|Comune di Terni|
Landscape of Terni
|Frazioni||Acquapalombo, Appecano, Battiferro, Cecalocco, Cesi, Collegiacone, Collescipoli, Collestatte, Giuncano Alto, Giuncano Scalo, Marmore, Miranda, Papigno, Piediluco, Poggio Lavarino, Polenaco, Porzano, Pracchia, Rocca San Zenone, San Carlo, San Liberatore, Titurano, Torreorsina|
|• Mayor||Leopoldo Di Girolamo (Democratic Party)|
|• Total||211 km2 (81 sq mi)|
|Elevation||130 m (430 ft)|
|Population (30 April 2014)|
|• Density||530/km2 (1,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Patron saint||Saint Valentine|
|Saint day||February 14|
Terni [ˈtɛrni] (Latin: Interamna Nahars) is a city in the southern portion of the Region of Umbria in central Italy. The city is the capital of the province of Terni, located in the plain of the Nera river. It is 104 kilometres (65 miles) northeast of Rome.
Originally founded as an Ancient Roman town, the city has changed across the centuries. During the 19th-century, steel mills were introduced and led the city to have a role in the second industrial revolution in Italy. Because of its industrial importance, the city was heavily bombed during World War II by the Allies. It still remains an industrial hub, and has been nicknamed "The Steel City" and the "Italian Manchester".
Terni also advertises itself as a "City of Lovers", as its patron saint, Saint Valentine, was born and became a bishop here and the remains are preserved in the basilica-sanctuary in his honor.
The city was founded around the 7th century BC by the Umbrians, in a territory inhabited (as testified by archaeological excavations of several necropolises) as early as the Bronze Age. In the 3rd century BC it was conquered by the Romans and soon became an important municipium lying on the Via Flaminia. The Roman name was Interamna, meaning "in between two rivers". During the Roman Empire the city was enriched with several buildings, including aqueducts, walls, amphitheaters, temples and bridges.
After the Lombard conquest in 755 Terni lost prominence when it was reduced to a secondary town in the Duchy of Spoleto. In 1174 it was sacked by Frederick Barbarossa's general, Archbishop Christian of Mainz. In the following century Terni was one of sites visited frequently by St. Francis to give sermons.
In the 14th century Terni issued its own constitution, and from 1353 the walls were enlarged, and new channels were opened. As with many of the Italian communes of the Late Middle Ages, it was beset by civil unrest between the partisans of the Guelphs and Ghibellines, and later between the Nobili and Banderari. Later it joined the Papal States. In 1580 an ironwork, the Ferriera, was introduced to work the iron ore mined in Monteleone di Spoleto, starting the traditional industrial connotation of the city. In the 17th century, however, the population of Terni declined further due to plagues and famines.
In the 19th century, Terni took advantage of the Industrial Revolution and of plentiful water sources in the area. New industries included a steelwork, a foundry, as well as weapons, jute and wool factories. In 1927 Terni became capital of the province. The presence of important industries made it a favorite target for the Allied bombardments in World War II. On August 11, 1943, a massive bombardment devastated the city. It was the first of the 108 air strikes that destroyed 80% of Terni's buildings and buried under the rubble about 1000 civilians. Despite this, industrial environment increased quickly after the war.
The city has three important industrial hubs: the first one is the Stainless Area, called AST (part of the group ThyssenKrupp) and is a wide area located in the east part of Terni. West of the town, there is a second industrial hub, known as "Area Polymer", with four different chemical multinational industries. The third industrial hub is Italeaf, which controls TerniEnergia, a company listed on STAR segment of Borsa Italiana, that is active in the renewable energy sector, and promotes and develops technological star-ups in cleantech sector.
Terni railway station is part of the Ancona–Orte railway, and is also a junction station for two secondary lines, the Terni–Sulmona railway (which links Terni with L'Aquila) and the Terni–Sansepolcro railway (FCU) (which serves Perugia). One of the most important national freight stations is located nearby.
The local urban and suburban transport service, ATC, runs 90 bus lines. In the north of the city (Colleluna zone), there are works in progress on the line from Perugia to enable it to be used as a Light rail line.
- Roman amphitheater, once capable of 10,000 spectators, built in 32 BC.
- Porta Sant'Angelo, one of the four Ancient Roman Gates to the city, much restored.
- Terni Cathedral (Duomo, Cattedrale di Santa Maria Assunta) (17th century). Built over one of the most ancient Christian edifices of the city, it has today Baroque lines. In the interior is one organ designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. The belfry is from the 18th century. The façade has two mediaeval gates: one of them has the profile of a sabot once used to measure the citizen's shoes in order to ensure that they did not exceed a fixed limit of decency.
- San Francesco - 13th-century church
- The Basilica of S. Valentino.
- Palazzo Mazzancolli is one of the few remains of the Middle Ages past of the city.
- Palazzo Gazzoli (18th century), housing the City's Gallery with works by Pierfrancesco d'Amelia, Benozzo Gozzoli, Gerolamo Troppa and Orneore Metelli.
- Palazzo Spada (16th century), designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. It is the current Town Hall.
- Lancia di Luce ("Lance of Light"), by the sculptor Arnaldo Pomodoro.
- The Romanesque churches:
Ternana Calcio is the main football club in the city. The club have twice played in Italy's first division Serie A (seasons 1972-1973 and 1974-1975). Ternana is currently playing in Serie B (season 2014-2015). The club play at the 22,000-seat Stadio Libero Liberati, named after Italian motorcycle racer Libero Liberati, who was born in Terni, won the 500cc World Championship in 1957, and died while he was training with his Gilera Saturno along the Valnerina road near Terni.
- Francesco Angeloni, historian and writer
- Baconin Borzacchini, Grand Prix motor racing driver
- Giulio Briccialdi, composer and flautist
- Alessandro Casagrande, composer and pianist
- Aurelio De Felice, sculptor
- Libero Liberati, 500 cc racer
- Aminale Lodovico, a knight who fought with other twelve Italian knights in the Challenge of Barletta (1503) against the French
- Stefano Micheli, musician (My Mine)
- Ettore Patrizi, publisher, L'Italia
- Danilo Petrucci, Moto GP racer
- Claudio Petruccioli, politician and journalist
- Paolo Tagliavento, international football referee
- Sara Tommasi, television personality and pornographic actress
- Riccardo Zampagna, football player
- Oreste Scalzone, Marxist intellectual and co-founder of Potere Operaio
- Saint Valentine, bishop and martyred saint
- Saints Berardo, Ottone, Pietro, Accursio and Adiuto, Franciscans protomartyrs.
- Marcus Claudius Tacitus, Roman emperor
The Roman historian Gaius Cornelius Tacitus is often stated to have been born in Terni, but there is no evidence for the claim, which is circumstantially based on the probable birth there of the emperor of the same name, and on the attested fact that that emperor took care to have his namesake's works widely copied, in the apparent belief that they were related.
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Twin towns — Sister cities