Teratology

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A grown steer with five legs.

Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development. It is often thought of as the study of human congenital abnormalities, but it is much broader than that, taking in other non-birth developmental stages, including puberty; and other non-human life forms, including plants. The related term developmental toxicity includes all manifestations of abnormal development by toxic substances. These may include growth retardation, delayed mental development or other congenital disorders without any structural malformations.[1]

Etymology[edit]

The term stems from the Greek τέρας teras (genitive τέρατος teratos), meaning 'monster' or 'marvel', and λόγος logos, meaning 'the word' or, more loosely, 'the study of'.[2]

As early as the 17th century, teratology referred to a discourse on prodigies and marvels of anything so extraordinary as to seem abnormal. In the 19th century, it acquired a meaning more closely related to biological deformities, mostly in the field of botany. Currently, its most instrumental meaning is that of the medical study of teratogenesis, congenital malformations or individuals with significant malformations. There are many pejorative terms that have historically been used to describe individuals with significant physical malformations. The term was popularized in the 1960s by David W. Smith of the University of Washington Medical School, one of the researchers who became known in 1973 for the discovery of fetal alcohol syndrome.[3] With greater understanding of the origins of birth defects, the field of teratology now overlaps with other fields of basic science, including developmental biology, embryology, and genetics. Until the 1940s, teratologists believed that all birth defects were hereditary. In 1941, the first well-documented cases of environmental agents being the cause of severe birth defects were reported.[4]

Mammalia[edit]

Teratogenesis[edit]

Along with this new awareness of the in utero vulnerability of the developing mammalian embryo came the development and refinement of The Six Principles of Teratology which are still applied today. These principles of teratology were put forth by Jim Wilson in 1959 and in his monograph Environment and Birth Defects.[5] These principles guide the study and understanding of teratogenic agents and their effects on developing organisms:

  1. Susceptibility to teratogenesis depends on the genotype of the conceptus and the manner in which this interacts with adverse environmental factors.
  2. Susceptibility to teratogenesis varies with the developmental stage at the time of exposure to an adverse influence. There are critical periods of susceptibility to agents and organ systems affected by these agents.
  3. Teratogenic agents act in specific ways on developing cells and tissues to initiate sequences of abnormal developmental events.
  4. The access of adverse influences to developing tissues depends on the nature of the influence. Several factors affect the ability of a teratogen to contact a developing conceptus, such as the nature of the agent itself, route and degree of maternal exposure, rate of placental transfer and systemic absorption, and composition of the maternal and embryonic/fetal genotypes.
  5. There are four manifestations of deviant development (Death, Malformation, Growth Retardation and Functional Defect).
  6. Manifestations of deviant development increase in frequency and degree as dosage increases from the No Observable Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) to a dose producing 100% Lethality (LD100).

Studies designed to test the teratogenic potential of environmental agents use animal model systems (e.g., rat, mouse, rabbit, dog, and monkey). Early teratologists exposed pregnant animals to environmental agents and observed the fetuses for gross visceral and skeletal abnormalities. While this is still part of the teratological evaluation procedures today, the field of Teratology is moving to a more molecular level, seeking the mechanism(s) of action by which these agents act. Genetically modified mice are commonly used for this purpose. In addition, pregnancy registries are large, prospective studies that monitor exposures women receive during their pregnancies and record the outcome of their births. These studies provide information about possible risks of medications or other exposures in human pregnancies.

Understanding how a teratogen causes its effect is not only important in preventing congenital abnormalities but also has the potential for developing new therapeutic drugs safe for use with pregnant women.

Humans[edit]

Main article: Congenital disorder

In humans, congenital disorders resulted in about 510,000 deaths globally in 2010.[6]

About 3% of newborns have a "major physical anomaly", meaning a physical anomaly that has cosmetic or functional significance.[7]

Causes[edit]

Further information: Congenital disorder

Causes of teratogenesis can broadly be classified as:

Other animals[edit]

Fossil record[edit]

Further information: Paleopathology

Evidence for congenital deformities found in the fossil record is studied by paleopathologists, specialists in ancient disease and injury. Fossils bearing evidence of congenital deformity are scientifically significant because they can help scientists infer the evolutionary history of life's developmental processes. For instance, because a Tyrannosaurus rex specimen has been discovered with a block vertebra, it means that vertebrae have been developing the same basic way since at least the most recent common ancestor of dinosaurs and mammals. Other notable fossil deformities include a hatchling specimen of the bird-like dinosaur, Troodon, the tip of whose jaw was twisted.[8] Another notably deformed fossil was a specimen of the choristodere Hyphalosaurus, which had two heads- the oldest known example of polycephaly.[9]

Plantae[edit]

In botany, teratology investigates the theoretical implications of abnormal specimens. For example, the discovery of abnormal flowers—for example, flowers with leaves instead of petals, or flowers with staminoid pistils—furnished important evidence for the "foliar theory", the theory that all flower parts are highly specialised leaves.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rogers, J.M., Kavlock, R.J. (1996). "Developmental toxicology". In C.D. Klaassen (ed.): Casarett & Doull's Toxicology, (5th ed.). pp. 301-331. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-105476-6.
  2. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymologyonline.com. Retrieved 8 April 2011. 
  3. ^ Jones K.L., Smith D.W, Ulleland C.N., Streissguth A.P. (1973). "Pattern of malformation in offspring of chronic alcoholic mothers". Lancet 1 (7815): 1267–1271. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(73)91291-9. PMID 4126070. 
  4. ^ "Birth Defects". Howmed.net. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  5. ^ James G. Wilson (1973). Environment and Birth Defects (Environmental Science Series). London: Academic Pr. ISBN 0-12-757750-5. 
  6. ^ Lozano, R (December 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet 380 (9859): 2095–128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. PMID 23245604. 
  7. ^ Kumar, Abbas and Fausto (eds.), Robbins and Cotran's Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th edition, p. 470.
  8. ^ Molnar, R. E., 2001, Theropod paleopathology: a literature survey: In: Mesozoic Vertebrate Life, edited by Tanke, D. H., and Carpenter, K., Indiana University Press, p. 337-363.
  9. ^ Ji Q., Wu, X.-C. and Cheng, Y.-N. (2010). "Cretaceous choristoderan reptiles gave birth to live young." Naturwissenschaften, 97(4): 423-428. doi:10.1007/s00114-010-0654-2

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