|Comune di Terni|
Panorama of Terni
|Frazioni||Acquapalombo, Appecano, Battiferro, Cecalocco, Cesi, Collegiacone, Collescipoli, Collestatte, Giuncano Alto, Giuncano Scalo, Marmore, Miranda, Papigno, Piediluco, Poggio Lavarino, Polenaco, Porzano, Pracchia, Rocca San Zenone, San Carlo, San Liberatore, Titurano, Torreorsina|
|• Mayor||Leopoldo Di Girolamo (Democratic Party)|
|• Total||211 km2 (81 sq mi)|
|Elevation||130 m (430 ft)|
|Population (30 November 2011)|
|• Density||540/km2 (1,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Patron saint||Saint Valentine|
|Saint day||February 14|
Terni listen (help·info) (Latin: Interamna) is a city in southern Umbria, central Italy, capital of the province of Terni, located in the plain of the Nera river. It is 104 kilometres (65 miles) north of Rome, 36 kilometres (22 miles) northwest of Rieti, and 29 kilometres (18 miles) south of Spoleto.
The city was founded around the 7th century BC by the Umbrians, in a territory inhabited (as testified by archaeological excavations of several necropolises) as early as the Bronze Age. In the 3rd century BC it was conquered by the Romans and soon become an important municipium lying on the Via Flaminia. The Roman name was Interamna, meaning "in between two rivers". During the Roman Empire the city was enriched with several buildings, including aqueducts, walls, amphitheaters, temples and bridges.
After the Lombard conquest (755) Terni lost any role of prominence, reducing to a secondary town in the Duchy of Spoleto. In 1174 it was sacked by Frederick Barbarossa's general, Archbishop Christian of Mainz. In the following century Terni was one of the favourite seat of St. Francis' prayings.
In the 14th century Terni issued a constitution of its own and from 1353 the walls were enlarged, and new channels were opened. As well as much of the Italian communes of the Late Middle Ages, it was slain by inner disputes between Guelphs and Ghibellines, and later between the two parties of Nobili and Banderari. Later it become part of the Papal States. In 1580 an ironwork, the Ferriera, was introduced to work the iron ore mined in Monteleone di Spoleto, starting the traditional industrial connotation of the city. In the 17th century, however, Terni declined further due to plagues and famines.
In the 19th century Terni took advantage of the Industrial Revolution and of plentiful water sources in the area. New industries included a steelwork, a foundry, as well as weapons, jute and wool factories. In 1927 Terni became capital of the province. The presence of important industries made it a favourite target for the Allied bombardments in World War II, totalling 108 raids. Despite this, industrial environment increased quickly, in fact the city is called "the italian Manchester".
The city has three important industrial hubs: the first one is the Stainless called AST (part of the group ThyssenKrupp) and is a wide area located in the east part of Terni. In the western part there is a second industrial hub, known as "area Polymer", with four different chemical multinational industries. The third industrial hub is the "TERNI Research", which produces technologies employed for green energies and constructs green power plants in Italy.
Terni railway station is part of the Ancona–Orte railway, and is also a junction station for two secondary lines, the Terni–Sulmona railway (which links Terni with L'Aquila) and the Terni–Sansepolcro railway (FCU) (which serves Perugia). One of the most important national freight stations is located nearby.
The local urban and suburban transport service, ATC, runs 90 bus lines. In the north of the city (Colleluna zone), there are works in progress on the line from Perugia to enable it to be used as a Light rail line.
- The Roman amphitheater, once capable of 10,000 spectators, built in 32 BC.
- The small Roman gate of Porta Sant'Angelo, one of the four ancient entrances to the city, much restored.
- Terni Cathedral (Duomo, Cattedrale di Santa Maria Assunta) (17th century). Built over one of the most ancient Christian edifices of the city, it has today Baroque lines. In the interior is one organ designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. The belfry is from the 18th century. The façade has two mediaeval gates: one of them has the profile of a sabot once used to measure the citizen's shoes in order to ensure that they did not exceed a fixed limit of decency.
- Church of S. Francesco.
- The Basilica of S. Valentino.
- Palazzo Mazzancolli is one of the few remains of the Middle Ages past of the city.
- Palazzo Gazzoli (18th century), housing the City's Gallery with works by Pierfrancesco d'Amelia, Benozzo Gozzoli, Gerolamo Troppa and Orneore Metelli.
- Palazzo Spada (16th century), by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. It is the current Town Hall.
- The Lancia di Luce ("Lance of Light"), by the sculptor Arnaldo Pomodoro.
- The Romanesque churches:
- S. Alò (11th century).
- S. Martino.
- S. Salvatore.
- Todi Castle (1100 AD) once used for wars is now a vacation spot for tourists.
- Marcus Claudius Tacitus, Roman emperor
- Saint Valentine, Bishop and martyred saint
- Francesco Angeloni, Historian and writer
- Baconin Borzacchini, Grand Prix motor racing driver
- Giulio Briccialdi, Composer and flautist
- Alessandro Casagrande, Composer and pianist
- Aurelio De Felice, Sculptor
- Ettore Patrizi, Publisher, L'Italia
- Libero Liberati, 500 cc racer
- Danilo Petrucci, Moto GP racer
- Paolo Tagliavento, International football referee
- Stefano Micheli, Musician ("My Mine")
The Roman historian Tacitus is often stated to have been born in Terni, but there is no evidence for the claim, which is circumstantially based on the probable birth there of the emperor of the same name, and on the attested fact that that emperor took care to have his namesake's works widely copied, in the apparent belief that they were related.
The case of St. Valentine is more complex, since there was undoubtedly an early bishop of Terni by that name, who is the city's patron. In late Antiquity, however, the name was a common one, and the bishop has become conflated with several other saints, the most important of whom, the soldier saint, was probably not from Terni.
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