Teresa Lewis

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Teresa Wilson Bean Lewis
Teresa Lewis DOC.jpg
Born Teresa Wilson
(1969-04-26)April 26, 1969[1]
Danville, Virginia, USA
Died September 23, 2010(2010-09-23) (aged 41)[2]
Greensville Correctional Center Jarratt, Virginia, USA
Criminal penalty
Death by lethal injection
Criminal status Executed on September 23, 2010[2]
Spouse(s) Julian Clifton Lewis, Jr. (murdered)
Children Kathy Lewis Clifton, stepdaughter[3]
Charles J. Lewis, stepson (murdered)
Jason Clifton Lewis, stepson (died)[4]
Christie Lynn Bean, daughter[5]
Parents Melvin C. Wilson, Sr.[6]
Conviction(s) Capital murder[7]
Conspiracy - capital murder[8]
Robbery[9]
Use of firearm in murder[10]
Use of firearm in robbery[10]

Teresa Wilson Bean Lewis (April 26, 1969 – September 23, 2010)[1][2] was an American who was the only woman on death row in Virginia prior to her execution.[11] She was sentenced to death by lethal injection for the murders of her husband and stepson in October 2002.[12] Lewis sought to profit from a $250,000 life insurance policy her stepson had taken out as a U.S. Army reservist in anticipation of his deployment to Iraq.[13]

In September 2010, Lewis became the first female inmate to die by lethal injection in the state of Virginia.[14] The state had last executed a woman in 1912.[15] The case led to debate over capital punishment due to Lewis's gender as well as questions regarding her mental capacity.[12]

Background[edit]

Teresa Wilson grew up in poverty in Danville, Virginia, where her parents both worked in a textile mill. [13] Teresa sang in a church during her youth.[16] At 16, she dropped out of school and married a man she met at that church.[13] The couple had one daughter, Christie Lynn Bean,[4] but the marriage soon ended in divorce, after which Teresa turned to alcohol and painkillers.[13] Her mother-in-law, Marie Bean,[4] described Teresa as "not right".[13]

Teresa Wilson Bean met future husband Julian Clifton Lewis, Jr. at the now-defunct Dan River textile mill.[4]

After migrating between dozens of low-paying jobs, Teresa Wilson Bean eventually found work in the spring of 2000 at the Dan River textile mill, where her supervisor was Julian Clifton Lewis, Jr.[4][13] He was a recent widower with three children, Jason, Charles, and Kathy. Teresa moved into Julian's home in June 2000 and the two married soon after. In December 2001, Julian's older son, Jason Clifton Lewis, was killed in a car accident, leaving his father $200,000 from a life insurance policy.[4] Julian used the money to buy a manufactured home on five acres of land in Pittsylvania County, Virginia.[13]

In August 2002, Julian's younger son, Charles J. Lewis, obtained a $250,000 insurance policy in preparation for his impending deployment to Iraq as part of the United States Army Reserve. Charles designated his father as the primary, and Teresa Lewis as the secondary beneficiaries.[4][13]

Murders[edit]

Mug shot of Matthew Jessee Shallenberger

In the fall of 2002, Teresa Lewis met 21-year-old Matthew Jessee Shallenberger and 19-year-old Rodney Lamont Fuller at a Wal-Mart in Danville and began a sexual relationship with both of them. In October 2002, Charles came home on a visit from Army training in Maryland. On the 23rd of October, Shallenberger and Lamont were given $1,200 by Lewis to purchase firearms and ammunition to kill Julian Lewis and his son Charles for the insurance money. Their first attempt to kill Julian while on the road did not succeed.[4][17]

A week later, on the night of October 30th, Shallenberger and Lamont entered the Lewis' trailer through a back door that Teresa had left open. While she waited in the kitchen, Shallenberger shot the sleeping Julian several times, while Fuller shot Charles in his bedroom with a shotgun.[13] After discovering Charles was not dead, Fuller shot him twice more.[4] Teresa waited 45 minutes before calling for help, and while waiting for the police to arrive, she removed money from her dying husband's wallet.[18] She divided $300 with Shallenberger and Fuller before they left.[13] However, sheriff's deputies arrived prior to Julian expiring, and heard him say, "My wife knows who done this to me,"[18] while she had claimed the two had been killed by unidentified assailants in a home invasion.[13]

Shortly after, Teresa Lewis was caught attempting to withdraw $50,000 from her dead husband's account with a forged check. Within a week, she confessed to law enforcement officers that she had offered money to have her husband killed.[4] During the investigation, prosecutors found that Lewis had been trying to gather the assets of her late husband and stepson even before they had been buried.[13]

During the murder trial, the judge deemed Lewis the mastermind of the crime and called her "the head of this serpent."[citation needed] Barbara G. Haskins, a court appointed, board-certified forensic psychiatrist, stated that "Cognitive testing showed a Full Scale IQ of 72. Verbal IQ was 70, and Performance IQ was 79." Dr. Haskins also stated that Teresa Lewis was and is able to make a plea agreement and enter pleas.[6] Lewis' lawyer stated that “She’s not mentally retarded, but she is very, very close to it."

Sentencing and appeals[edit]

Governor Bob McDonnell declined to grant clemency.[19]

Defense attorneys thought the evidence against Lewis was overwhelming and advised her to plead guilty to the capital charges in order to avoid a jury, and hope that the judge would show some leniency since Lewis had been cooperating with investigators. However, she was sentenced to death, [15] since under Virginia law, multiple murders within a three-year period are subject to the death penalty.[20] The two co-conspirators who actually did the shooting, Shallenberger and Fuller, were sentenced to life imprisonment at separate trials.[4] Lewis was granted an automatic review by the Supreme Court of Virginia,[21] which rejected the argument that it was unfair to execute Lewis while the co-conspirators got life sentences, as well as rejecting Lewis' challenges to the constitutionality of Virginia's death penalty law.[22] Lewis was placed on death row at the Fluvanna Correctional Center for Women in Troy, Virginia.[13]

Lewis' daughter, Christie Lynn Bean, served five years because she knew about the plan but failed to report it.[5]

In November 2004, a private investigator met Shallenberger at Wallens Ridge State Prison in Big Stone Gap, Virginia on behalf of Lewis. Shallenberger wrote in a partially transcribed affidavit: "Teresa was in love with me. She was very eager to please me. She was also not very smart." However, Shallenberger tore off and ate the parts of the document that he had signed. Shallenberger said, "What will happen will happen."[13] Shallenberger committed suicide at the prison in 2006.[4]

Ruth Bader Ginsburg
Sonia Sotomayor
A Supreme Court order showed that dissenting Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg (left) and Sonia Sotomayor would have granted a stay of execution.[23]

Over 7,300 appeals for clemency were reportedly sent to Virginia governor Bob McDonnell.[24] Her supporters stated that "Lewis is deeply remorseful and has been a model prisoner, helping fellow female inmates cope with their circumstances."[25][26] Her father, Melvin C. Wilson, Sr., testified how Lewis took care of her invalid mother prior to her death.[6] Lewis herself stated that "I just want the governor to know that I am so sorry, deeply from my heart. And if I could take it back, I would, in a minute ... I just wish I could take it back. And I'm sorry for all the people that I've hurt in the process."[26] On September 17, 2010, McDonnell decided not to stop Lewis' upcoming execution,[3] stating: "Having carefully reviewed the petition for clemency, the judicial opinions in this case, and other relevant materials, I find no compelling reason to set aside the sentence that was imposed by the Circuit Court and affirmed by all reviewing courts."[19]

Her attorneys filed motions for a writ of certiorari with the U.S. Supreme Court to stay the execution,[27][28] but were denied on September 21, 2010. Dissenting Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Sonia Sotomayor indicated that they would have granted a stay.[23]

Execution[edit]

Lewis' last meal consisted of two fried chicken breasts, sweet peas with butter, a Dr Pepper and German chocolate cake for dessert. Lewis addressed stepdaughter Kathy Lewis Clifton, who came to witness her execution, to apologize for killing her brother and father.[29][30]

I just want Kathy to know that I love you, and I'm very sorry.

Last words of Teresa Lewis, September 23, 2010[29]

Lewis was executed on September 23, 2010, at 9 p.m. by lethal injection, at Greensville Correctional Center in Jarratt.[31][32] This made her the 12th woman to be executed in the United States since the death penalty was reinstated in 1976.[18][33] Lewis was the first woman to be executed in Virginia by lethal injection; the last woman to be executed in the state was Virginia Christian, who died in the electric chair in 1912.[14][34] Lewis was also the first woman to be executed in the U.S. since Frances Newton in 2005 in the state of Texas,[35] and the second woman to be executed since serial killer Aileen Wuornos in 2002 in the state of Florida.[18]

Public reaction and aftermath[edit]

Novelist John Grisham publicly opposed the execution of Lewis.[15]

Lewis' execution started a debate in the U.S. and other parts of the world concerning capital punishment, and more specifically the application of death sentences on women in murder cases.[36] Richard Dieter, executive of the Death Penalty Information Center, argued that "so few women are involved in more heinous murders that, when they are, they cause greater offence than if they had been men. Virginia's attorney general really pushed the fact that she had committed adultery with a co-defendant and that she was somehow dishonoured and should be looked down upon".[37] Ken Cuccinelli, the Attorney General of Virginia, stated that "the brutal nature of the crimes themselves as well as Lewis' callous, manipulating, adulterous, greedy, egregious behavior" justified the death sentence.[38]

Thousands of supporters argued that her death sentence should have been commuted to life imprisonment. Lewis' attorney James E. Rocap III said, "A good and decent person is about to lose her life because of a system that is broken ... it is grossly unfair to impose the death sentence on her while Shallenberger and Fuller received life."[12] Her low IQ also became a matter of discussion, with supporters citing this as a reason she should not have been sentenced to death.[36] Legal novelist John Grisham echoed those sentiments and argued that evidence indicated Shallenberger, who had an IQ of 113, was the actual mastermind. Grisham quoted from an affidavit by co-conspirator Rodney Lamont Fuller: "As between Mrs. Lewis and Shallenberger, Shallenberger was definitely the one in charge of things, not Mrs. Lewis."[15]

Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad cited the case to denounce Western media coverage of Sakineh Mohammadi Ashtiani, a woman in Iran who had been sentenced to death by stoning for adultery. He claimed the media's "heavy propaganda" campaign was perpetrating a double standard by not responding with similar outrage over Lewis' impending execution.[39][40] Executive director Larry Cox of Amnesty International, which opposes the death penalty under all circumstances, stated: "Proceeding with this execution would come dangerously close to violating the U.S. Constitution, which prohibits capital punishment for those with 'mental retardation' — a precedent established thanks to Atkins v. Virginia."[41]

In September 2010, the bronze grave markers of murder victims Julian Clifton Lewis, Jr. and Charles J. Lewis were reported stolen. The Schoolfield Cemetery had been experiencing problems with metal theft.[42]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Teresa Lewis". Virginians for Alternatives to the Death Penalty. Retrieved October 26, 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Teresa Lewis Put to Death". WHSV. Associated Press. September 23, 2010. Retrieved September 24, 2010. 
  3. ^ a b Todd, Brian; Mears, Bill (September 17, 2010). "Virginia governor declines to stay woman's execution". CNN. Retrieved October 26, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Blood Sisters". Style Weekly. September 14, 2010. Retrieved October 14, 2010. 
  5. ^ a b Martinez, Edecio (August 2, 2010). "Teresa Lewis Scheduled to be First U.S. Woman Executed Since 2005". CBS News. Retrieved September 24, 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c Keenan, Barbara Milano (June 8, 2007). "Record No. 042743: Teresa Lewis v. Warden of the Fluvanna Correctional Center". Supreme Court of Virginia. Retrieved September 25, 2010. 
  7. ^ "§ 18.2-31. Capital murder defined; punishment.". Legislative Information System. Virginia General Assembly. Retrieved September 25, 2010. 
  8. ^ "§ 18.2-22. Conspiracy to commit felony.". Legislative Information System. Virginia General Assembly. Retrieved September 25, 2010. 
  9. ^ "§ 18.2-58. How punished.". Legislative Information System. Virginia General Assembly. Retrieved September 25, 2010. 
  10. ^ a b "§ 18.2-53.1. Use or display of firearm in committing felony.". Legislative Information System. Virginia General Assembly. Retrieved September 25, 2010. 
  11. ^ Harris, Donna (September 3, 2010). "Emotions Rise Over Pending Execution of Teresa Lewis". WSET. Retrieved September 24, 2010. 
  12. ^ a b c "Supreme Court rejects death row appeal to pave way for first female execution in Virginia since 1912". Daily Mail. September 23, 2010. Retrieved September 24, 2010. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Hammack, Laurence (September 12, 2010). "Teresa Lewis to be executed by lethal injection". The Roanoke Times. Retrieved October 14, 2010. 
  14. ^ a b "Virginia to execute first woman in almost 100 years". The Times of India. Agence France-Presse. September 21, 2010. Archived from the original on September 24, 2010. Retrieved September 24, 2010. 
  15. ^ a b c d Grisham, John (September 12, 2010). "John Grisham: Teresa Lewis didn't pull the trigger. Why is she on death row?". The Washington Post. pp. 1–2. Retrieved November 26, 2010. 
  16. ^ Beck, Catie (September 21, 2010). "Teresa Lewis: Speaks from Jail About Her Upcoming Execution". WTVR. Retrieved October 14, 2010. 
  17. ^ "Convicted Killer Teresa Lewis". About.com. Retrieved October 14, 2010. 
  18. ^ a b c d Frayer, Lauren (September 11, 2010). "Virginia to Execute Woman for 1st Time in 98 Years". AOL News. Retrieved September 24, 2010. 
  19. ^ a b "McDonnell Will Not Stop Lewis's Execution". WHSV. September 17, 2010. Retrieved September 24, 2010. 
  20. ^ "VA governor denies clemency for condemned killer". WDBJ. May 15, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2011. 
  21. ^ Hassell Sr., Leroy R. (March 5, 2007). "Record No. 032153: Teresa Wilson Bean Lewis v. Commonwealth of Virginia". Supreme Court of Virginia. Retrieved September 25, 2010. "As required by Code § 17.1-313, we review the sentences of death imposed upon Teresa Wilson Bean Lewis." 
  22. ^ "No. 04-5518: Teresa Wilson Bean Lewis v. Virginia". Supreme Court of Virginia. July 27, 2004. Retrieved September 25, 2010. 
  23. ^ a b "No. 10-5692 (10A242): Certiorari denied". U.S. Supreme Court. September 21, 2010. Retrieved September 25, 2010. 
  24. ^ "First Woman Executed in the U.S. in Five Years". Fox News Channel. September 23, 2010. Retrieved September 26, 2010. 
  25. ^ Sheridan, Michael (September 23, 2010). "As Teresa Lewis faces execution, death penalty expert says evidence doesn't support lethal sentence". Daily News (New York). Retrieved September 24, 2010. 
  26. ^ a b McConnell, Dugald; Todd, Brian (September 24, 2010). "Virginia puts woman to death by lethal injection". CNN. Retrieved September 24, 2010. 
  27. ^ "No. 10-5692: Teresa Wilson Lewis v. Wendy S. Hobbs, Warden". U.S. Supreme Court. August 2, 2010. Retrieved September 25, 2010. 
  28. ^ "No. 10A242: Teresa Wilson Lewis v. Wendy S. Hobbs, Warden". U.S. 4th Circuit Court of Appeals. September 2, 2010. Retrieved September 25, 2010. 
  29. ^ a b Glod, Maria (September 23, 2010). "Teresa Lewis pronounced dead by Va. authorities". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 23, 2010. 
  30. ^ Turnbull, Greig Box (September 25, 2010). "Teresa Lewis aplogised to the sole survivor of the family she had murdered before her execution". Daily Mirror. Retrieved September 27, 2010. 
  31. ^ Steinmetz, Katy (September 10, 2010). "Virginia Woman Faces Execution amid Calls for Leniency". Time. Retrieved September 24, 2010. 
  32. ^ Milam, Greg (September 23, 2010). "Gran Counts Down Hours To Execution". British Sky Broadcasting. Retrieved September 23, 2010. 
  33. ^ De Vogue, Ariane (September 9, 2010). "Teresa Lewis Execution: Death Penalty for Virginia Woman with Borderline Mental Retardation". ABC News. Retrieved September 24, 2010. 
  34. ^ Hartenstein, Meena (September 20, 2010). "Teresa Lewis, first woman to be executed by Virginia in nearly 100 years, begs Gov. for intervention". Daily News (New York). Retrieved September 24, 2010. 
  35. ^ Reth, Jerry (July 29, 2010). "Teresa Lewis Virginia: 1st US execution Of Woman Since 2005". Spreadit.org. Retrieved September 24, 2010. 
  36. ^ a b Bhatt, Aishwarya (September 13, 2010). "Growing resentment as Virginia to execute ‘borderline mentally ill’ woman". Thaindian News. Retrieved September 24, 2010. 
  37. ^ Leonard, Tom (September 21, 2010). "Is it because Teresa Lewis's a woman she's to be executed by lethal injection?". Daily Mail. Retrieved September 24, 2010. 
  38. ^ Sizemore, Bill (September 11, 2010). "Minister with Norfolk ties fights to halt historic execution". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved December 5, 2011. 
  39. ^ Doig, Polly Davis (September 20, 2010). "Iran on Execution of Va. Woman: US Is a Hypocrite". Newser. Retrieved September 26, 2010. 
  40. ^ "Iran claims double standard in Teresa Lewis case". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Associated Press. September 21, 2010. Retrieved September 26, 2010. 
  41. ^ "Amnesty International Urges Governor to Commute Teresa Lewis Execution". Amnesty International. September 14, 2010. Retrieved November 26, 2010. 
  42. ^ "Victims' grave markers reported stolen in Danville". Richmond Times-Dispatch. September 18, 2010. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Retrieved October 14, 2010. 

External links[edit]