|Sir Terence Rattigan|
10 June 1911|
South Kensington, London, England
|Died||30 November 1977
Sir Terence Mervyn Rattigan, CBE (10 June 1911 – 30 November 1977) was a British dramatist who wrote some of the most important plays of the 20th century. His plays are typically set in an upper-middle-class background. He is known for such works as The Winslow Boy (1946), The Browning Version (1948), The Deep Blue Sea (1952) and Separate Tables (1954), among many others.
Terence Rattigan was born in 1911 in South Kensington, London, United Kingdom, of Irish Protestant extraction. He had an elder brother, Brian. They were the grandsons of Sir William Henry Rattigan, a notable India-based jurist, and later a Liberal Unionist Member of Parliament for North East Lanarkshire. His father was Frank Rattigan CMG, a diplomat whose exploits included an affair with Princess Elisabeth of Romania (future consort of King George II of Greece) which resulted in her having an abortion.
Rattigan's birth certificate and his birth announcement in The Times indicate he was born on 9 June 1911. However, most reference books state that he was born the following day; Rattigan himself never publicly disputed this date. There is evidence suggesting that the date on the birth certificate is incorrect. He was given no middle name, but he adopted the middle name "Mervyn" in early adulthood.
Rattigan was educated at Sandroyd School from 1920 to 1925, at the time based in Cobham, Surrey (and now the home of Reed's School), and Harrow School. Rattigan played cricket for the Harrow First XI and scored 29 in the Eton-Harrow match in 1929. He was a member of the Officer Training Corps and organised a mutiny, informing the Daily Express. Even more annoying to his headmaster, Cyril Norwood, was the telegram from the Eton OTC, "offering to march to his assistance". He then went to Trinity College, Oxford.
Life and career
Success as a playwright came early, with the comedy French Without Tears in 1936, set in a crammer. This was inspired by a 1933 visit to a village called Marxzell in the Black Forest, where young English gentlemen went to learn German, and where his time briefly overlapped with his Harrow classmate Jock Colville.
Rattigan's determination to write a more serious play produced After the Dance (1939), a satirical social drama about the "bright young things" and their failure to politically engage. The outbreak of the Second World War scuppered any chances of a long run. Shortly before the war, Rattigan had written (together with Anthony Maurice) a satire about Nazi Germany, Follow My Leader; the Lord Chamberlain refused to license it on grounds of offence to a foreign country, but it was performed from January 1940.
During the war, Rattigan served in the Royal Air Force as a tail gunner; his experiences helped inspire Flare Path and he was released from the service to help rewrite it as a film screenplay (which eventually appeared as The Way to the Stars in 1945).
He was a friend of Spike Milligan's junior officer, Lieutenant Tony Goldsmith, who was killed on Longstop Hill, whilst on observation post duty. Rattigan wrote an obituary of his friend and sent it to The Times. A copy of it is in "Rommel?" "Gunner Who?" one of Milligan's war memoirs.
After the war, Rattigan alternated between comedies and dramas, establishing himself as a major playwright: the most famous of which were The Winslow Boy (1946), The Browning Version (1948), The Deep Blue Sea (1952), and Separate Tables (1954).
He believed in understated emotions and craftsmanship, which was deemed old fashioned and "pre-war" after the overnight success in 1956 of John Osborne's Look Back in Anger began the era of kitchen sink dramas by the writers known as the Angry Young Men. Rattigan responded to this critical disfavour with some bitterness. His plays Ross, Man and Boy, In Praise of Love, and Cause Célèbre, however show no sign of any decline in his talent. Rattigan explained that he wrote his plays to please a symbolic playgoer, "Aunt Edna", someone from the well-off middle-class who had conventional tastes; his critics frequently used this character as the basis for belittling him. "Aunt Edna" inspired Joe Orton to create "Edna Welthorpe", a mischievous alter ego stirring up controversy about his own plays.
Rattigan was gay, with numerous lovers but no long-term partners, a possible exception being his "congenial companion ... and occasional friend" Michael Franklin. It has been claimed that his work is essentially autobiographical, containing coded references to his sexuality, which he kept secret from all but his closest friends. There is some truth in this, but it risks being crudely reductive; for example, the repeated claim that Rattigan originally wrote The Deep Blue Sea as a play about male lovers, turned at the last minute into a heterosexual play, is unfounded, though Rattigan claimed otherwise. On the other hand, for the Broadway staging of Separate Tables, he wrote an alternative version of the newspaper article in which Major Pollock's indiscretions are revealed to his fellow hotel guests; in this version, the people the Major approached for sex were men rather than young women. However, Rattigan changed his mind about staging it, and the original version proceeded.
Rattigan was fascinated with the life and character of T. E. Lawrence. In 1960 he wrote a play called Ross, based on Lawrence's exploits. Preparations were made to film it, and Dirk Bogarde accepted the role. However, it did not proceed because the Rank Organisation withdrew its support, not wishing to offend David Lean and Sam Spiegel, who had started to film Lawrence of Arabia. Bogarde called Rank's decision "my bitterest disappointment". Also in 1960, a musical version of French Without Tears was staged as Joie de Vivre, with music by Robert Stolz of White Horse Inn fame. It starred Donald Sinden, lasted only four performances, and has never been revived.
He was diagnosed as having leukaemia in 1962 and recovered two years later, but fell ill again in 1968. He disliked the so-called Swinging London of the 1960s and moved abroad, living in Bermuda, where he lived off the proceeds from lucrative screenplays including The V.I.P.s and The Yellow Rolls-Royce. For a time he was the highest-paid screenwriter in the world.
In 1964 Rattigan wrote to the playwright Joe Orton congratulating him on the outrageous comedy Entertaining Mr Sloane, to which Rattigan had escorted Vivien Leigh in its first week. He then chose to invest £3,000 in getting the play transferred to the West End. Although an unlikely champion of the risqué Orton, Rattigan recognised the younger man's talent and approved of what he considered a very well written piece of theatre. He also acknowledged in retrospect that, "in a way, I was not Orton's best sponsor. I'm a very unfashionable figure still, and I was then wildly unfashionable critically. My sponsorship rather put critics off, I think."
Rattigan was knighted in the Queen's Birthday Honours of June 1971 for services to the theatre, being only the fourth playwright to be knighted in the 20th century (after Sir W. S. Gilbert in 1907, Sir Arthur Wing Pinero in 1909 and Sir Noël Coward in 1970). He had been appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in June 1958. He moved back to Britain, where he experienced a minor revival in his reputation before his death.
There was a revival of The Deep Blue Sea in 1993, at the Almeida Theatre, London, directed by Karel Reisz and starring Penelope Wilton. A string of successful revivals followed, including The Winslow Boy at the Chichester Festival Theatre in 2001 (with David Rintoul, and subsequently on tour in 2002 with Edward Fox), Man and Boy at the Duchess Theatre, London, in 2005, with David Suchet as Gregor Antonescu, and In Praise of Love at Chichester, and Separate Tables at the Royal Exchange, Manchester, in 2006. His play on the last days of Lord Nelson, A Bequest to the Nation, was revived on Radio 3 for Trafalgar 200, starring Janet McTeer as Lady Hamilton, Kenneth Branagh as Nelson, and Amanda Root as Lady Nelson.
Thea Sharrock directed his rarely seen After the Dance in the summer of 2010 at London's Royal National Theatre. She directed a major new production of Rattigan's final and also rarely seen play Cause Célèbre at The Old Vic in March 2011 as part of The Terence Rattigan Centenary year celebrations. As well as this, Trevor Nunn also marked the occasion with a West End revival of Flare Path at the Theatre Royal, Haymarket, between March and June 2011. The latter of these starred Sienna Miller, James Purefoy and Sheridan Smith.
In addition, the BBC presented The Rattigan Enigma by Benedict Cumberbatch, a documentary on Rattigan's life and career presented by actor Benedict Cumberbatch, who, like Rattigan, attended Harrow.
- 1951 The Final Test (TV: 1951; film: 1953)
- 1962 Heart to Heart
- 1964 Ninety Years On
- 1966 Nelson – A Portrait in Miniature
- 1968 All On Her Own
- 1972 High Summer
Many of Rattigan's stage plays have been produced for radio by the BBC. The first play he wrote directly for radio was Cause Célèbre, broadcast on BBC Radio 4 on 27 October 1975, based on the 1935 murder of Francis Rattenbury.
A number of Rattigan's plays have been filmed (he was the screenwriter or co-writer for all those made in his lifetime):
- French Without Tears (1940; Anatole de Grunwald and Ian Dalrymple were credited as screenwriters, although Rattigan also played a major role)
- While the Sun Shines (1947; with de Grunwald)
- The Winslow Boy (1948 and 1999)
- The Browning Version (film: 1951 and 1994; TV: 1955 and 1985)
- The Final Test (1953; based on his 1951 television play)
- The Man Who Loved Redheads (1954; based on Who Is Sylvia?)
- The Deep Blue Sea (1955 and 2011)
- The Prince and the Showgirl (1957; based on The Sleeping Prince)
- Separate Tables (1958; Rattigan and co-writer John Gay were nominated for an Academy Award for screenwriting; David Niven won the Best Actor Oscar and Wendy Hiller won Best Supporting Actress)
- A Bequest to the Nation (1973)
- Cause Célèbre (1987; TV)
Terence Rattigan also wrote or co-wrote the following original screenplays:
- English Without Tears (1944; with Anatole de Grunwald; U.S. title Her Man Gilbey)
- Journey Together (1945)
- Bond Street (1948; uncredited; with de Grunwald and Rodney Ackland)
- The Sound Barrier (1952; U.S. title Breaking the Sound Barrier; Rattigan's first Academy Award nomination)
- The V.I.P.s (1963; Margaret Rutherford won a Best Supporting Actress Academy Award for her performance)
- The Yellow Rolls-Royce (1964)
Rattigan wrote or co-wrote the following screenplays from existing material by other writers:
- Quiet Wedding (1940; with Anatole de Grunwald; based on the play by Esther McCracken)
- The Day Will Dawn (1942; with de Grunwald; U.S. title The Avengers; based on a treatment by Patrick Kirwan)
- Uncensored (1942; with Rodney Ackland; based on the book by Oscar Millard adapted by Wolfgang Wilhelm)
- The Way to the Stars (1945; from a story written by Rattigan, de Grunwald and Richard Sherman; U.S. title Johnny in the Clouds)
- Brighton Rock (1947; with Graham Greene, from Greene's novel)
- Goodbye, Mr. Chips (1969; based on the novel by James Hilton)
- The Official Terence Rattigan website
- Geoffrey Wansell. Terence Rattigan (London: Fourth Estate, 1995). ISBN 978-1-85702-201-8
- Wansell, p. 13.
- Sir Terence Rattigan profile Pollard, Wendy. The Literary Encyclopedia. 24 May 2005. Retrieved 11 March 2009.
- Sandroyd School's list of Distinguished Alumni
- Terence Rattigan at Cricket Archive
- John Colville, Footprints in Time, 1976. Chapter 8, Two Faces.
- "A Topical Comedy", The Times, 15 January 1940, p. 4.
- "Sir Terence Rattigan", The Times, 1 December 1977, p. 16.
- Sinfield, Alan (1999). Out on Stage: Lesbian and Gay Theatre in the Twentieth Century. Yale University Press. p. 159. ISBN 0-300-08102-2
- Darlow, Michael: Terence Rattigan—The Man and His Work, London: Quartet Books, 2010, p. 440.
- B. A. Young mentions a "Kenneth Morgan version" of the play that was supposedly shown to Rattigan collaborator Alvin Rakoff in 1962 and that has since disappeared (Young, B. A.: The Rattigan Version, London: Hamish Hamilton, 1986, p. 110). Darlow also speculates on the possible existence of such a draft (Darlow, Michael: Terence Rattigan—The Man and His Work, London: Quartet Books, 2010, p. 440).
- Rattigan's letter to John Osborne, 1968 cited in John Osborne Looking Back, London: Faber, 1999, p. 286 (originally published in Almost a Gentleman, Faber, 1991).
- Lahr, John (1978)Prick Up Your Ears; The Biography Of Joe Orton. New York: Knopf.
- Wansell, p. 364.
- Theatre Royal Haymarket publicity material.
- "The Rattigan Enigma by Benedict Cumberbatch". BBC Four Programmes. BBC. July 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
- "THE DEEP BLUE SEA: IN CINEMAS NOW". Film4. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
- Hill, Holly: A Critical Analysis of the Plays of Terence Rattigan; doctoral dissertation, New York University, 1977;
- Darlow, Michael; Hobson, Gillian: Terence Rattigan – The Man & His Work; London: Quartet Books, 1979 (2010);
- Rusinko, Susan: Terence Rattigan; Boston: Twayne, 1983;
- Young, B. A.: The Rattigan Version – The Theatre of Character; London: Hamish Hamilton, 1986;
- Wansell, Geoffrey: Terence Rattigan – A Biography; London: Fourth Estate Limited, 1995 (2009).
Other works including discussions on Rattigan's theatre:
- O’Connor, Sean: Straight Acting – Popular Gay Drama from Wilde to Rattigan, London: Cassell, 1998;
- Shellard, Dominic: British Theatre Since the War, New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 1999;
- Innes, Christopher: Modern British Drama 1890–1990, 2nd Edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002/2009;
- Billington, Michael: The State of the Nation, London: Faber, 2008
- Rebellato, Dan: 1956 and All That – The Making of Modern British Drama, London: Routledge, 1999/2006.
- See also Dan Rebellato's extensive Introductions to the more recent Nick Hern Books Editions of Rattigan's major plays.
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- The Official Terence Rattigan website
- Terence Rattigan at the Internet Broadway Database
- Terence Rattigan at the Internet Movie Database
- Performances of Terence Rattigan's plays listed in the Theatre Archive, University of Bristol
- Terence Rattigan