|Terengganu Darul Iman
ترڠڬانو دار الإيمان
|Motto: Islam Hadhari Terengganu Bestari|
|Anthem: Selamat Sultan|
|Royal capital||Kuala Terengganu|
|• Sultan||Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin|
|• Menteri Besar||Ahmad Said (BN)|
|• Total||13,035 km2 (5,033 sq mi)|
|• Density||78/km2 (200/sq mi)|
|Human Development Index|
|• HDI (2010)||0.730 (high) (7th)|
|Postal code||20xxx to 24xxx|
|Accession into the Federation of Malaya||1948|
|Independence as part of the Federation of Malaya||31 August 1957|
Terengganu (formerly spelled Trengganu or Tringganu) is a sultanate and constitutive state of federal Malaysia. The state is also known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Iman ("Abode of Faith"). The coastal city of Kuala Terengganu which stands at the mouth of the broad Terengganu River is both the state and royal capital as well as the largest city in Terengganu.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Geography and demographics
- 3 History
- 4 Politics and government
- 5 Economy
- 6 Culture and attractions
- 7 Cuisine
- 8 Education
- 9 Sister states
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
There are several theories on the origin of the name 'Terengganu'. One theory attributes the name's origin to terang ganu, Malay for 'bright rainbow'. Another story, said to have been originally narrated by the ninth Sultan of Terengganu, Baginda Omar, tells of a party of hunters from Pahang roving and hunting in the area of what is now southern Terengganu. One of the hunters spotted a big animal fang lying on the ground. A fellow party member asked to which animal did the fang belong. The hunter, not knowing which animal, simply answered taring anu (Malay: 'fang of something'). The party later returned to Pahang with a rich hoard of game, fur and sandalwood, which impressed their neighbors. They asked the hunters where did they source their riches, to which they replied, from the land of taring anu, which later evolved into Terengganu. Terengganu was called Trangkanu (Thai: ตรังกานู) by the Siamese when it was under their influence.
Another simple hypothesis is that 'Terengganu' derived from 'Tilanggana', the name first given to the land by a group of Mon immigrants from either nearby Dvaravati or Funan, who arrived in the place and settled there permanently, mixing with the native people. The ancient Mons, in turn, had many Telugu Indians who had immigrated from their native homeland in Tilanggana, in southeastern India, to Mon kingdoms such as Sudharmavati (Thaton), Hamsavati (Pegu) and Dvaravati, and lived among the Mons and intermarried with them, so much so that some neighbours of the Mons, like the Bhama, started calling them 'Talaing', i.e. Telugu. The story was that those early Mons thought the new land with its humid weather and hot climate, heavy December rains and all, reminded them of tales they had heard from their elders about the original Tilanggana in India, so they just named it 'Tilanggana'. The name eventually became Terengganu according to the dialect of the local people.
The traditional Chinese name for Terengganu has been "丁加奴" (Pinyin: dīngjiānú), which is a direct transliteration of the Malay name. However, in recent years, the Chinese community in Terengganu has raised objections to the name, citing that the characters used loosely translate to "giving birth to a child who will become a slave" (Chinese: 添丁加做奴). Therefore, they successfully petitioned the regulatory commission for Chinese language in Malaysia to change the Chinese name for the state to "登嘉楼" (Pinyin: dēngjiālóu), which can be loosely translated to "aspiring/stepping up to a higher level", in September 2004. It is worth noting, however, that the new name has been in unofficial use by the state's Chinese society for at least 30 years before its official adoption.
There are certain segments of the Chinese society who opposed to the name change, citing the fact that the new name contains too many character strokes, making it much more difficult to write. They have proposed to revert the name back to the version used before 2004, but with the word "奴" (slavery, which was mainly the cause of the controversy) to the similar sounding, but more positive "努" (perseverance).
Geography and demographics
Terengganu is situated in north-eastern Peninsular Malaysia, and is bordered in the northwest by Kelantan, the southwest by Pahang, and the east by the South China Sea. Several outlying islands, including Pulau Perhentian, Pulau Kapas and Pulau Redang, are also a part of the state. The state has a total area of 13,035 km2 (5,033 sq mi).
Terengganu has a population of 1,015,776 as of 2010[update]. As of 2006[update], Malays make up 94.7% of the population and Chinese, 2.6%, while Indians 0.2% and other ethnic groups comprise the remainder, 2.4%. In 2000, the state's population was only 48.7% urban; the majority lived in rural areas. By the 2005 census, the proportions had changed significantly, with 51% of the population living in urban areas and 49% in the rural areas. Terengganu is divided into seven administrative districts (called Daerah in Malay), of which the respective names, area, population, district seats and density are shown in the table below:
|Hulu Terengganu||3,874||73,912||Kuala Berang||19|
|Kuala Terengganu||605||361,801||Kuala Terengganu||598|
The people of Terengganu generally speak Terengganuan Malay, which is distinct from standard Malay and Kelantanese Malay, except for those in Besut district and Perhentian Islands who speak Kelantanese.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (June 2013)|
Terengganu's location by the South China Sea ensured that it was on trade routes since ancient times. The earliest written reports on the area that is now Terengganu were by Chinese merchants and seafarers in the early 6th century A.D. Like other Malay states, Terengganu practiced a Hindu–Buddhist culture combined with animist traditional beliefs for hundreds of years before the arrival of Islam. Under the influence of Srivijaya, Terengganu traded extensively with the Majapahit Empire, the Khmer Empire and especially the Chinese.
Terengganu was the first Malay state to receive Islam, as attested to by a stone monument dated 1303 with Arabic inscriptions found in Kuala Berang, the capital of the district of Hulu Terengganu. Terengganu became a vassal state of Melaka, but retained considerable autonomy with the emergence of Riau-Johor.
Terengganu emerged as an independent sultanate in 1724. The first Sultan was Tun Zainal Abidin, the younger brother of a former sultan of Johor, and Johor strongly influenced Terengganu politics through the 18th century. However, in the book Tuhfat al-Nafis, the author, Raja Ali Haji, mentions that in the year 1708, Tun Zainal Abidin was installed as the Sultan of Terengganu by Daeng Menampuk - also known as Raja Tua - under the rule of Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah.
In the 19th century, Terengganu became a vassal state of Siam, and sent tribute every year to the King of Siam called bunga mas. Under Siamese rule, Terengganu prospered, and was largely left alone by the authorities in Bangkok.
The terms of the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 saw power over Terengganu transferred from Siam to Great Britain. A British advisor was appointed to the sultan in 1919, and Terengganu become one of the Unfederated Malay States. The move was highly unpopular locally, and in 1928 the British used military force to suppress a popular uprising.
During World War II, Japan occupied Terengganu and transferred sovereignty over the state back to Siam, which had been renamed Thailand in 1939, along with Kelantan, Kedah, and Perlis. After the defeat of Japan, British control over these Malay states was reestablished. Terengganu became a member of the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and a state of independent Malaya in 1957.
Following decades of rule by the Barisan Nasional (National Front) coalition, the Islamic Party of Malaysia (PAS) came to power in the 1999 General Elections, making Terengganu the second state in Malaysia to be ruled by the Islamist party (the first being neighboring Kelantan). However, in the 2004 General Elections, Terengganu was recaptured by the Barisan Nasional.
Politics and government
The Constitution of Terengganu came into force in 1911. It has a supplement that came into force in 1959. The official English title for the 1911 constitution is;
- " The Constitution of the Way of Illustrious Sovereignty "
The 1959 constitutional supplement is divided into two sections. The sections' official English language titles are:
- "The Laws Of The Constitution Of Terengganu (First Part)"
- "The Laws Of The Constitution Of Terengganu (Second Part)"
The Sultan of Terengganu
The Sultan is the constitutional Ruler of the state of Terengganu. The State Constitution proclaims that the Sultan is "the Ruler and fountain head of all authority of government in the State and Territory of Terengganu", the Head of the Religion of Islam in the state and the source of all titles, honours and dignities in the state. He is also vested with the Executive Power of the State. The hereditary Sultan of Terengganu since 1998 has been Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin.
The current Sultan was elected as the 13th Yang di-Pertuan Agong or King of Malaysia. As per the Malaysian constitution and the State constitution, the King cannot reign both as the Head of State of the federation and as ruling monarch of his state. During his tenure as King of Malaysia the state ruler appoints a Regent to rule in his place. The Regent (Pemangku Raja) of Terengganu is now the King's eldest son, Tengku (Prince) Muhammad Ismail. As he is not yet of age suitable for the post (being only eight years old), the Prince co-reigns with the three-member Regency Advisory Council (Majlis Penasihat Pemangku Raja) headed by Raja Tengku Baderulzaman (the King's younger brother) as dictated by syarat (2) Fasal 16 AA Undang-Undang Bagi Diri Kerajaan Terengganu (Bab Yang Kedua) under the state constitution.
When Terengganu was an absolute monarchy, the Chief Minister was selected by the Sultan of Terengganu. Since the declaration of independence of Malaysia (then called Tanah Melayu) and the first general election, the Chief Minister has been the State Assembly (ADUN) member elected by a majority of all State Assembly members, who are themselves elected by universal adult suffrage of the citizens of their constituencies. Below is the list of the Chief Ministers of Terengganu from 1925.
|Term Starts||Term Ends||Chief Minister||Party|
|April 1925||June 1940||Dato' Seri Amar Diraja Ngah Muhamad bin Yusof|
|June 1940||May 1942||Tengku Seri Setia Raja Tengku Omar bin Othman|
|May 1942||Dec 1945||Dato' Jaya Perkasa Da Omar bin Mahmud|
|Dec 1945||Dec 1949||Tengku Panglima Perang Tengku Muhamad bin al-Marhum Sultan Ahmad|
|Dec 1949||June 1959||Dato' Perdana Menteri Di Raja Dato' Seri Setia Raja Kamaruddin bin Idris|
|June 1959||Nov 1961||Mohd Daud bin Abdul Samad||PAS*|
|Nov 1961||Sep 1970||Tan Sri Ibrahim Fikri bin Mohammad||Perikatan|
|Sep 1970||Sep 1971||Dato' Mahmood bin Sulaiman||Perikatan|
|Sep 1971||Aug 1974||Dato' Nik Hassan bin Wan Abdul Rahman||Perikatan|
|Sep 1974||Dec 1999||Dato Seri Amar Diraja Tan Sri Wan Mokhtar Ahmad||Barisan Nasional|
|Dec 1999||March 2004||Dato' Seri Abdul Hadi Awang||PAS|
|March 2004||March 2008||Dato Seri Idris Jusoh||Barisan Nasional|
|March 2008||Current||Datuk Ahmad Said||Barisan Nasional|
Note:* The state Government formed by PAS after the general election in 1959 was turned over to Perikatan in Nov 1961, due to a vote of no confidence in the State Assembly and the fact that two PAS assemblymen switched parties
2008 Menteri Besar appointment crisis
Following the ruling party UMNO's return to power over Terengganu after winning 24 out of 32 seats in the 2008 general elections, Prime Minister (PM) Abdullah Ahmad Badawi put forth the reappointment of Datuk Seri Idris Jusoh to a second term as Menteri Besar. In what political analysts described as a possible constitutional crisis, trouble began to precipitate after the Sultan of Terengganu, Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin, who is also the current Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King) of Malaysia refused to re-appoint and swear in Idris as Menteri Besar. Similar problems occurred in the state of Perlis where the PM's choice was also rejected, in which the latter eventually gave in to its Sultan.
The Sultan of Terengganu appointed Ahmad Said instead for the job, with the Regency Advisory Council handing him the letter of appointment. The PM claimed that the appointment of Ahmad Said was unconstitutional as it went against the wishes of the assemblymen and the Prime Minister's office who have supported Idris Jusoh candidacy for Menteri Besar.
In spite of threats to strip Ahmad Said of his party membership "for disobeying the leadership", he went to the office in Wisma Darul Iman to begin the first day of his new appointment on 25 March 2008. The party announced earlier that they made good on their promise to remove his membership, which technically disqualifes him to be appointed as Menteri Besar in the first place. The ruling also planned to vote down the sultan's choice through a motion of no-confidence by 22 UMNO state assemblymen.
On 26 March 2008 however, PM Abdullah Ahmad Badawi and Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin met at Istana Negara to resolve the deadlock. The Prime Minister reversed his stance and decided to accept the King's appointment of Ahmad Said as Chief Minister of Terengganu. He also apologized to the King for the public spat over the appointment of the Menteri Besar, explaining that there was no intention to disparage or humiliate the royal household.
The apparent backdown was due to threat that the royal household would be prepared to dissolve the state assembly if the motion of no-confidence was initiated against Ahmad Said, which would trigger another election in what is already a climate of discontent towards the ruling party and the possibility of dissenting assemblymen defecting to the opposition.
The UMNO Supreme Council proceeded to endorse Ahmad Said as the new Menteri Besar of Terengganu. With the resolution of the impasse, Ahmad Said expressed his gratefulness on his appointment and paid tribute to Idris, an old friend he has known since university, for the work he has done for the Terengganu people so far and to seek his advice. After the swearing in ceremony where the duties are handed over from Idris, he also expressed hopes in moving on to discharge his responsibility to the people and eradicate poverty within the state.
The State Executive Council
The state executive council (EXCO) is established by the constitution. It is composed of the Menteri Besar, who is its chairman, and ten other members. The Menteri Besar and the other members of the council are appointed by the Sultan ( or Regent ) from the members of the State Assembly. The Menteri Besar is currently Ahmad Said.
The Terengganu EXCO (2004–2009) consisted of:
- Y.B. Dato' Dr. Abdul Latiff bin Awang, D.P.M.T.,K.M.N., P.K.T., P.J.K.(ADUN Bukit Payung, Marang)
(Chairman of State Education, Science and Technology and Human Resources Committee)
- Y.B. Dato' Rosol bin Wahid, D.P.M.T., P.J.K. (ADUN Ajil, Hulu Terengganu)
(Chairman of State Islam Hadhari Development)
- Y.B. Dato' Ahmad bin Said, D.P.M.T., A.S.M., P.J.K(ADUN Kijal, Kemaman)
(Chairman of State Housing and Local Government Committee)
- Y.B. Dato' Mohamed bin Awang Tera,D.P.M.T.,D.I.M.P., S.A.P., A.M.P. (ADUN Chukai, Kemaman)
(Chairman of State Industry Development and Tourism Committee)
- Y.B. Dato' Haji Wan Hisham bin Wan Salleh, D.P.M.T., D.J.N., P.J.K. (ADUN Ladang, Kuala Terengganu)
(Chairman of State Infrastructure Development, Public Services and Communication Committee)
- Y.B. Haji Din bin Adam, S.M.T.,P.J.K. (ADUN Bukit Besi, Dungun)
(Chairman of State Cultural, Youth, Sports and NGO Committee)
- Y.B. Datuk Haji Mohd Jidin Shafee, D.M.S.M., A.M.N. (ADUN Permaisuri, Setiu)
(Chairman of State Agriculture and Regional Development Committee)
- Y.B. Datuk Abdul Rahin bin Dato' Mohd Said, D.M.S.M., A.M.N. (ADUN Teluk Pasu, Kuala Nerus)
(Chairman of State Entrepreneur Development Committee)
- Y.B. Haji Wan Mohd bin Wan Hassan, P.J.K. (ADUN Kota Putera, Besut)
(Chairman of State Welfare, Women and Community Development Committee)
- Y.B.Dato' Toh Chin Yaw, D.P.M.T,P.P.N,P.J.K. (ADUN Bandar, Kuala Terengganu)
(Chairman of State Environment, Consumer Affair and Health Committee)
Terengganu used to be Malaysia's poorest state until oil and gas were discovered off its coastline not too long ago. Terengganu's main industry now is petroleum and gas. There are huge petrochemical complexes near Paka and Kerteh, involving many joint ventures between the Malaysian national oil company, Petronas, and foreign multinationals. Tourism and fishing are also major industries in Terengganu, a state with a long coastline. Agriculture also remains important, with banana, rambutan, durian, watermelon, and various other fruits and vegetables available in season. Terengganu was traditionally famous for boat-building, with highly decorated carved wooden boats called bangau to be found in the harbor of every village and town in days not so long gone by, before electric motorboats became standard equipment for the state's fishermen.
|Income and Quality of life||1995||2005|
|GDP (RM Million)||12,082.9||16,821.2|
|GDP Per Capita (RM)||13,636.1||13,642.6|
|Average Household Income (RM)||1,113.0||2,075.3|
|Crude Birth Rate (Per Thousand)||29.5||18.5|
|Infant Mortality Rate (Per Thousand)||10.4||6.5|
|Number of Population Per Doctor||2,803.0||1,930.0|
|Number of Students Per Teacher||17.6||15.1|
|Motor Vehicles Registered (Per Thousand)||181.0||212.5|
|Number of Viewers Per TV||11.4||9.0|
Culture and attractions
Terengganu did not receive many Indian or Chinese migrants, and therefore Malay cultural influences predominate. Traditional pursuits such as kite-flying contests, top-spinning contests, and traditional arts & crafts, such as batik and songket are still very much alive. The people of Terengganu have always had a reputation for being socially conservative and devout Muslims.
The major tourist attractions in the state include: Kuala Terengganu, the capital; Islamic Heritage Park, Tasik Kenyir, a large artificial lake; Sekayu Waterfalls; Kuala Ibai Lagoons; Batu Burok Beach, Kemasik Beach, Rantau Abang, Marang, Chukai town and several offshore islands such as Pulau Redang, Pulau Lang Tengah, and Pulau Kapas, and the Pulau Perhentian, which attract beachgoers and snorkelers because of their picture perfect beaches. Many travelers find the relatively rural and tranquil atmosphere in the state conducive to a relaxing holiday. Terengganu has recently been known internationally as the host of Monsoon Cup, which was first held in 2005 and then became an annual national sporting event. The event brought millions of ringgit of investment into the state from the private sectors and Malaysian Government. Tourists flocked to Kuala Terengganu and Duyong to witness this event, held during the monsoon season, which had previously been low season for tourism in Terengganu.
|Basic Tourism Sector Data||1999||2005|
|Average Day of Stays of Foreign Tourist||3.3||4.2|
|Average Day of Stays of Domestic Tourist||1.9||3.1|
|Sectorial Contribution to the Economy (RM Million)||298.9||1281.0|
|Number of Registered Tourist Agents||70||92|
|Number of Tourist Guides||21||37|
|Average Hotel Occupancy Rate (%)||55.9||58.3|
|Total Tourist Arrival||1,149,037||1,822,678|
- 2008 National Horse Show at Terengganu Equestrian Resort Oct 31 to Nov 2
- Monsoon Cup- international sailing event
- Sultan's Cup Terengganu Endurance Challenge - Horse Endurance Race
- Formula Future- speed boat racing for under 15
- Kapas-Marang International Swimathon- International swimming event
- Kenyir Motocross Championship
- Terengganu Masters- Golf
- Kenyir International Mountain Bike Challenge
- 'Candat Sotong' Fiesta - fishing conmpetition
- Kenyir Lake International Triathlon
- Terengganu Starhill Tasik Kenyir 4x4 Challenge
- Tasik Puteri Water Festival
- Terengganu Traditional Games Competition
- Terengganu International 4WD Rainforest Challenge 2007
- FEI World Endurance Championshiop 2008
- Le Tour de Langkawi 2012
The most famous local food is Keropok Lekor, which is made primarily from a combination of dough (sago flour) and pounded fish mainly from mackerel and sardines, fried and served with hot chilli sauce for afternoon tea. Keropok Keping (fish crackers) are made from sun-dried slices of Keropok Lekor. Numerous keropok stalls are to be found on the side of the highway that passes through coastal communities. Keropok lekor best eaten with local chili sauce, made from dried chili, tamarind, sugar and vinegar.
Budu, a very pungent and salty anchovy sauce is also popular among the locals. It is often mixed with sliced onions and chillies as condiments. Budu made from ikan bilis fermented with salt. There are other version of budu, known as Pelara were made by using mackerel were popular among olders, can be found in traditional market sold in bottle.
Laksam (or laksang in local Malay dialect), a modified version of laksa, is made from rice flour (thick and soft slices). It is served in a bowl of light fresh coconut milk mixed with boiled fish flesh (mainly mackerel), finely chopped cucumbers, chillies, onions and long beans. It is eaten cold at breakfast.
Another Terengganu specialty is sata, a type of otak-otak or fish cake wrapped in banana leaves and cooked over a grill. Sata made from combination of fish and grated coconut, with some portion of spice.
Nasi dagang is also popular.
There are several institutes of higher learning in Terengganu. They are either categorised as Institut Pengajian Tinggi Awam (IPTA); public university or Institut Pengajian Tinggi Swasta (IPTS); private university. Among public universities which have campus in Terengganu is the Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin and Universiti Malaysia Terengganu. Both universities have campus in Gong Badak, in north Kuala Terengganu.
Beside that, Terengganu also had 3 Universiti Teknologi MARA branches, in Kuala Terengganu, Dungun and Bukit Besi. Also, Terengganu host several private university and college, such as TATI University College in Kemaman, UCSI Terengganu campus in Marang, Institut Teknologi Petroleum PETRONAS (INSTEP) in Batu Rakit, Kuala Terengganu and Kolej Teknologi Bestari in Setiu, Politechnics Sultan Zainal Abidin, among others.
List of Tertiary Institutes (public and private)
- Politeknik Kuala Terengganu
- Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
- Universiti Malaysia Terengganu
- Universiti Teknologi MARA (3 branches)
- Institut Teknologi Petroleum PETRONAS (INSTEP)
- Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
- Kolej PTPL
- Kolej Teknologi & Inovasi KRIM
- Institut Teknologi Petronas
- Kolej Seri Iman
- Kolej Ketengah
- RANACO Education and Training Institute (RETI)
- Kolej Teras Timur
- Kolej Islam Sains Teknologi (KIST)
Secondary school (high school) education is provided by Sekolah Kebangsaan (National School, e.g.: Sekolah Kebangsaan Sultan Sulaiman), Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (National-type School) Chinese primary schools, and Sekolah Ugama (Religious schools, e.g.: SMA Sultan Zainal Abidin Ladang). All of them follow the syllabus and curriculum provided and regulated by the Malaysian Ministry of Education (Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia). Every year the state government spends RM34 million to develop education in Terengganu. Part of these grants ensures that every eligible primary school student in Terengganu is able to get a Netbook worth RM1000 to help in their studies.
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- "Malaysian king, prime minister in conflict over appointment as constitutional crisis looms". The Associated Press. 2008-03-24. Retrieved 2008-04-01.
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