Tenth grade is the tenth year of school post-kindergarten in many parts of the world. The students are 15 to 16 years of age, depending on when their birthday occurs. The variants of 10th grade in various nations is described below.
Year 10, for most Australian states, is the fourth year of a student's high school education. However, in the Northern Territory, it is the first year of senior school, after high school. For more information on Australia's education system, see: Education in Australia.
In Canada, Grade Ten is the 10th year of mandatory schooling. Depending on province, it may be the second or third year of high school.
In Finland tenth grade is usually known as the first year of High School ("Lukio" in finnish and "Gymnasiet" in swedish).
The tenth grade (the tenth school year after kindergarten) is very important in India. After the completion of the tenth grade, the student is required to sit for national board exams or state board exams, wherein question papers are prepared and answer sheets are checked by a central institution to which the school is affiliated. The percentage scored in Class X decides what a student can opt for in Class XI (Science/ Commerce/ Arts). The Grade gains even more importance as in many parts of India the number of seats for Class XI is generally lower than the number of students who pass out Standard X.
Upon completion of class 12, students are then required to sit for the entrance examinations for their chosen course of study and university (see Twelfth Grade, India) or to the universities through the AIPMT, IIT-JEE, AIEEE, or state level entrance exams such as MHT-CET etc.
The CBSE board also introduced a new system of evaluation called CCE (Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation). 
In Ireland, it is the optional 4th year of Secondary School, known as Transition Year or Idirbhlian. It can also be 5th year or Cúigú Bhlian for students who skip Transition year or in schools without a Transition Year.
In Israel, the tenth grade is the first year of high school (pronounced in Hebrew as Tichon) in most formal places, which lasts three years. As mentioned, in some cities (such as Ramat Gan and Giv'atayim), elementary school ends at 8th grade and high School starts at 9th grade.
In Italy, the tenth grade is the second year of the high school (which is called Scuola media superiore or Scuola secondaria di secondo grado). High school in Italy lasts five years.
In Mexico, the tenth grade is the beginning of the high school, which lasts only three years. Similar to Israel's education system. Tenth graders are normally aged 15–16.
Grade ten is the final year of high school in Pakistan; it is an important year level as it here that matriculation examinations occur after which students can qualify for grades eleven and twelve in college. Successful completion of college allows eligibility for entrance into universities and higher education.
In Russia, in the end of ninth grade students have a choice: to progress to the tenth grade in school or go to college. The tenth grade is the beginning of the high school, and it is a pre-exam year, when training to USE is being. Learning is similar with Ninth grade, but priority is given to repeat the material learned in high school (Fifth to Ninth years).
In Scotland, tenth grade is called S4 (or fourth year). At the end of S4, students normally sit examinations in eight Standard Grade subjects which they have studied over the past two years. Standard grade examinations come in three levels of difficulty: Credit, General and Foundation and are sat during the month of May.
It is followed by an optional fifth year (S5) at school or pupils may choose to leave at the end of S4 provided they have reached the age of 16 by 30 September that year. Those who wish to leave but will not meet the September deadline, may do so provided that they have either secured an apprenticeship or a placement in a college designed for Christmas Leavers.
In Spain, the tenth grade is the fourth year of ESO (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria - Obligatory Secondary Education), which has been in force since the promulgation of LOGSE in the middle of 1990s. Fourth ESO is also the last year of Obligatory Education.
In Sweden, the tenth to twelfth grades are taken at a certain type of school called 'Gymnasiet'. After ninth grade, Swedish children end their compulsory schooling, and therefore these schools are significantly divided in terms of abilities and career aims. For these higher schools there are then a few options, so as to where you want to go:
- Choose a school that is specialized for the job you wish to take. At these schools only classes relevant to the classification of the school are taught, along with language and math skills. Some schools are very hard to get accepted into, but it depends on which classification you are seeking.
- The schools can have very specific aims. There are widely oriented schools such as General Arts, but also very specific schools, such as Equestrian.
- If you fail your exams at the end of ninth grade, or pass with low results, you can choose (or are recommended) to enter a school that aims only to get your skills to a proficient level for everyday life. As some of these students gain knowledge, they may be offered to move into a general class (see below).
- Students that pass with average marks, or that perhaps do not yet have any specific career aspirations, can choose to move into a general school. The subjects taught here, and the everyday systems, are very similar to the systems from seventh grade to ninth grade. As these students advance, or show excellence in a particular area, they may be offered to apply for entry into a specialized school.
United Kingdom 
For education in England and Wales, this is known as Year 11, which is the final year of compulsory education in the United Kingdom. For education in Northern Ireland, this is called Year 12. General education certificates will be awarded if the pupils sit the end of examinations, called GCSEs. In Year 11, students take their GCSEs in a range of subjects. With grades ranging from A* to U (ungraded), these exams show proficiency in subjects 5 A to Cs grades is considered a pass and many employers require their staff to have at least Cs in GCSE English and Maths. GCSEs are taken in May and June. Pupils may then go on to sit 'A' Levels. A new English Baccalaureate has been introduced, this is awarded to student who achieve an A to C in five subjects including English, Maths, two sciences, a humanitarian subject (history or geography) and a language.
United States 
The tenth grade is the tenth school year after kindergarten (or pre-school).[clarification needed] Grade 10 is a part of secondary school, and in most parts of the USA, it is the second year of high school, with 11th then 12th following. People who do not complete the grade, for the required coursework, have been re-entered into 10th grade during the next school year, although summer school is often taken to complete the prior courses. This is usually when children would leave compulsory education.
The term high school is often used to mean senior high school and distinguished from junior high school. Starting in ninth grade and ending in twelfth grade, grades are used in determining a student's GPA (in the U.S.), and become part of a student's official transcript. Therefore, students obtain much more control of their education and often may even choose their core classes.
In the U.S. curriculum for mathematics, tenth graders are usually taught Algebra II or Geometry. Occasionally, Trigonometry, Precalculus, or higher classes, are offered for students who wish to take Advanced Placement math classes in later years of high school.
In the U.S. curriculum for literature, students have already begun to familiarize themselves with notable authors such as Shakespeare, while some Advanced Placement programs emphasize the work of author J.D. Salinger, for example, and his Catcher in the Rye, putting a major emphasis on literary terms and getting to know themes such as alienation. Generally, students at this grade will be taught World Literature. Like other classes, Honors and Advanced Placement versions of this course are available.
In the U.S. curriculum for social studies, tenth grade students are taught recent World History. In some districts, Advanced Placement coursework, such as geography, European history, World Studies, or United States History is first made available to students in this grade.
This grade is normally followed by eleventh grade, although some U.S. colleges will accept excelling students out of this grade as part of an early college entrance program. Alternatively, some students may choose to graduate early through standardized testing or advanced credits.
In the U.S., tenth grade is also known as sophomore year. The word sophomore is ultimately from the Greek word "sophia", meaning wisdom or knowledge. It is listed as a North American English term by the Oxford English Dictionary and it means little to the majority of English speakers outside the U.S.A.
South Africa 
In South Africa, ninth grade marks the end of a student's General Education and Training-phase. Children in South Africa, are required to attend school up to the age of fifteen, or completion of the General Education and Training-phase, whichever comes first. Students have the option of continuing secondary school up to twelfth grade, under Further Education and Training. Upon successful completion of the twelfth grade, students are granted the National Senior Certificate.
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See also