Teratospermia

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-spermia,
Further information: Testicular infertility factors
(A)spermia - complete lack of semen
(Asthenozoo)spermia - reduced sperm motility
(Azoo)spermia - absence of sperm cells in semen
(Hyper)spermia - large semen volume
(Hypo)spermia - small semen volume
(Oligozoo)spermia - few spermatozoa in semen
(Necrozoo)spermia - dead or immobile sperms
(Teratozoo)spermia - sperm with abnormal morphology

Teratospermia or teratozoospermia is a condition characterized by the presence of sperm with abnormal morphology that affects fertility in males.

Causes[edit]

The causes of teratospermia are unknown in most cases. However, Hodgkin's disease, coeliac disease, and Crohn's disease may contribute in some instances.[1]

In cases of globozoospermia (sperm with round heads), the Golgi apparatus is not transformed into the acrosome that is needed for fertilization.[2]

Symptoms and treatment[edit]

The presence of abnormally-shaped sperm can negatively affect fertility by reducing sperm motility and/or preventing sperm from adhering to the ovum. Achieving a pregnancy may be difficult.[3]

In testing for teratospermia, sperm are collected and analyzed under a microscope to detect abnormalities. These abnormalities may include heads that are large, small, tapered, or pyriform or tails that are abnormally shaped.[4]

Antiestrogens have been shown to be effective in the treatment of teratospermia. [3]

Teratozoospermia (including the globozoospermia[5] type), may be treated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), injecting sperm directly into the egg.[6] Once the egg is fertilized, abnormal sperm morphology does not appear to influence blastocyst development or blastocyst morphology.[6] Even with severe teratozoospermia, microscopy can still detect the few sperm cells that have a "normal" morphology, allowing for optimal success rate.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.gfmer.ch/Endo/Lectures_09/dupan1.htm
  2. ^ Page 155 in: Hermann Behre; Eberhard Nieschlag (2000). Andrology : Male Reproductive Health and Dysfunction. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 3-540-67224-9. 
  3. ^ a b http://www.gfmer.ch/Endo/Lectures_09/dupan.htm
  4. ^ http://www.endotext.org/male/male7/male7_2.htm
  5. ^ Egashira A, Murakami M, Haigo K, Horiuchi T, Kuramoto T (September 2009). "A successful pregnancy and live birth after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with globozoospermic sperm and electrical oocyte activation". Fertil. Steril. 92 (6): 2037.e5–2037.e9. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.08.013. PMID 19800059. 
  6. ^ a b c French DB, Sabanegh ES, Goldfarb J, Desai N (March 2010). "Does severe teratozoospermia affect blastocyst formation, live birth rate, and other clinical outcome parameters in ICSI cycles?". Fertil Steril 93 (4): 1097–1103. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.10.051. PMID 19200957. 

See also[edit]