Tensor tympani muscle
|Tensor tympani muscle|
The medial wall and part of the posterior and anterior walls of the right tympanic cavity, lateral view. (Label for "Tensor tympani muscle" is at right, second from bottom.)
|Latin||Musculus tensor tympani|
|Handle of the malleus|
|Superior tympanic artery|
|Medial pterygoid nerve from the mandibular nerve (V3)|
|Actions||Tensing the tympanic membrane|
|Anatomical terms of muscle|
The tensor tympani arises from the cartilaginous portion of the auditory tube, and the adjoining part of the great wing of the sphenoid, as well as from the osseous canal in which it is contained. Passing backward through the canal, it ends in a slender tendon which enters the tympanic cavity, makes a sharp bend around the extremity of the septum, known as the processus cochleariformis, and is inserted into the neck of the malleus, near its root.
Innervation of the tensor tympani is from the tensor tympani nerve, a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. As the tensor tympani is innervated by motor fibers of the trigeminal nerve, it does not receive fibers from the trigeminal ganglion, which has sensory fibers only.
The tensor tympani muscle develops from mesodermal tissue in the 1st pharyngeal arch.
The tensor tympani acts to dampen the noise produced by chewing. When tensed, the muscle pulls the malleus medially, tensing the tympanic membrane and damping vibration in the ear ossicles and thereby reducing the perceived amplitude of sounds.
Contracting muscles produce vibration and sound. Slow twitch fibers produce 10 to 30 contractions per second (equivalent to 10 to 30 Hz sound frequency). Fast twitch fibers produce 30 to 70 contractions per second (equivalent to 30 to 70 Hz sound frequency). The vibration can be witnessed and felt by highly tensing one's muscles, as when making a firm fist. The sound can be heard by pressing a highly tensed muscle against the ear, again a firm fist is a good example. The sound is usually described as a rumbling sound. A very small percentage of individuals can voluntarily produce this rumbling sound by contracting the tensor tympani muscle of the middle ear. The rumbling sound can also be heard when the neck or jaw muscles are highly tensed as when yawning deeply. This phenomenon is known since (at least) 1884 (cf : Tillaux Paul Jules, Traité d’Anatomie topographique avec applications à la chirurgie, Paris Asselin et Houzeau publishers (4°ed. 1884, p. 125 )).
The tympanic reflex helps prevent damage to the inner ear by muffling the transmission of vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window. The reflex has a response time of 40 miliseconds, not fast enough to protect the ear from sudden loud noises such as an explosion or gunshot. Thus, the reflex most likely developed to protect early humans from loud thunder claps which do not happen in a split second. The reflex works by contracting the muscles of the inner ear, the tensor tympani and the stapedius. This pulls the manubrium of the malleolus inwards and tightens it. This tightening prevents the vibrations from disturbing the perilymph.
In many people with hyperacusis, an increased activity develops in the tensor tympani muscle in the middle ear as part of the startle response to some sounds. This lowered reflex threshold for tensor tympani contraction is activated by the perception/anticipation of loud sound, and is called tonic tensor tympani syndrome (TTTS). In some people with hyperacusis, the tensor tympani muscle can contract just by thinking about a loud sound. Following exposure to intolerable sounds, this contraction of the tensor tympani muscle tightens the ear drum, which can lead to the symptoms of ear pain/a fluttering sensation/a sensation of fullness in the ear (in the absence of any middle or inner ear pathology).
- This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see anatomical terminology.
- Middle ear
- Stapedius – the other major muscle in the middle ear
- Acoustic reflex
- Drake, Richard L.; Vogl, Wayne; Tibbitts, Adam; W.M. Mitchell (2005). Gray's anatomy for students. Illustrations by Richard; Richardson, Paul (Pbk. ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone. pp. 862–3. ISBN 978-0-443-06612-2.
- Moore, Keith (2003). The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (7th ed.). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Saunders. pp. 204–208. ISBN 0-7216-9412-8.
- Barry DT (1992). "Vibrations and sounds from evoked muscle twitches". Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology 32 (1-2): 35–40. PMID 1541245.
- September 2009 - Welcome to racewalkingnewzealand.org, PROGRAM FITNESS NEWSLETTER September 2009 by Gary Little
- Saladin, Kenneth (2012). Anatomy and Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 601. ISBN 978-0-07-337825-1.
- Bhatia. "Tympanic Reflex". Gradestack.com. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
- http://www.tinnitusvic.asn.au/tinnitus-hyperacusis.htm[full citation needed]
- http://www.tinnitus.org/home/frame/Tensor%20tympani%20syndrome_Klochoff.pdf[full citation needed]