Terrace, British Columbia

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Coordinates: 54°30′59.3″N 128°35′59.0″W / 54.516472°N 128.599722°W / 54.516472; -128.599722

Terrace
City
City of Terrace
View from Mount Thornhill
View from Mount Thornhill
Flag of Terrace
Flag
Terrace is located in British Columbia
Terrace
Terrace
Location of Terrace in British Columbia
Coordinates: 54°30′59″N 128°35′59″W / 54.51639°N 128.59972°W / 54.51639; -128.59972
Country  Canada
Province  British Columbia
Region North Coast
Regional district Kitimat-Stikine
Incorporated 1911
Government
 • Mayor David Pernarowski
 • Terrace City Council Bruce Bidgood
Lynne Christiansen
Brian Downie
Stacey Tyers
Marylin Davies
James Cordeiro
Area
 • City 57.36 km2 (22.15 sq mi)
 • Metro 73.91 km2 (28.54 sq mi)
Elevation 67 m (219 ft)
Population (2011)
 • City 11,486
 • Density 200.3/km2 (519/sq mi)
 • Urban 15,569[1]
 • Metro 15,569
 • Metro density 210.6/km2 (545/sq mi)
 • Immigrant population 1,670 (14%)
 • Demonym Terracite
Time zone PST (UTC−8)
 • Summer (DST) PDT (UTC−7)
Postal code V8G
Area code(s) 250
Value of building permits (2000) $24.9 million
Business licences issued (2001) 1,159
Website City of Terrace

Terrace is a city on the Skeena River in British Columbia, Canada. The Kitselas people, a tribe of the Tsimshian Nation, have lived in the Terrace area for thousands of years. The community population fell between 2001 and 2006 from 12,109 with a regional population of 19,980 (Statistics Canada, 2001) to 11,320 and regional of 18,581 (Statistics Canada, 2006). The 2011 census showed that the community population had fallen further to 11,486. The community is the regional retail and service hub for the northwestern portion of British Columbia. The administrative offices of the Kitimat-Stikine Regional District are also located in Terrace.

The community sits on the Canadian National Railway and the Yellowhead Highway. Air services for the community are provided through Northwest Regional Airport, with connections to Prince George, Smithers, and Vancouver. The Terrace railway station is served by Via Rail's Jasper – Prince Rupert train. Health care in Terrace is administered by Northern Health and provided, in part, by Mills Memorial Hospital.

History and culture[edit]

First Nations peoples[edit]

Indigenous peoples have inhabited Northwest BC for over 10,000 years[citation needed]. This region is one of the oldest continuously occupied regions of the world and, long before European contact, was one of the most densely populated areas north of Mexico[citation needed].The flat mountain ranges surrounding the city of Terrace are traditionally called "GANEEKS LAXHA", which in the Tsimshian language means the stairway to heaven[citation needed]. The founder of Terrace, George Little, honoured the traditional name of the area by calling his city "Terrace". This was after Little was told by the post office that he could not name the settlement "Littleton", after himself, as there was already a town with that name. Kitselas and Kitsumkalum are two Tsimshian communities in the Terrace area who continue to access traditional tribal and clan-based territories in northwest British Columbia. The Skeena River was known initially as the K'shian river meaning "where the mist comes out" (Ksi-to come out from, yeen(hian-mist/clouds). The traditional economy of the Tsimshian Nation was based on hunting, fishing and social gatherings, for domestic consumption or trade, on their traditional lands. For the aboriginal people, the Skeena River was used for transportation, communication, war, trade, as a source of food, and at times for protection.

Steamboats[edit]

In 1866 the steamer Mumford made it as far as Kitsumkalum with supplies for the Collins Overland Telegraph line. It took an average of three days to travel from Port Essington (at the mouth of the Skeena River, near Prince Rupert) to Hazelton. It was not until 1891 that the Hudson's Bay Company sternwheeler Caledonia successfully negotiated the Kitselas Canyon and reached Hazelton. A number of other steamers were built around the turn of the century, in part due to the growing fish industry and the Klondike Gold Rush.[2][3] In honour of its steamboat heritage, Terrace celebrates a festival called Riverboat Days each summer.

George Little[edit]

Ontarian George Little arrived in the Skeena River valley in March 1905. While travelling from the Yukon by snowshoe on the Kitimat trail en route to the Bulkley Valley, he liked what he saw in the area, decided to remain, and staked claim later in the year to many acres of what would later be Terrace.[4]

The riverboats operated on the Skeena for only 22 years; the last boat, the Inlander, finished up in September 1912, when the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway took over its function. George Little donated 47 acres (0.19 km2) to the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. The station stop was originally named "Littleton"; however, as there was already a Littleton in New Brunswick, Little changed the name to "Terrace" in reference to the local geography. Little established a sawmill to accommodate the demand for railway ties. In 1955, Little rode the first CNR train to Kitimat, passing over the same route he had trekked one half century earlier.

Old Skeena Bridge[edit]

The Old and CNR Skeena Bridges by night. The Old Skeena Bridge is at left. Photo taken in 2010.

The Old Skeena Bridge officially opened July 1925, halting the use of the Ferry Island ferry service to Thornhill Creek. In 1944, the Skeena River highway between Terrace and Prince Rupert was ceremoniously opened with a convoy of Canadian and American Army bands that were part of the troops stationed here during World War II. Terrace could now easily transport to anywhere in British Columbia.

During the construction of the rail line to Kitimat in the early 1950s, new pilings were poured beside the existing structure and the bridge deck was moved to the new, higher pilings. The original pilings were then used to hold a new rail bridge across the Skeena River for the CNR line to Kitimat. This arrangement is still in place today.

This bridge now shares its load with the Dudley Little Bridges (often referred to as the New Skeena Bridges), a series of two two-way bridges crossing both channels of the Skeena River at Ferry Island and creating a bypass route of downtown Terrace for Highway 16. The new bridges, constructed circa 1975, are fully paved and offer uninterrupted two-way traffic flow, as opposed to the old single-lane bridge controlled by traffic lights. The foundations of the new bridge are prepared for future twinning. The Old Skeena Bridge was once noted for being the largest curved wooden-plank bridge in North America until its decking was replaced with metal grate decking in 2002 due to concerns of safety and upkeep. A concrete-surfaced pedestrian section was installed at the same time, behind an existing divider, to allow for safe bicycle and pedestrian use of the structure with the removal of the solid wooden deck planks.

Pastimes[edit]

During the Summer, Terrace offers many outdoor opportunities, such as fishing for a wide range of freshwater fish, and hunting in the surrounding areas. In the fall, many of Terrace's inhabitants go out to search for Pine mushrooms (Tricholoma magnivelare), and pick berries. There is a variety of winter sports available in Terrace and the surrounding region including skiing, snowboarding, snowmobiling, ice fishing, curling, and ice skating.

Terrace Mutiny[edit]

Main article: Terrace Mutiny

During World War II, military units composed primarily of conscripts from central and eastern Canada were stationed in Terrace. Morale was low due to the poor relationship between the soldiers and the local populace, the isolation, the damp weather, lack of recreation, crowded facilities, and the distance from home. In late 1944, because of declining enlistment and heavy casualties, Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King was forced to reconsider his promise to not deploy conscripts overseas. Mackenzie King decided to a one-time assignment of conscripts for overseas service. On November 24, 1944, news that conscripts might be sent overseas triggered a mutiny amongst the men stationed in Terrace. It took until November 29 for officers to restore order to the troops. The Terrace Mutiny was the most serious breach of discipline in Canadian military history.

Geography[edit]

Terrace and the surrounding Skeena Valley are located in a hybrid coastal-interior rainforest (Coastal Western Hemlock Wet Submaritime according to the provincial Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification Program[5]) on the Skeena River, approximately 115 kilometres (71 mi) from its mouth at the Pacific Ocean. The lush forests in the area consist primarily of western red cedar, western hemlock, amabilis fir or "balsam" and Sitka spruce. Sediment deposits from glaciers over thousands of years ago have produced the natural terraces or "benches" around much of the city, which sits approximately 70 metres (230 ft) above sea level and just east of the Skeena and Kitsumkalum River confluence. The dominant soil in Terrace is a well drained sandy loam with classic podzol profile development where the original forest remains.[6] The Hazelton Mountains are to the east of the city, while the Kitimat Ranges of the Coast Mountains are to the west. The area sits above an active fault line that runs north-south. The area also boasts several natural and developed hotsprings. West of Terrace are Port Edward (136 km) and Prince Rupert (144 km). East of Terrace are Smithers (203), and Prince George (571 km). South is Kitimat (63). To the North-east of Terrace are Kitwanga (93) and New Hazelton (136 km).

Climate[edit]

Being close to the Pacific Coast, Terrace has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb), with wet, cold winters (though much milder than inland places) and drier, warm summers, with an annual normal mean temperature of 6.3 °C (43.3 °F) varying between average temperature in January of −4.3 °C (24.3 °F) and in July 16.4 °C (61.5 °F). Maximum summer temperatures are around 31 °C (88 °F), but 36.2 °C (97.2 °F) has been recorded.

Terrace receives an average annual rainfall of 970.1 mm (38.19 in) and snowfall of 375.4 cm (147.80 in), water equivalence of 375.4 mm (14.78 in); totaling 1,322 mm (52.05 in) of precipitation, which is enough to sustain the lush vegetation of the area. October to February are the wettest months. Predominant winds are from the West and Southwest, but occasional Northerners during the winter bring snow in.[7]

Climate data for Northwest Regional Airport
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high Humidex 8.4 12.6 16.4 28 34.6 38 39.3 38.5 34.1 23.3 14.5 12.5 39.3
Record high °C (°F) 9.4
(48.9)
12.7
(54.9)
16.9
(62.4)
26
(79)
34.6
(94.3)
36.5
(97.7)
37.3
(99.1)
36.2
(97.2)
32.2
(90)
21.4
(70.5)
13.4
(56.1)
11.3
(52.3)
37.3
(99.1)
Average high °C (°F) −1.1
(30)
1.7
(35.1)
5.8
(42.4)
10.8
(51.4)
15.7
(60.3)
19.1
(66.4)
21.4
(70.5)
21.1
(70)
16
(61)
9
(48)
2.6
(36.7)
−0.8
(30.6)
10.1
(50.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −3
(27)
−0.9
(30.4)
2.4
(36.3)
6.3
(43.3)
10.6
(51.1)
14.2
(57.6)
16.5
(61.7)
16.3
(61.3)
12.1
(53.8)
6.4
(43.5)
0.7
(33.3)
−2.6
(27.3)
6.6
(43.9)
Average low °C (°F) −5
(23)
−3.4
(25.9)
−1.1
(30)
1.7
(35.1)
5.5
(41.9)
9.2
(48.6)
11.6
(52.9)
11.5
(52.7)
8.2
(46.8)
3.7
(38.7)
−1.1
(30)
−4.5
(23.9)
3
(37)
Record low °C (°F) −25
(−13)
−25
(−13)
−19.4
(−2.9)
−8.3
(17.1)
−2.2
(28)
0.6
(33.1)
3.3
(37.9)
2.8
(37)
−1.4
(29.5)
−13.5
(7.7)
−25.3
(−13.5)
−26.7
(−16.1)
−26.7
(−16.1)
Wind chill −40.8 −35.9 −30.3 −14.5 −6.1 0 0 0 −4.4 −24 −41.7 −42.2 −42.2
Precipitation mm (inches) 173.5
(6.831)
110.6
(4.354)
92.3
(3.634)
73.7
(2.902)
56.4
(2.22)
50.8
(2)
52.8
(2.079)
61.2
(2.409)
111.5
(4.39)
190.3
(7.492)
187.1
(7.366)
180.9
(7.122)
1,340.8
(52.787)
Rainfall mm (inches) 91.7
(3.61)
61.8
(2.433)
58.8
(2.315)
64.7
(2.547)
55.7
(2.193)
50.8
(2)
52.8
(2.079)
61.2
(2.409)
111.5
(4.39)
185.2
(7.291)
132.2
(5.205)
99
(3.9)
1,025.3
(40.366)
Snowfall cm (inches) 88.4
(34.8)
51.9
(20.43)
34.3
(13.5)
8.5
(3.35)
0.4
(0.16)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
4.8
(1.89)
56
(22)
87.1
(34.29)
331.5
(130.51)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 20.6 15.3 17.5 15.4 14.8 14.7 14.1 13.4 16.6 21.8 21.9 20.9 206.8
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 11.7 10 13.3 14.4 14.8 14.7 14.1 13.4 16.6 21.7 16.8 11.1 172.4
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 14.6 9.7 8.9 3.2 0.4 0 0 0 0 1.5 11.4 15.6 65.1
 % humidity 79.9 72.3 63.9 54.1 50.5 51.6 53.7 55.2 65.3 78.2 84.3 83.5 66
Mean monthly sunshine hours 46.8 74.1 110.7 159.3 201.3 203.3 214.4 203 132.2 73.4 36.5 31.5 1,486.5
Percent possible sunshine 19 27.1 30.2 37.8 40.5 39.5 41.6 43.9 34.5 22.4 14.2 13.7 30.4
Source: [8]

Demographics[edit]

Canada 2011 Census Population  % of Total Population
Visible minority group
Source:[9][dead link]
South Asian 385 3.4%
Chinese 60 0.5%
Black 15 0.1%
Filipino 125 1.1%
Latin American 10 0.1%
Arab 0 0%
Southeast Asian 20 0.2%
West Asian 0 0%
Korean 0 0%
Japanese 30 0.3%
Other visible minority 0 0%
Mixed visible minority 0 0%
Total visible minority population 670 5.9%
Aboriginal group
Source:[10]
First Nations 2,110 18.7%
Métis 305 2.7%
Inuit 20 0.2%
Total Aboriginal population 2,560 22.6%
White 8,080 71.4%
Total population 11,310 100%

Economy[edit]

Terrace was once the cedar pole capital of the world. Over 50,000 poles were manufactured annually to supply many parts of North America with telephone and electric power poles. The world's tallest pole of 50 metres (160 ft) was cut in Terrace and is currently standing in New York City.[citation needed] For many years, logging had been the major industry in the region. Recently, Terrace's economy has been forced to diversify since nearly all wood mills aside from those operated by First Nations groups have closed down. The largest employers in Terrace are in the public sector, but there are still some large private sector employers. Many people in Terrace commute to Kitimat to work at Alcan. The city of Terrace has continually tried to reinvent itself as a service hub for northwestern British Columbia.

In 2001, the community was significantly affected by problems with and the eventual closure of the largest local employer, the former Skeena Cellulose Inc. sawmill. The mill was bought by Terrace Lumber Co., a group of local owners, and re-opened in late August 2005, but did not prosper and closed in mid-2006. By the end of 2006, the remaining equipment was auctioned off and the mill was torn down. The former site of this mill is now a vacant lot with the footings covered in spray paint graffiti.

Current economic prospects are linked to tourism, mineral developments to the north and northwest, construction of a powerline towards Iskut and energy-related developments in Kitimat. The Prince Rupert container port expansion has resulted in increased rail traffic by CN Rail in recent years. In 2004, a Wal-Mart center was built in Terrace (store 5834). The Skeena mall underwent a large scale renevation that was completed in 2013. The ski resort Northern Escape Heli-skiing is based in Terrace.

Educational institutions[edit]

Terrace is located within School District 82 Coast Mountains, along with Kitimat; Stewart; and Hazelton. There is one senior secondary school within Terrace itself, Caledonia Senior Secondary School,[11] which serves grades 10, 11 and 12. Terrace is also home to a distance education school, North Coast Distance Education School which serves all grades from kindergarten to grade 12 and adults.

There is also one middle school, Skeena Middle School. Centennial Christian School is also located within the town limits of Terrace, which houses pre-school through grade 12. For the children from kindergarten to grade 6, an entirely French language education is offered at Jack Cook School.

The main campus of the Northwest Community College[2] is located in Terrace, where it was established in 1975. The college includes the Freda Diesing School, which offers courses related to First Nations art.

The University of Northern British Columbia (UNBC) [3] has a regional campus located on 4837 Keith Avenue, namely the Northwest Regional (Terrace) Campus {http://www.unbc.ca/about/campus/northwest.html}. An additional campus is located in Prince Rupert, housed in the NWCC building.

Media[edit]

Newspaper[edit]

Radio[edit]

Television[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and population centres, 2011 and 2006 censuses: British Columbia. Statistics Canada. Retrieved March 17, 2013
  2. ^ Downs, Art (1971). Paddlewheels on the Frontier Volume 1. Foremost Publishing. pp. 61–72. ISBN 0-88826-033-4. 
  3. ^ Bennett, Norma (1997). Pioneer Legacy: Chronicles of the Lower Skeena River. Dr. REM Lee Hospital Foundation. ISBN 0-9683026-0-2. 
  4. ^ Terrace Library, George Little Family page
  5. ^ http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hre/becweb/
  6. ^ http://sis.agr.gc.ca/cansis/publications/surveys/bc/bc4/bc4_report.pdf
  7. ^ Environment CanadaCanadian Climate Normals 1971–2000, accessed 24 July 2012
  8. ^ "Calculation Information for 1981 to 2010 Canadian Normals Data". Environment Canada. Retrieved July 9, 2013. 
  9. ^ "Community Profiles from the 2011 Census, Statistics Canada - Census Subdivision". 2.statcan.gc.ca. 2010-12-06. Retrieved 2013-04-13. 
  10. ^ "Aboriginal Peoples - Data table". 2.statcan.ca. 2010-10-06. Retrieved 2013-04-13. 
  11. ^ [1]

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Roberval, Quebec
Kraft Hockeyville
2009
Succeeded by
Dundas, Ontario