|Terfeziaceae or Terfess|
|Desert truffle (Terfezia spp.) from Avanos, Turkey|
The Terfeziaceae, or desert truffles, is a family of truffles (Arabic: كمأ Kamā') endemic to arid and semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean Region, North Africa, and the Middle East, where they live in ectomycorrhizal association with Helianthemum species and other ectomycorrhizal plants (including Cistus, oaks, and pines). This group consists of three genera: Terfezia, Tirmania, and Mattirolomyces. They are a few centimetres across and weigh from 30 to 300 grams (1-10 oz). Desert truffles are often used as a culinary ingredient.
Fruit-bodies (ascomata) are large, more or less spherical to turbinate (like a top), thick-walled, solid; the asci are formed in marbled veins interspersed with sterile tissue. The asci are cylindrical to spherical, indehiscent (not splitting open at maturity), and sometimes stain blue in iodine. Ascospores are hyaline to pale brown, spherical, uninucleate.
Habitat and ecology
Desert truffles, as the name suggests, predominantly grow in the desert. They have been found in arid and semi-arid zones of the Kalahari desert, the Mediterranean basin, Iraq and Kuwait, the Sahara and Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Libya, Hungary, Croatia, and China. It is commonly said that they are formed where lightning strikes the desert sands, since they are not the most common of fungi (thus justifying their cost).
Culinary use and commercial importance
Desert truffles do not have the same flavor as European truffles, but tend to be more common and thus more affordable. Forest truffles (Tuber genus) typically cost $100 per kilogram, and Italian truffles may sell for up to $2200 per kilogram, while Terfezia truffles sold as of 2002 in Riyadh for $80 to $105 a kilo, and in recent years have reached, but not yet exceeded $270.
Desert truffles go by several different names. In Turkey they are called Domalan in Central Anatolia and Keme on the Syrian border, In Algeria they are called terfez, in Egypt the Bedouin of the Western Desert call them terfas. The Kuwaitis call them fagga, the Saudis faq'h, and in Syria, and in libya terfase, they are known by their classical Arabic name, kamaa. Iraqis call them kamaa, (or kima or chima depending on local dialects) and in Oman they are either faqah or zubaydi. The Hebrew word is kmehin. In southern Spain, they are known as turmas, though the more common Spanish term is "trufa, in the Canary Islands they are known as "Papas Crias"."In Botswana they are called "mahupu". In Iran; they are called Dombal.
In Saudi Arabia, there are two varieties; khalasi are oval with a black skin and a pinkish-ivory interior, and zubaidi have a cream colour but are generally more expensive.
- Terfezia arenaria
- Terfezia boudieri
- Terfezia claveryi
- Terfezia leptoderma
- Terfezia terfezioides - phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear rDNA sequences strongly suggest that this species be reassigned to the original monotypic genus Mattirolomyces.
- Tirmania nivea
- Tirmania pinoyi
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- Cannon, P.F., Kirk, P.M. (2007). Fungal Families of the World. p. 347. Singapore: CABI Publishing. 456 pp.
- Kagan-Zur V. Terfezias, a family of mycorrhizal edible mushrooms for arid zones. In: Schlissel, Arnold; Pasternak, D. (2001). Combating desertification with plants. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. ISBN 0-306-46632-5.
- Feeney, J: Desert Truffles Galore, page 22-27. Saudi Aramco World, 2002.
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- Dıéz J, Manjón JL, Martin F. (2002) Molecular phylogeny of the mycorrhizal desert truffles (Terfezia and Tirmania), host specificity and edaphic tolerance. Mycologia 94(2):247–259.