Ternate language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Ternate
Native to Indonesia
Region North Maluku, islands of Ternate and some areas of Halmahera.
Coordinates 0°1′N 127°44′E / 0.017°N 127.733°E / 0.017; 127.733
Native speakers
unknown (42,000 cited 1981)[1]
West Papuan
Language codes
ISO 639-3 tft
Glottolog tern1247[2]

Ternate of eastern Indonesia is a language centered on the island of Ternate but also spoken in neighboring areas such as Kayoa, Bacan, Halmahera and other areas in North Maluku. It is used by Sultanate of Ternate, famous for its role in spice trade.

A Papuan language, Ternate is unlike most languages spoken in Indonesia, which belong to the Austronesian language family. It appears to be related to languages spoken in Bird's Head peninsula in Papua.[3]

It is closely related to the Tidore language, which spoken in its southern neighboring island of the same name.

This language is distinct from Ternate Malay, which is a variation of Malay language. Most inhabitants of Ternate use Ternate language as first language but will use Ternate Malay for inter-ethnic or trade communication.[4]

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

The vowel system of Ternate Malay consists of five vowel phonemes and five diphthongs.[5]

Front Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a

[6]

The five diphthongs are /ai/, /ae/, /ao/, /oi/ and /ei/.[7]

Consonants[edit]

Ternate Malay has eighteen consonants and two semivowels.

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ
Fricative f s h
Lateral l
Trill r
Semivowel w j

[8]

Morphology[edit]

Pronoun and Person Markers[edit]

Personal pronouns and person markers are used in Ternate Malay to refer to participants in a speech event and to others, and also to refer to something expressed previously. These pronous/person markers may occur in constructions with other words, however they do not occur in head-initial XY constructions.[3]

Person Singular Plural
Full Shortened Full Shortened
1 kita saya (respectful) -- (kitaorang) torang tong
2 ngana -- ngoni --
3 dia de dorang dong

[9]

Examples[edit]

(1) “di ruma yang Ko paling sayang cuma ngana.”

in house REL EPIT very care only 2SG 

“you are the one whom I love most at home.”

(2) “Hamja, jang ngana lempar, kita akang turung.”

Hamja don’t 2SG throw 1SG FUT go.down 

“Hamja, stop throwing things at me, I’ll come down.”

(3) dia ba-rasa milu skali.

3SG POSS-taste corn very 

it has a strong taste of corn.

(4) iblis tara mungkin bunu torang.

devil NEG possible kill 1PL 

it’s impossible for a devil to kill us.

(5) kita foya suda pa ngoni.

1SG lie COMP to 2 

I lied to you.

(6) kita inga pa dorang sampe, ana-ana sana.

1SG remember to 3PL arrive PL-child there 

I always think of them, the children there. [10]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Ternate at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Ternate". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ a b Lewis, M. Paul (2009). "Ternate - A language of Indonesia (Maluku)". Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. SIL International. 
  4. ^ Litamahuputty, Betty (March 10, 2007). "Description of Ternate Malay". Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Jakarta station. 
  5. ^ Litamahuputty, B. H. J. (2012). Ternate Malay: grammar and texts. LOT, Utrecht.
  6. ^ Litamahuputty, B. H. J. (2012). Ternate Malay: grammar and texts. LOT, Utrecht.
  7. ^ Litamahuputty, B. H. J. (2012). Ternate Malay: grammar and texts. LOT, Utrecht.
  8. ^ Litamahuputty, B. H. J. (2012). Ternate Malay: grammar and texts. LOT, Utrecht.
  9. ^ Litamahuputty, B. H. J. (2012). Ternate Malay: grammar and texts. LOT, Utrecht.
  10. ^ Litamahuputty, B. H. J. (2012). Ternate Malay: grammar and texts. LOT, Utrecht.