) If \boldsymbol{F}(\boldsymbol{S}) = \boldsymbol{F}_1(\boldsymbol{S})\cdot\boldsymbol{F}_2(\boldsymbol{S}) then  \frac{\partial \boldsymbol{F}}{\partial \boldsymbol{S}}:\boldsymbol{T} =  \left(\frac{\partial \boldsymbol{F}_1}{\partial \boldsymbol{S}}:\boldsymbol{T}\right)\cdot\boldsymbol{F}_2(\boldsymbol{S}) + \boldsymbol{F}_1 (\boldsymbol{S}) \cdot\left(\frac{\partial \boldsymbol{F}_2}{\partial \boldsymbol{S}}:\boldsymbol{T} \right)
3) If \boldsymbol{F}(\boldsymbol{S}) = \boldsymbol{F}_1(\boldsymbol{F}_2(\boldsymbol{S})) then  \frac{\partial \boldsymbol{F}}{\partial \boldsymbol{S}}:\boldsymbol{T} =  \frac{\partial \boldsymbol{F}_1}{\partial \boldsymbol{F}_2}:\left(\frac{\partial \boldsymbol{F}_2}{\partial \boldsymbol{S}}:\boldsymbol{T} \right)
4) If f(\boldsymbol{S}) = f_1(\boldsymbol{F}_2(\boldsymbol{S})) then  \frac{\partial f}{\partial \boldsymbol{S}}:\boldsymbol{T} =  \frac{\partial f_1}{\partial \boldsymbol{F}_2}:\left(\frac{\partial \boldsymbol{F}_2}{\partial \boldsymbol{S}}:\boldsymbol{T} \right)

Gradient of a tensor field[edit]

The gradient, \boldsymbol{\nabla}\boldsymbol{T}, of a tensor field \boldsymbol{T}(\mathbf{x}) in the direction of an arbitrary constant vector c is defined as:

   \boldsymbol{\nabla}\boldsymbol{T}\cdot\mathbf{c} = \left.\cfrac{d}{d\alpha}~\boldsymbol{T}(\mathbf{x}+\alpha\mathbf{c})\right|_{\alpha=0}

The gradient of a tensor field of order n is a tensor field of order n+1.

Cartesian coordinates[edit]

Note: the Einstein summation convention of summing on repeated indices is used below.


If \mathbf{e}_1,\mathbf{e}_2,\mathbf{e}_3 are the basis vectors in a Cartesian coordinate system, with coordinates of points denoted by (x_1, x_2, x_3), then the gradient of the tensor field \boldsymbol{T} is given by

   \boldsymbol{\nabla}\boldsymbol{T} = \cfrac{\partial{\boldsymbol{T}}}{\partial x_i}\otimes\mathbf{e}_i

Since the basis vectors do not vary in a Cartesian coordinate system we have the following relations for the gradients of a scalar field \phi, a vector field v, and a second-order tensor field \boldsymbol{S}.

   \begin{align}
   \boldsymbol{\nabla}\phi & = \cfrac{\partial\phi}{\partial x_i}~\mathbf{e}_i \\
   \boldsymbol{\nabla}\mathbf{v} & = \cfrac{\partial (v_j \mathbf{e}_j)}{\partial x_i}\otimes\mathbf{e}_i  = \cfrac{\partial v_j}{\partial x_i}~\mathbf{e}_j\otimes\mathbf{e}_i\\
   \boldsymbol{\nabla}\boldsymbol{S} & = \cfrac{\partial (S_{jk} \mathbf{e}_j\otimes\mathbf{e}_k)}{\partial x_i}\otimes\mathbf{e}_i  = \cfrac{\partial S_{jk}}{\partial x_i}~\mathbf{e}_j\otimes\mathbf{e}_k\otimes\mathbf{e}_i
   \end{align}

Curvilinear coordinates[edit]

Note: the Einstein summation convention of summing on repeated indices is used below.


If \mathbf{g}^1,\mathbf{g}^2,\mathbf{g}^3 are the contravariant basis vectors in a curvilinear coordinate system, with coordinates of points denoted by (\xi^1, \xi^2, \xi^3), then the gradient of the tensor field \boldsymbol{T} is given by (see [3] for a proof.)


   \boldsymbol{\nabla}\boldsymbol{T} = \cfrac{\partial{\boldsymbol{T}}}{\partial \xi^i}\otimes\mathbf{g}^i

From this definition we have the following relations for the gradients of a scalar field \phi, a vector field v, and a second-order tensor field \boldsymbol{S}.

\begin{align}
   \boldsymbol{\nabla}\phi & = \cfrac{\partial\phi}{\partial \xi^i}~\mathbf{g}^i \\
   \boldsymbol{\nabla}\mathbf{v} & = \cfrac{\partial (v^j \mathbf{g}_j)}{\partial \xi^i}\otimes\mathbf{g}^i 
        = \left(\cfrac{\partial v^j}{\partial \xi^i} + v^k~\Gamma_{ik}^j\right)~\mathbf{g}_j\otimes\mathbf{g}^i
        = \left(\cfrac{\partial v_j}{\partial \xi^i} - v_k~\Gamma_{ij}^k\right)~\mathbf{g}^j\otimes\mathbf{g}^i\\
   \boldsymbol{\nabla}\boldsymbol{S} & = \cfrac{\partial (S_{jk}~\mathbf{g}^j\otimes\mathbf{g}^k)}{\partial \xi^i}\otimes\mathbf{g}^i 
        = \left(\cfrac{\partial S_{jk}}{\partial \xi_i}- S_{lk}~\Gamma_{ij}^l - S_{jl}~\Gamma_{ik}^l\right)~\mathbf{g}^j\otimes\mathbf{g}^k\otimes\mathbf{g}^i
   \end{align}

where the Christoffel symbol \Gamma_{ij}^k is defined using

   \Gamma_{ij}^k~\mathbf{g}_k = \cfrac{\partial \mathbf{g}_i}{\partial \xi^j} \quad \implies \quad
   \Gamma_{ij}^k = \cfrac{\partial \mathbf{g}_i}{\partial \xi^j}\cdot\mathbf{g}_k = -\mathbf{g}_i\cdot\cfrac{\partial \mathbf{g}^k}{\partial \xi^j}

Cylindrical polar coordinates[edit]

In cylindrical coordinates, the gradient is given by

\begin{align}
\boldsymbol{\nabla}\phi &=\cfrac{\partial \phi}{\partial r}~\mathbf{e}_r + \cfrac{1}{r}~\cfrac{\partial \phi}{\partial \theta}~\mathbf{e}_\theta +\cfrac{\partial \phi}{\partial z}~\mathbf{e}_z \\
\boldsymbol{\nabla}\mathbf{v} &= \cfrac{\partial v_r}{\partial r}~\mathbf{e}_r\otimes\mathbf{e}_r + \cfrac{1}{r}\left(\cfrac{\partial v_r}{\partial \theta} -v_\theta \right)~\mathbf{e}_r \otimes \mathbf{e}_\theta + \cfrac{\partial v_r}{\partial z}~\mathbf{e}_r\otimes\mathbf{e}_z +\cfrac{\partial v_\theta}{\partial r}~\mathbf{e}_\theta\otimes\mathbf{e}_r +\cfrac{1}{r}\left(\cfrac{\partial v_\theta}{\partial \theta} + v_r \right)~\mathbf{e}_\theta\otimes\mathbf{e}_\theta \\
&\quad  + \cfrac{\partial v_\theta}{\partial z}~\mathbf{e}_\theta \otimes\mathbf{e}_z + \cfrac{\partial v_z}{\partial r}~\mathbf{e}_z\otimes\mathbf{e}_r + \cfrac{1}{r}\cfrac{\partial v_z}{\partial \theta}~\mathbf{e}_z \otimes\mathbf{e}_\theta + \cfrac{\partial v_z}{\partial z}~\mathbf{e}_z\otimes\mathbf{e}_z \\
\boldsymbol{\nabla}\boldsymbol{S} & = \frac{\partial S_{rr}}{\partial r}~\mathbf{e}_r\otimes\mathbf{e}_r\otimes\mathbf{e}_r + \cfrac{1}{r}\left[\frac{\partial S_{rr}}{\partial \theta} - (S_{\theta r}+S_{r\theta})\right]~\mathbf{e}_r\otimes\mathbf{e}_r\otimes\mathbf{e}_\theta + \frac{\partial S_{rr}}{\partial z}~\mathbf{e}_r \otimes \mathbf{e}_r\otimes\mathbf{e}_z + \frac{\partial S_{r\theta}}{\partial r}~\mathbf{e}_r\otimes\mathbf{e}_\theta\otimes\mathbf{e}_r \\
&\quad+ \cfrac{1}{r}\left[\frac{\partial S_{r\theta}}{\partial \theta} + (S_{rr}-S_{\theta\theta}) \right]~\mathbf{e}_r\otimes\mathbf{e}_\theta\otimes\mathbf{e}_\theta + \frac{\partial S_{r\theta}}{\partial z}~\mathbf{e}_r\otimes\mathbf{e}_\theta\otimes\mathbf{e}_z + \frac{\partial S_{rz}}{\partial r}~\mathbf{e}_r \otimes \mathbf{e}_z \otimes \mathbf{e}_r + \cfrac{1}{r}\left[\frac{\partial S_{rz}}{\partial \theta} -S_{\theta z} \right]~\mathbf{e}_r\otimes\mathbf{e}_z\otimes\mathbf{e}_\theta \\
&\quad+ \frac{\partial S_{rz}}{\partial z}~\mathbf{e}_r \otimes \mathbf{e}_z\otimes\mathbf{e}_z + \frac{\partial S_{\theta r}}{\partial r}~\mathbf{e}_\theta \otimes \mathbf{e}_r \otimes \mathbf{e}_r + \cfrac{1}{r}\left[\frac{\partial S_{\theta r}}{\partial \theta} + (S_{rr}-S_{\theta\theta}) \right]~\mathbf{e}_\theta\otimes\mathbf{e}_r\otimes\mathbf{e}_\theta + \frac{\partial S_{\theta r}}{\partial z}~\mathbf{e}_\theta\otimes\mathbf{e}_r\otimes\mathbf{e}_z \\
&\quad+ \frac{\partial S_{\theta\theta}}{\partial r}~\mathbf{e}_\theta\otimes\mathbf{e}_\theta\otimes\mathbf{e}_r +\cfrac{1}{r}\left[\frac{\partial S_{\theta\theta}}{\partial \theta} + (S_{r\theta}+S_{\theta r})\right]~\mathbf{e}_\theta\otimes\mathbf{e}_\theta\otimes\mathbf{e}_\theta + \frac{\partial S_{\theta\theta}}{\partial z}~\mathbf{e}_\theta \otimes \mathbf{e}_\theta \otimes \mathbf{e}_z + \frac{\partial S_{\theta z}}{\partial r}~\mathbf{e}_\theta \otimes \mathbf{e}_z\otimes\mathbf{e}_r \\
&\quad+ \cfrac{1}{r}\left[\frac{\partial S_{\theta z}}{\partial \theta} + S_{rz} \right]~\mathbf{e}_\theta \otimes\mathbf{e}_z\otimes\mathbf{e}_\theta + \frac{\partial S_{\theta z}}{\partial z}~\mathbf{e}_\theta\otimes\mathbf{e}_z\otimes\mathbf{e}_z + \frac{\partial S_{zr}}{\partial r}~\mathbf{e}_z\otimes\mathbf{e}_r\otimes\mathbf{e}_r + \cfrac{1}{r}\left[\frac{\partial S_{zr}}{\partial \theta} - S_{z\theta} \right]~\mathbf{e}_z \otimes \mathbf{e}_r \otimes\mathbf{e}_\theta \\
&\quad+ \frac{\partial S_{zr}}{\partial z}~\mathbf{e}_z\otimes\mathbf{e}_r\otimes\mathbf{e}_z + \frac{\partial S_{z\theta}}{\partial r}~\mathbf{e}_z \otimes \mathbf{e}_\theta \otimes \mathbf{e}_r + \cfrac{1}{r}\left[\frac{\partial S_{z\theta}}{\partial \theta} + S_{zr} \right]~\mathbf{e}_z \otimes\mathbf{e}_\theta \otimes \mathbf{e}_\theta + \frac{\partial S_{z\theta}}{\partial z}~\mathbf{e}_z\otimes\mathbf{e}_\theta\otimes\mathbf{e}_z \\
&\quad+ \frac{\partial S_{zz}}{\partial r}~\mathbf{e}_z\otimes\mathbf{e}_z\otimes\mathbf{e}_r + \cfrac{1}{r}~\frac{\partial S_{zz}}{\partial \theta }~\mathbf{e}_z \otimes \mathbf{e}_z \otimes\mathbf{e}_\theta + \frac{\partial S_{zz}}{\partial z}~\mathbf{e}_z\otimes\mathbf{e}_z\otimes\mathbf{e}_z
\end{align}

Divergence of a tensor field[edit]

The divergence of a tensor field \boldsymbol{T}(\mathbf{x}) is defined using the recursive relation


   (\boldsymbol{\nabla}\cdot\boldsymbol{T})\cdot\mathbf{c} = \boldsymbol{\nabla}\cdot(\mathbf{c}\cdot\boldsymbol{T}) ~;\qquad\boldsymbol{\nabla}\cdot\mathbf{v} = \text{tr}(\boldsymbol{\nabla}\mathbf{v})

where c is an arbitrary constant vector and v is a vector field. If \boldsymbol{T} is a tensor field of order n > 1 then the divergence of the field is a tensor of order n−1.

Cartesian coordinates[edit]

Note: the Einstein summation convention of summing on repeated indices is used below.

In a Cartesian coordinate system we have the following relations for a vector field v and a second-order tensor field \boldsymbol{S}.

\begin{align}
   \boldsymbol{\nabla}\cdot\mathbf{v} &= \cfrac{\partial v_i}{\partial x_i} \\
   \boldsymbol{\nabla}\cdot\boldsymbol{S} &= \cfrac{\partial S_{ki}}{\partial x_i}~\mathbf{e}_k
   \end{align}

Note that in the case of the second-order tensor field, we have[4]

\boldsymbol{\nabla}\cdot\boldsymbol{S} \neq \operatorname{div}\boldsymbol{S} = \boldsymbol{\nabla}\cdot\boldsymbol{S}^\mathrm{T}.

Curvilinear coordinates[edit]

Note: the Einstein summation convention of summing on repeated indices is used below.

In curvilinear coordinates, the divergences of a vector field v and a second-order tensor field \boldsymbol{S} are


   \begin{align}
   \boldsymbol{\nabla}\cdot\mathbf{v} & 
        = \left(\cfrac{\partial v^i}{\partial \xi^i} + v^k~\Gamma_{ik}^i\right)\\
   \boldsymbol{\nabla}\cdot\boldsymbol{S} & 
        = \left(\cfrac{\partial S_{ik}}{\partial \xi_i}- S_{lk}~\Gamma_{ii}^l - S_{il}~\Gamma_{ik}^l\right)~\mathbf{g}^k
   \end{align}

Cylindrical polar coordinates[edit]

In cylindrical polar coordinates


   \begin{align}
   \boldsymbol{\nabla}\cdot\mathbf{v} & 
        = \cfrac{\partial v_r}{\partial r} + 
     \cfrac{1}{r}\left(\cfrac{\partial v_\theta}{\partial \theta} + v_r \right)
 + \cfrac{\partial v_z}{\partial z}\\
   \boldsymbol{\nabla}\cdot\boldsymbol{S} & 
        = \frac{\partial S_{rr}}{\partial r}~\mathbf{e}_r 
   + \frac{\partial S_{r\theta}}{\partial r}~\mathbf{e}_\theta
   + \frac{\partial S_{rz}}{\partial r}~\mathbf{e}_z  \\
 &  +
\cfrac{1}{r}\left[\frac{\partial S_{\theta r}}{\partial \theta} + (S_{rr}-S_{\theta\theta})\right]~\mathbf{e}_r  +
\cfrac{1}{r}\left[\frac{\partial S_{\theta\theta}}{\partial \theta} + (S_{r\theta}+S_{\theta r})\right]~\mathbf{e}_\theta   +\cfrac{1}{r}\left[\frac{\partial S_{\theta z}}{\partial \theta} + S_{rz}\right]~\mathbf{e}_z  \\
 &  +
\frac{\partial S_{zr}}{\partial z}~\mathbf{e}_r +
\frac{\partial S_{z\theta}}{\partial z}~\mathbf{e}_\theta +
\frac{\partial S_{zz}}{\partial z}~\mathbf{e}_z
   \end{align}

Curl of a tensor field[edit]

The curl of an order-n > 1 tensor field \boldsymbol{T}(\mathbf{x}) is also defined using the recursive relation

(\boldsymbol{\nabla}\times\boldsymbol{T})\cdot\mathbf{c} = \boldsymbol{\nabla}\times(\mathbf{c}\cdot\boldsymbol{T}) ~;\qquad (\boldsymbol{\nabla}\times\mathbf{v})\cdot\mathbf{c} = \boldsymbol{\nabla}\cdot(\mathbf{v}\times\mathbf{c})

where c is an arbitrary constant vector and v is a vector field.

Curl of a first-order tensor (vector) field[edit]

Consider a vector field v and an arbitrary constant vector c. In index notation, the cross product is given by


   \mathbf{v} \times \mathbf{c} = e_{ijk}~v_j~c_k~\mathbf{e}_i

where e_{ijk} is the permutation symbol. Then,


  \boldsymbol{\nabla}\cdot(\mathbf{v} \times \mathbf{c}) = e_{ijk}~v_{j,i}~c_k = (e_{ijk}~v_{j,i}~\mathbf{e}_k)\cdot\mathbf{c} = (\boldsymbol{\nabla}\times\mathbf{v})\cdot\mathbf{c}

Therefore

\boldsymbol{\nabla}\times\mathbf{v} = e_{ijk}~v_{j,i}~\mathbf{e}_k

Curl of a second-order tensor field[edit]

For a second-order tensor \boldsymbol{S}

   \mathbf{c}\cdot\boldsymbol{S} = c_m~S_{mj}~\mathbf{e}_j

Hence, using the definition of the curl of a first-order tensor field,

   \boldsymbol{\nabla}\times(\mathbf{c}\cdot\boldsymbol{S}) = e_{ijk}~c_m~S_{mj,i}~\mathbf{e}_k = (e_{ijk}~S_{mj,i}~\mathbf{e}_k\otimes\mathbf{e}_m)\cdot\mathbf{c} = (\boldsymbol{\nabla}\times\boldsymbol{S})\cdot\mathbf{c}

Therefore, we have

  \boldsymbol{\nabla}\times\boldsymbol{S} = e_{ijk}~S_{mj,i}~\mathbf{e}_k\otimes\mathbf{e}_m

Identities involving the curl of a tensor field[edit]

The most commonly used identity involving the curl of a tensor field, \boldsymbol{T}, is


  \boldsymbol{\nabla}\times(\boldsymbol{\nabla}\boldsymbol{T}) = \boldsymbol{0}

This identity hold for tensor fields of all orders. For the important case of a second-order tensor, \boldsymbol{S}, this identity implies that


   \boldsymbol{\nabla}\times\boldsymbol{S} = \boldsymbol{0} \quad \implies \quad S_{mi,j} - S_{mj,i} = 0

Derivative of the determinant of a second-order tensor[edit]

The derivative of the determinant of a second order tensor \boldsymbol{A} is given by


  \frac{\partial }{\partial \boldsymbol{A}}\det(\boldsymbol{A}) = \det(\boldsymbol{A})~[\boldsymbol{A}^{-1}]^T ~.

In an orthonormal basis, the components of \boldsymbol{A} can be written as a matrix A. In that case, the right hand side corresponds the cofactors of the matrix.

Derivatives of the invariants of a second-order tensor[edit]

The principal invariants of a second order tensor are


  \begin{align}
    I_1(\boldsymbol{A}) & = \text{tr}{\boldsymbol{A}} \\
    I_2(\boldsymbol{A}) & = \frac{1}{2} \left[ (\text{tr}{\boldsymbol{A}})^2 - \text{tr}{\boldsymbol{A}^2} \right] \\
    I_3(\boldsymbol{A}) & = \det(\boldsymbol{A}) 
  \end{align}

The derivatives of these three invariants with respect to \boldsymbol{A} are


  \begin{align}
    \frac{\partial I_1}{\partial \boldsymbol{A}} & = \boldsymbol{\mathit{1}}  \\
    \frac{\partial I_2}{\partial \boldsymbol{A}} & = I_1~\boldsymbol{\mathit{1}} - \boldsymbol{A}^T \\
    \frac{\partial I_3}{\partial \boldsymbol{A}} & = \det(\boldsymbol{A})~[\boldsymbol{A}^{-1}]^T 
                         = I_2~\boldsymbol{\mathit{1}} - \boldsymbol{A}^T~(I_1~\boldsymbol{\mathit{1}} - \boldsymbol{A}^T)
                         = (\boldsymbol{A}^2 - I_1~\boldsymbol{A} + I_2~\boldsymbol{\mathit{1}})^T 
  \end{align}

Derivative of the second-order identity tensor[edit]

Let \boldsymbol{\mathit{1}} be the second order identity tensor. Then the derivative of this tensor with respect to a second order tensor \boldsymbol{A} is given by


  \frac{\partial \boldsymbol{\mathit{1}}}{\partial \boldsymbol{A}}:\boldsymbol{T} = \boldsymbol{\mathsf{0}}:\boldsymbol{T} = \boldsymbol{\mathit{0}}

This is because \boldsymbol{\mathit{1}} is independent of \boldsymbol{A}.

Derivative of a second-order tensor with respect to itself[edit]

Let \boldsymbol{A} be a second order tensor. Then


  \frac{\partial \boldsymbol{A}}{\partial \boldsymbol{A}}:\boldsymbol{T} = \left[\frac{\partial }{\partial \alpha} (\boldsymbol{A} + \alpha~\boldsymbol{T})\right]_{\alpha = 0} = \boldsymbol{T} = \boldsymbol{\mathsf{I}}:\boldsymbol{T}

Therefore,


   \frac{\partial \boldsymbol{A}}{\partial \boldsymbol{A}} = \boldsymbol{\mathsf{I}}

Here \boldsymbol{\mathsf{I}} is the fourth order identity tensor. In index notation with respect to an orthonormal basis


  \boldsymbol{\mathsf{I}} = \delta_{ik}~\delta_{jl}~\mathbf{e}_i\otimes\mathbf{e}_j\otimes\mathbf{e}_k\otimes\mathbf{e}_l

This result implies that


   \frac{\partial \boldsymbol{A}^T}{\partial \boldsymbol{A}}:\boldsymbol{T} = \boldsymbol{\mathsf{I}}^T:\boldsymbol{T} = \boldsymbol{T}^T

where


  \boldsymbol{\mathsf{I}}^T = \delta_{jk}~\delta_{il}~\mathbf{e}_i\otimes\mathbf{e}_j\otimes\mathbf{e}_k\otimes\mathbf{e}_l

Therefore, if the tensor \boldsymbol{A} is symmetric, then the derivative is also symmetric and we get


   \frac{\partial \boldsymbol{A}}{\partial \boldsymbol{A}} = \boldsymbol{\mathsf{I}}^{(s)}
     = \frac{1}{2}~(\boldsymbol{\mathsf{I}} + \boldsymbol{\mathsf{I}}^T)

where the symmetric fourth order identity tensor is


  \boldsymbol{\mathsf{I}}^{(s)} = \frac{1}{2}~(\delta_{ik}~\delta_{jl} + \delta_{il}~\delta_{jk})
    ~\mathbf{e}_i\otimes\mathbf{e}_j\otimes\mathbf{e}_k\otimes\mathbf{e}_l

Derivative of the inverse of a second-order tensor[edit]

Let \boldsymbol{A} and \boldsymbol{T} be two second order tensors, then


  \frac{\partial }{\partial \boldsymbol{A}} \left(\boldsymbol{A}^{-1}\right) : \boldsymbol{T} = - \boldsymbol{A}^{-1}\cdot\boldsymbol{T}\cdot\boldsymbol{A}^{-1}

In index notation with respect to an orthonormal basis


  \frac{\partial A^{-1}_{ij}}{\partial A_{kl}}~T_{kl} = - A^{-1}_{ik}~T_{kl}~A^{-1}_{lj} \implies \frac{\partial A^{-1}_{ij}}{\partial A_{kl}} = - A^{-1}_{ik}~A^{-1}_{lj}

We also have


 \frac{\partial }{\partial \boldsymbol{A}} \left(\boldsymbol{A}^{-T}\right) : \boldsymbol{T} = - \boldsymbol{A}^{-T}\cdot\boldsymbol{T}^{T}\cdot\boldsymbol{A}^{-T}

In index notation


  \frac{\partial A^{-1}_{ji}}{\partial A_{kl}}~T_{kl} = - A^{-1}_{jk}~T_{lk}~A^{-1}_{li} \implies \frac{\partial A^{-1}_{ji}}{\partial A_{kl}} = - A^{-1}_{li}~A^{-1}_{jk}

If the tensor \boldsymbol{A} is symmetric then


 \frac{\partial A^{-1}_{ij}}{\partial A_{kl}} = -\cfrac{1}{2}\left(A^{-1}_{ik}~A^{-1}_{jl} + A^{-1}_{il}~A^{-1}_{jk}\right)

Integration by parts[edit]

Domain \Omega, its boundary \Gamma and the outward unit normal \mathbf{n}

Another important operation related to tensor derivatives in continuum mechanics is integration by parts. The formula for integration by parts can be written as


   \int_{\Omega} \boldsymbol{F}\otimes\boldsymbol{\nabla}\boldsymbol{G}\,{\rm d}\Omega = \int_{\Gamma} \mathbf{n}\otimes(\boldsymbol{F}\otimes\boldsymbol{G})\,{\rm d}\Gamma - \int_{\Omega} \boldsymbol{G}\otimes\boldsymbol{\nabla}\boldsymbol{F}\,{\rm d}\Omega

where \boldsymbol{F} and \boldsymbol{G} are differentiable tensor fields of arbitrary order, \mathbf{n} is the unit outward normal to the domain over which the tensor fields are defined, \otimes represents a generalized tensor product operator, and \boldsymbol{\nabla} is a generalized gradient operator. When \boldsymbol{F} is equal to the identity tensor, we get the divergence theorem


   \int_{\Omega}\boldsymbol{\nabla}\boldsymbol{G}\,{\rm d}\Omega = \int_{\Gamma} \mathbf{n}\otimes\boldsymbol{G}\,{\rm d}\Gamma \,.

We can express the formula for integration by parts in Cartesian index notation as


   \int_{\Omega} F_{ijk....}\,G_{lmn...,p}\,{\rm d}\Omega = \int_{\Gamma} n_p\,F_{ijk...}\,G_{lmn...}\,{\rm d}\Gamma - \int_{\Omega} G_{lmn...}\,F_{ijk...,p}\,{\rm d}\Omega \,.

For the special case where the tensor product operation is a contraction of one index and the gradient operation is a divergence, and both \boldsymbol{F} and \boldsymbol{G} are second order tensors, we have


   \int_{\Omega} \boldsymbol{F}\cdot(\boldsymbol{\nabla}\cdot\boldsymbol{G})\,{\rm d}\Omega = \int_{\Gamma} \mathbf{n}\cdot(\boldsymbol{G}\cdot\boldsymbol{F}^T)\,{\rm d}\Gamma - \int_{\Omega} (\boldsymbol{\nabla}\boldsymbol{F}):\boldsymbol{G}^T\,{\rm d}\Omega \,.

In index notation,


  \int_{\Omega} F_{ij}\,G_{pj,p}\,{\rm d}\Omega = \int_{\Gamma} n_p\,F_{ij}\,G_{pj}\,{\rm d}\Gamma - \int_{\Omega} G_{pj}\,F_{ij,p}\,{\rm d}\Omega \,.

References[edit]

  1. ^ J. C. Simo and T. J. R. Hughes, 1998, Computational Inelasticity, Springer
  2. ^ J. E. Marsden and T. J. R. Hughes, 2000, Mathematical Foundations of Elasticity, Dover.
  3. ^ Ogden, R. W., 2000, Nonlinear Elastic Deformations, Dover.
  4. ^ http://homepages.engineering.auckland.ac.nz/~pkel015/SolidMechanicsBooks/Part_III/Chapter_1_Vectors_Tensors/Vectors_Tensors_14_Tensor_Calculus.pdf

See also[edit]