Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo
|Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo|
|2nd President of Equatorial Guinea|
3 August 1979
|Preceded by||Francisco Macías Nguema|
|Chairperson of the African Union|
31 January 2011 – 29 January 2012
|Preceded by||Bingu wa Mutharika|
|Succeeded by||Yayi Boni|
|Political party||Democratic Party (PDGE)|
Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo (born 5 June 1942) is an Equatoguinean politician who has been President of Equatorial Guinea since 1979. He ousted his uncle, dictator Francisco Macías Nguema, in an August 1979 military coup and has overseen Equatorial Guinea's emergence as an important oil producer, beginning in the 1990s. Obiang was Chairperson of the African Union from 31 January 2011 to 29 January 2012.
Equatorial Guinea is one of the continent's largest producers of oil, but ranks very poorly in the United Nations human development index. Most Equatorial Guineans, for instance, have no access to clean drinking water.
Born into the Esangui clan in Acoacán, Obiang joined the military during Equatorial Guinea's colonial period and attended the Military Academy in Zaragoza, Spain. He achieved the rank of lieutenant after his uncle, Francisco Macías Nguema, was elected the country's first president. Under Macías, Obiang held various jobs, including governor of Bioko and leader of the National Guard. He was also head of Black Beach Prison, notorious for the severe torture meted out to its inmates.
After Macías ordered the murders of several members of his own family – including Obiang's brother – Obiang and others in Macías' inner circle feared the president had gone insane. Obiang overthrew his uncle on 3 August 1979 in a bloody coup d'état and placed him on trial for his activities, including the genocide of the Bubi people, over the previous decade. He was sentenced to death and, on 29 September 1979, executed by firing squad.
Obiang declared that the new government would make a fresh start from Macías' brutal and repressive regime. He granted amnesty to political prisoners and ended the previous regime's system of forced labor. However, virtually no mention was made of his own role in the atrocities committed under his uncle's rule.
A new constitution was adopted in 1982. At the same time, Obiang was elected to a seven-year term as president; he was the only candidate. He was reelected in 1989, again as the only candidate. After other parties were permitted to organize, he was reelected in 1996 and 2002 with 98 percent of the vote in elections condemned as fraudulent by international observers. In 2002, for instance, at least one precinct was recorded as giving Obiang 103 percent of the vote.
Although his rule was at first considered more humane than that of his uncle, it has, by most accounts, become increasingly more brutal. Most domestic and international observers consider his regime to be one of the most corrupt, ethnocentric, oppressive and undemocratic states in the world. Equatorial Guinea is essentially a single-party state, dominated by Obiang's ironically-named Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea (PDGE). The constitution, while slightly less authoritarian than its predecessor, still grants Obiang unprecedented powers, including the power to rule by decree. Although opposition parties were legalized in 1992, 99 members of the 100-seat parliament are either members of the PDGE or are aligned with it and there is little opposition to presidential decisions.
The opposition is barely tolerated; indeed, a 2006 article in Der Spiegel quoted Obiang as asking, "What right does the opposition have to criticize the actions of a government?". The opposition is severely hampered by the lack of a free press as a vehicle for their views. There are no newspapers and all broadcast media are either owned outright by the government or controlled by its allies.
||The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (May 2011)|
Equatorial Guinea's relations with the United States entered a cooling phase in 1993, when Ambassador John E. Bennett was accused of practicing witchcraft at the graves of 10 British airmen who were killed when their plane crashed there during World War II. Bennett departed after receiving a death threat at the U.S. Embassy in Malabo in 1994; in his farewell address, he publicly named the government's most notorious torturers, including Equatorial Guinea's current Minister of National Security, Manuel Nguema Mba. No new envoy was appointed, and the embassy was closed in 1996, leaving its affairs to be handled by the embassy in neighboring Cameroon.
Things started to turn around after the terrorist attacks in 2001 on New York and Washington, in the aftermath of which the United States sought a radical re-prioritization in its dealings with key African states. On 25 January 2002, the Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies, a Jerusalem-based think tank, sponsored a forum on "African Oil: A Priority for U.S. National Security and African Development" at the University Club in Washington, D.C. According to the Institute, "West African oil is what can help stabilize the Middle East, end Muslim terror, and secure a measure of energy security. First, the Africa Initiative is Africa's Turn. And, turning Africa can help turn the kaleidoscope that will reset misalliances and unseat misrule driven by oil and murder. It's a policy". Speaking at the IASPS forum, Assistant Secretary of State for Africa Walter H. Kansteiner said, "African oil is of national strategic interest to us, and it will increase and become more important as we move forward. It will be people like you who are going to develop that resource, bring that oil home, and try to develop the African countries as you do it."
In a lengthy state visit from March to April 2006, President Obiang sought to reopen the closed embassy, claiming that "the lack of a U.S. diplomatic presence is definitely holding back economic growth." President Obiang was warmly greeted by Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, calling him a "good friend", while Obiang himself was "extremely pleased and hopeful that this relationship will continue to grow in friendship and cooperation." The PR company of Cassidy & Associates may be partially responsible for this change in the relations between Obiang and the United States government. Since 2004, Cassidy has been employed by the dictator's government at a rate of at least $120,000 a month.
By October 2006, however, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee had raised concerns about the proposal to build the new embassy on land owned by Obiang himself, whom the United Nations Commission on Human Rights has accused of directly overseeing the torture of opponents of his regime.
In July 2003, state-operated radio declared Obiang "the country's god" and had "all power over men and things." It added that the president was "in permanent contact with the Almighty" and "can decide to kill without anyone calling him to account and without going to hell." He personally made similar comments in 1993. Macías had also proclaimed himself a god.
Obiang has encouraged his cult of personality by ensuring that public speeches end in well-wishing for himself rather than for the republic. Many important buildings have a presidential lodge, many towns and cities have streets commemorating Obiang's coup against Macías, and many people wear clothes with his face printed on them.
Like his predecessor and other African dictators such as Idi Amin and Mobutu Sese Seko, Obiang has assigned to himself several creative titles. Among them are "gentleman of the great island of Bioko, Annobón and Río Muni." He also refers to himself as El Jefe (the boss).
In an October 2012 interview on CNN, Christiane Amanpour asked Obiang whether he would step down at the end of the current term (2009–2016) since he has been reelected at least four times in his over thirty years' reign. In a Gaddafi-like reply, Obiang categorically refused to step down at the end of the term despite the limits set on presidential service in the 2011 constitution.
Abuses under Obiang have included "unlawful killings by security forces; government-sanctioned kidnappings; systematic torture of prisoners and detainees by security forces; life threatening conditions in prisons and detention facilities; impunity; arbitrary arrest, detention, and incommunicado detention."
Forbes magazine has said that Obiang, with a net worth of US$600 million, is one of the world's wealthiest heads of state. Official sources have complained that Forbes is wrongly counting state property as personal property.
In 2003, Obiang told his citizenry that he felt compelled to take full control of the national treasury in order to prevent civil servants from being tempted to engage in corrupt practices. To avoid this corruption, Obiang deposited more than half a billion dollars into accounts controlled by Obiang and his family at Riggs Bank in Washington, D.C., leading a U.S. federal court to fine the bank $16 million. Later scrutiny by a United States Senate investigation in 2004 found that the Washington-based Riggs Bank took $300 million on behalf of Obiang from Exxon Mobil and Amerada Hess.
In 2008, the country became a candidate of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – an international project meant to promote openness about government oil revenues – but never qualified and missed an April 2010 deadline. Transparency International includes Equatorial Guinea as one of its twelve most-corrupt states.
Beginning in 2007 Obiang, along with several other African state leaders, came under investigation for corruption and fraud in the use of funds. He was suspected of using public funds to finance his private mansions and luxuries, both for himself and his family. He and his son, in particular, owned several properties and supercars in France. In addition, several complaints were filed in US courts against Obiang’s son. Their attorney’s stressed that the funds appropriated by both Obiang’s were done so entirely legally under Equatoguinean laws, although they may not agree with international standards.
The US department of Justice had alleged that Obiang and his son had appropriated hundreds of millions of dollars through corruption.
In 2011 and early 2012, many of Obiang and his son’s assets were seized by the French government and the American government, including mansions, wine collections, and supercars. There are investigations held in the US, France and Spain into the use of public funds by the Obiang family. The corruption investigation is currently on-going and any verdict has yet to come to fruition.
Obiang, his cabinet and his family supposedly receive billions in undisclosed oil revenue each year as a result of the nation's oil production. Although the cabinet has made moderate increases to social spending, these remain far overshadowed by the spending on, for instance, presidential palaces. In addition, the Obiang administration has been characterized by harassment of dissenters and foreign officials seeking to report on conditions. Obiang filed a libel lawsuit in a French court against an organization he believed was demeaning his image through stating his government committed such acts, although the case was dismissed.
Obiang has made several speeches and pledges that he will commit to open governance, reduce corruption, increase transparency, and improve the quality of life and uphold the basic freedoms of his citizens. However, critics claim that Obiang’s government has made very little progress towards this goal. Several international groups have called for Obiang to:
- Fiscal transparency and accountability by publishing all government revenues, conducting and publishing annual audits of government accounts, including those abroad; and forcing officials to declare assets
- Disclose natural resource revenues
- Greatly increase spending to alleviate poverty
- Uphold political freedoms and rights
- Allow judicial practices to meet international standards
- Cease harassment and hindrance to critics
- Allow foreign inspectors and groups to traverse freely, unhindered and unharassed.
The US Justice Department has alleged that Obiang’s son also extorted funds from lumber and construction companies by inflating contracts by as much as 500 percent, and then funneling funds into a private account to use at his own leisure. Obiang and his cabinet have defended his son and their lawyers withhold his innocence in both US and French courts, claiming he received these funds legally though legitimate business enterprises.
Shortly after these allegations came forth, Obiang named his son to Equatorial Guinea’s deputy permanent delegate to the United Nations Economic, Scientific and Cultural Organization, which would possibly result in diplomatic immunity from prosecution. Obiang created an independent audit task force to review the expenditures and financials of public figures in the government, screen for corruption, and increase financial transparency. However, the head of this task force is appointed by Obiang himself.
Obiang had a close relationship with the Washington, D.C.-based Riggs Bank. He is said to have been welcomed by top Riggs officials, who held a luncheon in his honor. Publicity regarding this relationship would later contribute to the downfall of Riggs.
On 10 November 2010, the Supreme Court of France accepted that the complaint filed by Transparency International in France on 2 December 2008, is admissible. The Supreme Court's decision will allow the appointment of an investigating judge and the opening of a judicial inquiry into claims that the President has used state funds to purchase private property in France.
An article published in Forbes magazine suggested Obiang has gathered roughly $700 million of the country's wealth in US bank accounts.
- "The Five Worst Leaders In Africa", Forbes, 9 February 2012.
- Gardner, Dan (6 November 2005). "The Pariah President: Teodoro Obiang is a brutal dictator responsible for thousands of deaths. So why is he treated like an elder statesman on the world stage?". The Ottawa Citizen (reprint: dangardner.ca). Archived from the original on 12 June 2008.
- Alexander Smoltczyk (28 August 2006). "Rich in Oil, Poor in Human Rights: Torture and Poverty in Equatorial Guinea". Der Spiegel.
- "When Macias was duly sentenced to death 101 times, a new Moroccan presidential guard had to form the firing squad, because local soldiers feared his alleged magical powers." Bloomfield, Steve (13 May 2007) "Teodoro Obiang Nguema: A brutal, bizarre jailer" The Independent, last accessed 21 October 2010
- Bloomfield, Steve (13 May 2007) "Teodoro Obiang Nguema: A brutal, bizarre jailer" The Independent, last accessed 21 October 2010
- United States Central Intelligence Agency (2009) CIA World Factbook 2010 Skyhorse Pub Co Inc., New York, page 214, ISBN 978-1-60239-727-9
- Tran, Mark (30 November 2009) "President Nguema of Equatorial Guinea on course to extend three-decade rule" The Guardian, last accessed 21 October 2010
- Nguema wins re-election
- A Touch of Crude
- Proceedings of an IASPS Symposium
- Larry Luxner (August 2001). "Equatorial Guinea Goes from Rags to Riches With Oil Boom". Retrieved 1 November 2007. Unknown parameter
- Remarks With Equatorial Guinean President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo Before Their Meeting
- Kurlantzick, Joshua (7 May 2007). "Putting Lipstick on a Dictator". Mother Jones. Retrieved 22 August 2007.
- "Equatorial Guinea's 'God'". BBC. 26 July 2003. Retrieved 1 November 2007.
- Maass, Peter (2005) "A Touch of Crude" Mother Jones 30 (1): pp. 48–89
- Silverstein, Ken (2010) "Saturday Lagniappe: UNESCO for Sale: Dictators allowed to buy their own prizes, for the right price" Petroleumworld, originally published by Harpers Magazine, 2 June 2010, archived at Freezepage
- "In his address UNESCO's annual meeting of governments on 30 October 2007 the "Gentleman of the great island of Bioko, Annobón and Río Muni, El Jefe (the boss), "a god who is 'in permanent contact with the Almighty'” and "can decide to kill without anyone calling him to account and without going to hell" His Excellence, President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, ..." Kabanda (3 October 2010) "Money for good causes: does the source matter?" Sunday Times (Rwanda), premium content that requires login, last accessed 21 October 2010
- Staff (28 September 2010) "Africa's Worst Dictators: Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo" MSN News (South Africa), archived at Freezepage
- Maass, Peter (24 June 2008). "Who's Africa's Worst Dictator?". Slate (The Washington Post Company). Retrieved 30 June 2008. "But Mugabe may not be Africa's worst. That prize arguably goes to Teodoro Obiang, the ruler of Equatorial Guinea"
- "Interview with President Teodoro Obiang of Equatorial Guinea".
- United States State Department (25 February 2009) "2008 Human Rights Report: Equatorial Guinea", archived at Freezepage
- Fortunes of Kings, Queens And Dictators. Forbes. 5 May 2006 and part of a slideshow
- Kroll, Luisa (15 May 2006) "Fortunes of kings, queens and dictators: A look at the world's wealthiest leaders" Forbes on MSNBC.com, last accessed 21 October 2010.
- Ken Silverstein. "Oil Boom Enriches African Ruler: While the people of Equatorial Guinea live on a dollar a day, sources say their leader controls more than $300 million in a Washington bank". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 22 January 2003.
- "Equatorial Guinea profile". BBC News. 24 January 2012.
- de la Baume, Maia (23 August 2012). "A French Shift on Africa Strips a Dictator's Son of his Treasures". New York Times.
- "DC Meeting Set with President Obiang as Corruption Details Emerge". Global Witness. 15 June 2012.
- Alford, Roger (18 October 2011). "United States v. One White, Crystal-Covered "Bad Tour" Glove". Huffington Post.
- Attiah, Karen (7 August 2012). "How an African Dictator Pays for Influence". Huffington Post.
- "Equatorial Guinea's President, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, Skips FAO Address". Huffington Post. 17 October 2011.
- Shook, David (28 May 2013). "Choosing Our Oil Over Their Democracy: Elections as Farce in Equatorial Guinea". Huffington Post.
- Nsehe, Mfonobong (7 July 2011). "An African Dictator's Son And His Very Lavish Toys". Forbes.
- Montgomery, David; Kathleen Day (17 July 2004). "Critics Say Allbritton Ruined Bank He Loved". Washington Post. Retrieved 8 July 2008.
- Gurulé, Jimmy (2008) "Chapter 11: Private causes of action: using the civil justice system to hold terrorist financiers accountable" Unfunding terror: the legal response to the financing of global terrorism Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, England, footnote 10, page 356, ISBN 978-1-84542-962-1
- Newstime Africa, 22 November 2010
- Norman, Joshua. "By JOSHUA NORMAN / CBS NEWS/ May 22, 2011, 2:00 PM The world's enduring dictators: Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, Equatorial Guinea". CBS. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
- Chris McGreal and Dan Glaister (10 November 2006). "The tiny African state, the president's playboy son and the $35m Malibu mansion". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Teodoro Obiang.|
- President Obiang's address to the 63rd session of the United Nations General Assembly, 25 September 2008
- Honorary Consul for Equatorial Guinea
- Who's Africa's Worst Dictator? Hint: It's probably not Robert Mugabe Slate.com
- "Torture and Poverty in Equatorial Guinea", Alexander Smoltczyk, Der Spiegel, 28 August 2006
- Amidst Poverty, Equatorial Guinea Builds Lavish City to Host African Union — video report by Democracy Now!
Francisco Macías Nguema
|President of Equatorial Guinea
Bingu wa Mutharika
|Chairperson of the African Union