Terebovlia (Ukrainian: Теребовля, also Terebovlya, Polish: Trembowla, English: Trembovl) is a small city in the Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine, and the administrative center of the Terebovlya Raion (district). In modern medieval English history texts it is usually written Terebovl.
The population as of the 2001[update] census was 13,661; in 2012 there were 13,796 residents. In 1913 the city counted 10,000 residents, of which 4,000 were Poles, 3,200 were Ruthenians, and 2,800 were Jews. In 1929 there were 7,015 people, mostly Polish, Ukrainian and Jewish. Until September 17, 1939, the day of the Soviet invasion of Poland, Trembowla was a county seat within the Tarnopol Voivodeship of the Second Polish Republic. Prior to the Holocaust, the city was home to 1,486 Jews, and most of them (around 1,100) were shot by Germans in the nearby village of Plebanivka on April 7, 1943.
Terebovlia is one of the oldest cities in what is now western Ukraine. It was first mentioned in chronicles of 1097. During the Red Ruthenia times it used to be the center of Terebovlia principality. It was called Terebovl (Polish: Trembowla). Terebovlia principality included lands of the whole south east of Galicia, Podolia and Bukovyna. Polish King Casimir III the Great became the suzerain of Halych after his cousin's death, Boleslaw-Yuri II of Galicia, when the city became part of the Polish domain, being fully incorporated into Poland in 1430 during the reign of king Władysław II Jagiełło, while his son Casimir IV Jagiellon granted the town limited Magdeburg Rights.
After the rebuilding of the castle in Terebovlia in 1366, Poland (Podole Voivodeship) administered the town, until it became part of the system of border fortifications of the Polish Kingdom and later Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against Moldavian and Wallachian transgressions. The town also later resisted against constant invasion by the Crimean Tatars, the Ottomans and later also the Zaporozhian Cossacks from the south and south-east. That is why the Terebovlya castle, monastery and churches, were all designed as defensive structures. This was the seat of the famous starost and most successful 16th-century anti-Tatar Polish commander Bernard Pretwicz, who died there in 1563. In 1594, the Ukrainian cossack rebel Severyn Nalyvaiko sacked the town.
During the Khmelnytsky Uprising Terebovl became one of the centers of the struggle in Podolia. The city was frequently raided by the Crimean Tatars, Turks and their erstwhile allies, the Zaporozhian Cossacks. The most destructive attacks happened in 1498, 1508, 1515 and 1516, resulting in a temporary decline of the town. In 1674, as part of preparations for another war with the Turks, who at that time were at war with Russia, the Diet decided to further strengthen Terebovlia and send garrisons there. The following year the Janissary once again embarked on raids against towns and villages, and on 20 September 1675 destroyed the town, but the castle was held by a small group of defenders (80 soldiers and 200 townsmen) until King Jan III Sobieski arrived to relieve them. This episode is known as the Battle of Trembowla. The castle was destroyed during the final Turkish invasion of 1688.
After the first partition of Poland in 1772, Trembowla became part of the Habsburg Empire's Galicia until 1918. From November 18, 1918, until June 9, 1919, the town was under control of the West Ukrainian People's Republic. Following the Polish–Ukrainian War, Trembowla returned to Poland, as seat of a county in Tarnopol Voivodeship. In the interbellum period, the town was home to the 9th Regiment of Lesser Poland Uhlans.
During World War Two, Trembowla and its area witnessed mass murders of ethnic Poles, as some 3,000 of them were killed by Ukrainian nationalists and local Ukrainian peasantry. As a result, almost all Polish survivors left the town in 1945, moving to the so-called Recovered Territories. The Soviet Union took the city along with eastern Poland in September 1939, until the German invasion in June 1941, and then again the Soviet Union took over the town at it became part of the Soviet Ukraine between 1944–1991. In 1991 Terebovl finally became part of an independent Ukraine.
Sites of interest
The town has ruins of a castle built by King Kazimierz Wielki in the second half of the 14th century. In 1534, the castle was expanded by the Voivode of Kraków, Andrzej Teczynski, and in 1631 it was once again expanded by the Castellan of Trembowla, Andrzej Balaban. In 1648, it was captured by the Cossacks.
Among other sites of interest are the complex of a Carmelite church and monastery, funded in 1617 by Piotr Ozga. It had the painting of Our Lady of Trembowla, which after World War Two was moved to St. Catherine church in Gdańsk. Communist authorities turned the complex into a factory, and later a house of culture. Currently, it is an Orthodox church. Three kilometers south of the town there are ruins of a 17th-century defensive monastery of the Basilian monks. It was completed in 1716. Terebovl also has a Roman Catholic church of Saint Peter and Paul, designed in 1927 by architect Adolf Szyszko-Bohusz.
- Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2013 року. Київ: Державний комітет статистики України, 2013, s. 96.
- Terebovlya. "Welcome to Terebovlya". Personal.ceu.hu. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
- Butschal. "Die alte Stadt von Terebovlia". Butschal.de. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
- Castles. "Castles and Churches of Ukraine". Castles.com.ua. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Terebovlia.|
- Site about Terebovlya, with maps and history
- The fate of Jews in Terebovlia
- A portion of a documentary film featuring a former Polish resident of Trembowla
- Terebovlia Shtetlinks Jewish Site
- Images of Terebovlia castle and the city