Tequixquiac

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(Santiago) Tequixquiac
Town & Municipality
Church of Saint James Apostle in Tequixquiac
Church of Saint James Apostle in Tequixquiac
Flag of (Santiago) Tequixquiac
Flag
Official seal of (Santiago) Tequixquiac
Seal
Mexico Estado de Mexico Tequixquiac location map.svg
Coordinates: 19°54′34″N 99°08′41″W / 19.90944°N 99.14472°W / 19.90944; -99.14472Coordinates: 19°54′34″N 99°08′41″W / 19.90944°N 99.14472°W / 19.90944; -99.14472
Country  Mexico
State State of Mexico
Founded 1168
Municipal Status 1820
Government
 • Municipal President Juan Carlos González García (2012-2015)
Elevationof seat 2,200 m (7,200 ft)
Population (2010)
 • Municipality 33,907
 • Seat 20,610
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
Postal code (of seat) 55650
Website (Spanish) http://www.tequixquiac.gob.mx/

Tequixquiac is the seat of the municipality of Tequixquiac located in the northeastern part of the state of Mexico in Mexico, although both are commonly called Tequixquiac. The town is located at a northern pass leading out of the Valley of Mexico and about 120 km northeast of the state capital of Toluca. This name come from Nahuatl and means "place of the sodium bicarbonate waters".[1]

The town[edit]

The area has been populated for at least the past 12,000 years, according to archeological artifacts found in this area. These include some of the first examples of art done by men in the Americas: three shells decorated by filling in the lower portions with precious material called the "Sacro (sacrum) de Tequixquiac." This artifact is located in the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City. Humans were most likely drawn here due to the location's abundance of streams and springs.[1]

The Mexica passed by here in their wanderings from Aztlan before founding the city of Tenochtitlan (later Mexico City). The foundation of the town itself dates to 1168 AD by the Chichimecas who settled under the influence of the Olmecs, but pottery and other artifacts found here also show Huasteca, Mixtec, and Totonac influences. Historical records show that the town was dominated by the Toltecs and the Tepanecas as well as the Aztecs. The Aztecs were the last to take control, after Chimalpopoca conquered the area in 1415. Tequixquiac remained in the Tepaneca district of the Aztec Empire under the authority of the lord of Tacuba, paying tribute to him at Hueypoxtla. The town kept its chiefs, now loyal to the Aztecs, one of the last of which was Acalmiztli, who supposedly was very respected among his subjects. The inhabitants of pre-Conquest Tequixquiac were known for their strict honor code and being advanced in medicine, education, architecture, and civil engineering.[1]

After the fall of the Aztec empire to the Spanish, Hernán Cortés awarded the town and the area around it as an encomienda to two conquistadors: Martín López, who constructed the brigantines that helped destroy Tenochtitlan and Andrés Núñez. In this town along with Apaxco and Hueypoxtla, lime began to be extracted using Indian forced labor. Indian families were displaced off their lands in 1552 by Francisco López de Tlaltzintlale to make way for more Spanish settlers. The viceregal government justified this via religious means. They had the Franciscans build new chapels built on the various encomiendas and settled the Indians around these. One of these chapels was the Temple of Santiago Tequixquiac, which had authority over the new villages of San Mateo Hueycalco, San Sebastián Tlalachco, and others. This temple was constructed in 1569, and became a formal parish in 1590.[1]

This temple was constructed in various phases. The atrium was a large space encased in stone with a cross on top of it, but with Christian and indigenous symboles mixed on its walls. In each of its four corners there are wells, and in the center there is an open space with Solomonic columns. The facade contains two doorways that elaborately decorated in stonework containing indigenous symbolism as well. The temple and the town are dedicated to the Apostle James. During a drought, a sculpture of the "Señor de la Capilla" (Our Lord of the Chapel) was brought over to Tequixquiac from Apaxco. When the drought broke, the image was not returned, presumably because it was made of fiber and had grown too heavy to carry. From then on, it has stayed in this town and many miracles have been attributed to it. The parish's vault was constructed in 1856.[1]

The first school in the town was built in 1856 in the San Miguelito neighborhood by Narciso Vargas.[1]

The Grand Canal was built through here during the presidency of Porfirio Díaz in order the drain the Valley of Mexico. During its construction many of the archeological finds telling of the early existence of humans in this area were found. One of the engineers of the canal project, Tito Rosas, is credited with finding the "Sacro de Tequixquiac". In the 20th century, the production of pulque was economically important here, with the Hacienda of San Sebastián being the major producer. A railway to connect Mexico City with the rest of the country was built through here in 1917 on what is now Alfredo del Mazo street, but was dismantled for political reason in 1945.[1]

The town became urbanized as part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area starting in the 1950s.[1]

The municipality[edit]

Town of Santiago Tequixquiac.

As municipal seat, the town of Santiago Tequixquiac has governing jurisdiction over the following communities: La Heredad, San Miguel, Tlapanaloya, El Cenicero, Colonia Wenceslao Labra, Colonia La Esperanza, Palo Grande, Monte Alto, El Crucero, La Arenilla, La Rinconada and La Vega.[2] The total municipality extends 96.37 and borders with the municipalities of Apaxco, Hueypoxtla, Zumpango, Huehuetoca and the state of Hidalgo. The municipal seat is in a small, elongated valley but most of the municipality is on a high mesa which transitions from the Valley of Mexico to the Mezquital Valley.[1]

Texquixquiac was one of the first town to become a municipality under the provisions of the Cadiz Constitution, before the end of the Mexican War of Independence: becoming so on 29 November 1820.

During the Mexican Revolution, General Emiliano Zapata arrived to Tequixquiac and redistributed the lands of the municipality. Approximately 275 hectares of land was redistributed under the ejido system. Another 3,338 hectares was awarded as ejido land by President Emilio Portes Gil. A system to irrigate these lands was sponsored by President Lázaro Cárdenas between 1937 and 1938, installing a pump to take water out of the drainage canal to irrigate lands here.[1]

Another drainage canal for the Valley of Mexico was built through here in 1954 under the presidency of Adolfo Ruiz Cortines. This spurred economic development of the municipality by increasing the amount of cultivable land. The construction of a highway connecting the municipality to Zumpango, Apaxco and the state of Hidalgo helped it to reach new markets.[1]

The municipality's economy has traditionally been based in agriculture, especially in the growing of corn, mostly used for auto-consumption. However, climatic change has diminished harvests and the growth of commerce in the form of small and medium-sized businesses have grown. Industry here is minimal.[1]

History[edit]

Sacrum bone found in Tequixquiac is considered a work of prehistoric art.

A sacrum bone found in Tequixquiac is considered a work of prehistoric art. The town was inhabited in 35,000 BCE by humans who had crossed the Bering Strait from Asia[citation needed]. These people were nomadic, hunting large animals such as mammoths and gathering fruits as evidenced by archaeological evidence found at the site. One of the most salient discoveries of primitive art in America was found here, called the Tequixquiac Bone, which had no purpose but which reflected the ideological sense of the artist who carved the piece of bone from a camelid around 22,000 years BCE. The first indigenous settlers of Tequixquiac were the Aztecs and Otomi, who decided to settle here permanently for the abundance of rivers and springs. They were engaged mainly in agriculture and the breeding of domestic animals.

In 1152, the Aztecs, on their way to the Valley of Mexico from Tula-Xicocotitlan to Tequixquiac, decided to settle for a short time at a place called Tepetongo.

In 1168, the village of Tequixquiac was founded, which had approximately 250 houses scattered the length and breadth of the nearby hills. Tequixquiac village was conquered by the Aztecs under the rule of Emperor Chimalpopoca.

During colonialization after the fall of Tenochtitlan, Hernán Cortés rewarded his soldiers with parcels of land and one of them was Tequixquiac which was given to two Spaniards: one of whom was Martín López, builder of the launches in taking Tenochtitlan, and the other Andrés Núñez was being split in two, their children inherited after their death. Tequixquiac Corregimiento Zitlatepec belonged at this time the Viceroy Luis de Velasco to regulation mandates the protection of indigenous people.

In the territory of Tequixquiac, Apaxco and Hueypoxtla had deposits of limestone, and through grants awarded to the Spanish introduced a thriving industry using Indian labor, decimating the population in conditions of extreme poverty and forced labor.

They gathered the dispersed families tlaxcaltecas Francisco Lopez de Tlaltzintlale by the year 1552 to strip them of their land and these were distributed through grants to Spanish real.


The Spanish empire sought to justify their acts through the Christian Missions. The Franciscans arrived in New Spain in 1524, but clerics arrived even before that to proselytize to the Indians, building a chapel in each encomienda.

With the help of the Franciscan friars, the temple of Saint James the Apostle was built, raising Tequixquiac from vicarage rank to parish. The Church of Santiago Tequixquiac became a parish in 1590. The construction of the building was carried out at different stages; the parish was a large atrium space with a cross in the center of carved stone, with indigenous and Christian symbols in the four corner chapels in the pits and an open chapel with beautiful columns on the facade and two extraordinary stone-carved jambs by Indian hands who left part of his philosophy embodied in them. The temple was dedicated to Santiago Apostol, because some families Galicia, Asturias Andalusia and Leon were in the region.

At the beginning of the political jurisdiction of Tequixquiac covered the current territory of Tlapanaloya without the people to be integrated into the eighteenth century. For some time I add Apaxco because it did not for an economic infraestrctura jurisdiction. During the independence movement came to the news by Tequixquiac dances and arrieria as the media. Tequixquiac was among the first peoples of that province was constituted as a municipality on November 29, 1820 by joining the independence of Mexico on the basis of the Constitution of Cadiz.

Bando Municipal For the December 17, 1823, he published Tequixquiac the form of government that would govern the country. 'Mexican nation adopts for its government as representative of People's Federal Republic,' published in the same way the oath to the Constitution of the United Mexican States in October 1824.

By Decree No. 41 of April 8, 1825, was added to Zumpango: Hueypoxtla and Tequixquiac belonging andalusia Tetepango party, based on the law at the same time, the prefect of Tula and separates Tequixquiac haciendas de Tena and corners of the municipality of Guadalupe Atitalaquia. For the year 1830 comes the news of the attempted revolution in Mexico City.

Demography[edit]

Town Population
Total 31,080
Santiago Tequixquiac 19,772
Tlapanaloya 6,294
Wenceslao Labra 847
La Heredad 152

At the census[3] of 2010, there were 33,000 people. The population density was 155.4 people per square mile (84.2/km²), The median age was twenty-four years. For every 58% females there were 42% males. The racial makeup of the city was 67% Mestizo, 16% Native American, 15% Hispanic and 2% from two or more races (Afromexican and Anglosaxon people).

The predominant religion is Catholic Christianity have an 90% of the total population of the municipality in 2010 as in 1990 were 97%, there is a parish belonging to the Diocese of Cuautitlan, as well as a chapel in each neighborhood, district or ranch the second growing religious community is that of Jehovah's Witnesses have a lounge located in the suburb of San Mateo and acceptance of her cult has spread rapidly throughout the whole town, the rest are Protestant communities of various denominations as evangelicals, Pentecostals, Methodists, Mormons, and Adventists cornerstone. Other citizens consider themselves atheists or simply do not practice any religious belief.

Culture[edit]

Contradanza de las Varas.

The Contradanza de las Varas is a dance that comes from the Spanish region of Galicia and León, is a traditional dance that was taught to boys born in Tequixquiac and danced on 25 July since 1552, years later joined Indians born this town is. The suit is made with white shirt and trousers, two crossed bands of velvet, a plume of feathers which has three paper roses and ribbons of color china, two rods are used Castilla lined pink ribbon. During the feasts of the Lord of the Chapel of Our Lady of Guadalupe (December 12) and St. James (July 25), the dancers flaunt this anti-dance dance together with other bands together with the band .

The band wind Longino Don Franco, a native of EL Refugio, who stands out as the jealous guardian and interpreter of the contra de Las Varas, and dissemination of music under the guidance note wind symphony paso doble, marches, a large repertoire of Mexican folk music and modern popular music.

A musical group The internationally recognized named Los Bybys, the vast majority of its members were from this area. This group has had appearances in many cities, so also in the United States, Argentina, Paraguay, Peru, Bolivia and Spain.

Another very important band in the town are the "Pavitos del Norte", from the town of Tlapanaloya, this musical group composed norteño as the cumbia chiloya which was the inspiration of Mr. Froilan Mendoza Martínez and lead singer.

Education[edit]

Kinder garden school[edit]

Public education:

  • Kinder garden Isidro Fabela

Privated education:

  • Kinder garden Xinachtli

Elementary school[edit]

Public education:

  • Escuela Primaria Antonio Caso
  • Escuela Primaria Nicolás Bravo
  • Escuela Primaria Vicente Guerrero
  • Escuela Secuendaria Técnica Industrial y Comercial Prof. Heriberto Enriquez
  • Escuela Secuendaria Técnica Industrial y Comercial Fray Servando Teresa de Mier (Tlapanaloya)

High school[edit]

Public education:

  • Centro de Bachillerato Tecnológico Alfonso León de Garay (CBT)
  • Colegio de Estudios Científicos y Tecnológicos del Estado de México (CECYTEM)

Ecology & Environment[edit]

Tequixquiac, a Mexican municipality does not allow residential units on agricultural land.

Tequixquiac is one of the State of Mexico's municipalities with low impact to the environment, people have denied any proposed Municipal Plan for Urban Development not to be victims of footloose capital speculators or in collusion with public officials. The town is a large pool of rain water catchment for the Valley of Mexico, having no contaminating the soil industry remains undisturbed by the hand of man, the hills are protected from being undermined by construction materials companies.

The people have an attachment to the land and the natural environment, are semi-rural behavior by its proximity to the Mexico City metropolitan area, Cerro Mesa Ahumada is a well-preserved natural area that you can still enjoy their areas and also has many species of flora and fauna that is no longer possible to see in other neighbor municipalities.[4]

In addition, Tequixquiac is one of the metropolitan municipalities of Mexico City where the footprint is moderate and the impact of industrial and urban human activities is lower than in other municipalities in the state or shares quines neighborhood. However, a major environmental problem that has suffered the township is over Tequixquiac tunnel open, a great work of the government of former president Porfirio Díaz, the tunnel has been a focus of infection and the amount of waste gases given off by sewage from residential, commercial, industrial and hospital areas of Mexico City.

Tunnel of Tequixquiac causes debate among the locals, the Comición Nacional del Agua and different levels of government, if it continues the extension of the tunnel on the river Xothé (Great Channel) would be million-dollar of water in the area and that seems contradictory but wastewater are the ones who keep the fields green and the area also filtering the water is decanted into the ground and a number of underground streams vital to the ecological balance of the area, if you cancel the water suminstro black for agricultural use would grow ambisiosa speculation and force the ejidatarios to sell their land for housing developments and ecological desatre descadenaría a great impact on the country, since this region and others in the Midwest buffer areas rain water filtration for not disproportionately urban land and regulate the temperature of the Valley of Mexico.

Within the municipality there are environmental groups seeking to improve the natural environment through environmental campaigns of reforestation, garbage collection and recycling, information workshops for uses of wastewater and protection against forest fires. These groups highlighted Acatlán AC, Granito de Arena AC.

Sports & Entertainment[edit]

The first sport practiced in Tequixquiac has been the charrería.
Basketball played in Tequixquiac.

The first sport practiced in Tequixquiac has been the charrería, when the Spanish first settled in this town, they were under orders to raise horses, but not to allow indigenous to ride. The hills of Tequixquiac had used by cows and rams, the Spanish had very large haciendas and found it necessary to employ indigenous people as vaqueros or herdsman, who soon became excellent horsemen.

When arrived the building workers for the Channel of Tequixquiac (second channel), racquetball is a sport practiced in this township and was brought by workers in the tunnel since 1938. In Barrio de San Mateo, there is evidence that previously played in front wall of the engineers who built Tequixquiac Tunnel and ports, this area is called the pediment precisely. Today is played racquetball at Deportivo 11 Brothers of Necaxa, site at north of town (Tlapanaloya road cross) and other sports as soon as baseball and basquetball.

Part of the heritage of the engineers also, we left the baseball is still practiced by elderly adults as Arnaldo Paez Navarro is 74 year-old Don Felix Vasquez Flores. Today is played baseball at Deportivo El Salado, site near to La Cinco and other sports as soon as fuotball soccer and basquetball.

At Campo Zaragoza is a sporting area in Santiago Tequixquiac where is practiced basquetball, football soccer; here is also a Cultural Center in Campo Zaragoza where is practice also Tae Kwon Do, as a new sport in this town ship. The municipality has pasted outside sports, where practice in of horsemanship, mountain biking, and also has private gyms and swimming school (Pixan kay) units are technically "sports ".

Government[edit]

Municipality House in Santiago Tequixquiac.
Mayor Time
Emiliano Cruz Rodríguez 1997-2000
José Rafael Pérez Martínez 2000-2003
Gustavo Alonso Donís García 2003-2006
Enrique Martínez Astorga 2006-2009
Xóchitl Ramírez Ramírez 2009–2012
Juan Carlos González García 2012–2015

See also[edit]

References[edit]