Terracotta Army

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UNESCO World Heritage Site
Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Xian guerreros terracota general.JPG
Type Cultural
Criteria i, iii, iv, vi
Reference 441
UNESCO region Asia-Pacific
Inscription history
Inscription 1987 (11th Session)
Terracotta Army is located in China
Terracotta Army
Magnify-clip.png
Location of Terracotta Army in China.
Terracotta Army
Traditional Chinese 兵馬俑
Simplified Chinese 兵马俑
Literal meaning soldier and horse funerary statues

The Terracotta Army or the "Terracotta Warriors and Horses" is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. It is a form of funerary art buried with the emperor in 210–209 BCE and whose purpose was to protect the emperor in his afterlife.

The figures, dating from approximately the late third century BCE,[1] were discovered in 1974 by local farmers in Lintong District, Xi'an, Shaanxi province. The figures vary in height according to their roles, with the tallest being the generals. The figures include warriors, chariots and horses. Estimates from 2007 were that the three pits containing the Terracotta Army held more than 8,000 soldiers, 130 chariots with 520 horses and 150 cavalry horses, the majority of which remained buried in the pits nearby Qin Shi Huang's mausoleum.[2] Other terracotta non-military figures were found in other pits, including officials, acrobats, strongmen and musicians.

Background

The Terracotta Army was discovered on 29 March 1974[3] to the east of Xi'an in Shaanxi province by farmers digging a water well approximately 1.6 kilometres (0.99 mi) east of the Qin Emperor's tomb mound at Mount Li (Lishan),[4][5] a region riddled with underground springs and watercourses. For centuries, occasional reports mentioned pieces of terracotta figures and fragments of the Qin necropolis –roofing tiles, bricks and chunks of masonry.[6] This discovery prompted Chinese archaeologists to investigate, revealing the largest pottery figurine group ever found in China.

Necropolis

View of the Terracotta Army

In addition to the warriors, an entire necropolis built for the emperor was found surrounding the first emperor's tomb mound. The earthen tomb mound is located at the foot of Mount Li and built in a pyramidal shape with Qin Shi Huang’s necropolis complex constructed as a microcosm of his imperial palace or compound.[7]

It consists of several offices, halls, stables, and other structures placed around the tomb mound, which is surrounded by two solidly built rammed earth walls with gateway entrances. Up to 5 metres (16 ft) of reddish, sandy soil had accumulated over the site in the two millennia following its construction, but archaeologists found evidence of earlier disturbances at the site. During the excavations near the Mount Li burial mound, archaeologists found several graves dating from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, where diggers had apparently struck terracotta fragments. These were discarded as worthless and used along with soil to back fill the excavations.[8]

History

According to the writings of historian Sima Qian (145–90 BCE), work on the mausoleum began in 246 BCE soon after Emperor Qin (then aged 13) ascended the throne. The project eventually involved 700,000 workers.[9] Geographer Li Daoyuan, writing six centuries after the First Emperor's death, recorded in Shui Jing Zhu that Mount Li was a favoured location due to its auspicious geology, "famed for its jade mines, its northern side was rich in gold, and its southern side rich in beautiful jade; the First Emperor, covetous of its fine reputation, therefore chose to be buried there".[10][11] Sima Qian, in his most noted work, Shiji, finished a century after the mausoleum's completion, wrote that the First Emperor was buried with palaces, towers, officials, valuable artifacts and wondrous objects. According to this account, 100 rivers had their flow simulated by mercury, and above them the ceiling was decorated with heavenly bodies below which were the features of the land. Some translations of this passage refer to "models" or "imitations," however those words were not used in the original text, which makes no mention of the terracotta army.[9]

The mound where the tomb is located

High levels of mercury were found in the soil of the tomb mound, giving credence to Sima Qian's account.[12]

Later historical accounts suggested that the tomb had been looted by Xiang Yu, a contender for the throne after the death of the first emperor,[13][14][15] however, there are indications that the tomb may not have been plundered.[16]

Construction

A terracotta soldier with his horse

The terracotta army figures were manufactured in workshops by government laborers and local craftsmen using local materials. Heads, arms, legs, and torsos were created separately and then assembled.[17] Eight face moulds were most likely used, with clay added after assembly to provide individual facial features.[18] It is believed that the warriors' legs were made in much the same way that terracotta drainage pipes were manufactured at the time. This would classify the process as assembly line production, with specific parts manufactured and assembled after being fired, as opposed to crafting one solid piece and subsequently firing it. In those times of tight imperial control, each workshop was required to inscribe its name on items produced to ensure quality control. This has aided modern historians in verifying which workshops were commandeered to make tiles and other mundane items for the terracotta army. Upon completion, the terracotta figures were placed in the pits in precise military formation according to rank and duty.

The terracotta figures are life-sized. They vary in height, uniform, and hairstyle in accordance with rank. Most originally held real weapons such as spears, swords, or crossbows. Originally, the figures were also painted with bright pigments, variously coloured pink, red, green, blue, black, brown, white and lilac.[19][20] The coloured lacquer finish, individual facial features, and weapons used in producing these figures increased the figures' realism. Most of the original weapons were looted shortly after the creation of the army, or have rotted away, while the colour coating flaked off or greatly faded.

The tomb

The tomb appears to be a hermetically-sealed space the size of a football pitch.[21][22] The tomb remains unopened, given concerns about preserving its artifacts.[21] For example, after their excavation, the painted surface present on some terracotta figures began to flake and fade.[23] The lacquer covering the paint can curl in fifteen seconds once exposed to Xi'an's dry air and can flake off in just four minutes.[24] The lack of life-sized and realistic sculptures prior to the Qin dynasty suggest a possible Hellenistic link to these sculptures.[25][26]

Excavation site

Pits

View of Pit 1, the largest excavation pit of the Terracotta Army

Four main pits approximately 7 metres (23 ft) deep have been excavated.[27][28] These are located approximately 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) east of the burial mound. The soldiers within were laid out as if to protect the tomb from the east, where all the Qin Emperor's conquered states lay.

Pit one

Pit one, which is 230 metres (750 ft) long and 62 metres (203 ft) wide,[29] contains the main army of more than 6,000 figures.[30] Pit one has 11 corridors, most of which are more than 3 metres (9.8 ft) wide and paved with small bricks with a wooden ceiling supported by large beams and posts. This design was also used for the tombs of nobles and would have resembled palace hallways when built. The wooden ceilings were covered with reed mats and layers of clay for waterproofing, and then mounded with more soil raising them about 2 to 3 metres (6 ft 7 in to 9 ft 10 in) above the surrounding ground level when completed.[31]

Others

Pit two has cavalry and infantry units as well as war chariots and is thought to represent a military guard. Pit three is the command post, with high-ranking officers and a war chariot. Pit four is empty, perhaps left unfinished by its builders.

Some of the figures in pit one and two show fire damage, while remains of burnt ceiling rafters have also been found.[32][33] These, together with the missing weapons, have been taken as evidence of the reported looting by Xiang Yu and the subsequent burning of the site, which is thought to have caused the roof to collapse and crush the army figures below. The terracotta figures currently on display have been restored from the fragments.

Other pits that formed the necropolis also have been excavated.[34] These pits lie within and outside the walls surrounding the tomb mound. They variously contain bronze carriages, terracotta figures of entertainers such as acrobats and strongmen, officials, stone armour suits, burials sites of horses, rare animals and labourers, as well as bronze cranes and ducks set in an underground park.[35]

Weaponry

Stone armor suit on display in the National Geographic Museum, USA.

Weapons such as swords, spears, battle-axes, scimitars, shields, crossbows, and arrowheads were found in the pits.[27][36] Some of these weapons, such as the swords are sharp and were coated with a 10–15 micrometre layer of chromium dioxide and kept the swords rust-free for 2,000 years.[37][38][39] The swords contain an alloy of copper, tin, and other elements including nickel, magnesium, and cobalt.[40] Some carry inscriptions that date manufacture between 245 and 228 BCE, indicating they were used as weapons before their burials.[41]

An important element of the army is the chariot, of which four types were found. In battle the fighting chariots form pairs at the head of a unit of infantry. The principal weapon of the charioteers was the ge or dagger-axe, an L-shaped bronze blade mounted on a long shaft used for sweeping and hooking at the enemy. Infantrymen also carried ge on shorter shafts, ji or halberds and spears and lances. For close fighting and defence, both charioteers and infantrymen carried double-edged straight swords. The archers carried crossbows, with sophisticated trigger mechanisms, capable of firing arrows farther than 800 metres (2,600 ft).[41]

Exhibitions

Terracotta Warriors exhibition in San Francisco

A collection of 120 objects from the mausoleum and 20 terracotta warriors were displayed at the British Museum in London as its special exhibition "The First Emperor: China's Terracotta Army" from 13 September 2007 to April 2008.[42] This exhibition made 2008 the British Museum's most successful year and made the British Museum the United Kingdom's top cultural attraction between 2007 and 2008.[43][44] The exhibition brought the most visitors to the museum since the King Tutankhamun exhibition in 1972.[43] It was reported that the initial batch of tickets sold out so fast that the museum extended its opening hours until midnight on Thursdays to Sundays.[45] According to The Times, many people had to be turned away, despite the extended hours.[46] During the day of events to mark the Chinese New Year, the crush was so intense that the museum gates to the museum.[46]

Warriors and other artifacts were exhibited to the public at the Forum de Barcelona in Barcelona between 9 May and 26 September 2004. It was their most successful exhibition ever.[47] The same exhibition was presented at the Fundación Canal de Isabel II in Madrid between October 2004 and January 2005, their most successful ever.[48] From December 2009 to May 2010 the exhibition was shown in the Centro Cultural La Moneda in Santiago de Chile.[49]

The exhibition traveled to North America and visited museums such as the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, Bowers Museum in Santa Ana, California, Houston Museum of Natural Science, High Museum of Art in Atlanta,[50] National Geographic Society Museum in Washington, D.C. and the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto.[51] Subsequently the exhibition traveled to Sweden and was hosted in the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities between 28 August 2010 and 20 January 2011.[52][53] An exhibition entitled 'The First Emperor – China's Entombed Warriors', presenting 120 artifacts was hosted at the Art Gallery of New South Wales, between 2 December 2010 and 13 March 2011.[54] An exhibition entitled "L'Empereur guerrier de Chine et son armée de terre cuite" ("The Warrior-Emperor of China and his terracotta army"), featuring artifacts including statues from the mausoleum, was hosted by the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts from 11 February 2011 to 26 June 2011.[55] The "Treasures of Ancient China" exhibition, showcasing two terracotta soldiers and other artifacts, including the Longmen Grottoes Buddhist statues, was held between 19 February 2011 and 7 November 2011 in four locations in India: National Museum of New Delhi, Prince of Wales Museum in Mumbai, Salar Jung Museum in Hyderabad and National Library of India in Kolkata.[citation needed]

Soldiers and related items were on display from March 15, 2013, to November 17, 2013, at the Historical Museum of Bern.[citation needed]

Scientific research

In 2007, scientists at Stanford University and the Advanced Light Source facility in Berkeley, California reported that powder diffraction experiments combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and micro-X-ray fluorescence analysis showed that the process of producing Terracotta figures colored with Chinese purple dye consisting of barium copper silicate was derived from the knowledge gained by Taoist alchemists in their attempts to synthesize jade ornaments.[56][57]

Since 2006, an international team of researchers at the UCL Institute of Archaeology have been using analytical chemistry techniques to uncover more details about the production techniques employed in the creation of the Terracotta Army. Using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry of 40,000 bronze arrowheads bundled in groups of 100, the researchers reported that the arrowheads within a single bundle formed a relatively tight cluster that was different from other bundles. In addition, the presence or absence of metal impurities was consistent within bundles. Based on the arrows’ chemical compositions, the researchers concluded that a cellular manufacturing system similar to the one used in a modern Toyota factory, as opposed to a continuous assembly line in the early days of automobile industry, was employed.[58][59]

Grinding and polishing marks visible under a scanning electron microscope provide evidence for the earliest industrial use of lathes for polishing.[58]

Gallery

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Lu Yanchou, Zhang Jingzhao, Xie Jun (1988). "TL dating of pottery sherds and baked soil from the Xian Terracotta Army Site, Shaanxi Province, China". International Journal of Radiation Applications and Instrumentation. Part D. Nuclear Tracks and Radiation Measurements 14 (1–2): 283–286. doi:10.1016/1359-0189(88)90077-5. 
  2. ^ Portal 2007, p. 167.
  3. ^ Agnew, Neville (2010-08-03). Conservation of Ancient Sites on the Silk Road. Getty Publications. p. 214. ISBN 9781606060131. Retrieved 11 July 2012. 
  4. ^ O. Louis Mazzatenta. "Emperor Qin's Terracotta Army". National Geographic. 
  5. ^ The precise coordinates are 34°23′5.71″N 109°16′23.19″E / 34.3849194°N 109.2731083°E / 34.3849194; 109.2731083Coordinates: 34°23′5.71″N 109°16′23.19″E / 34.3849194°N 109.2731083°E / 34.3849194; 109.2731083)
  6. ^ Clements 2007, pp. 155, 157, 158, 160–161, 166.
  7. ^ 73号 Qin Ling Bei Lu (1970-01-01). "Google maps". Maps.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  8. ^ Clements 2007, p. 160.
  9. ^ a b Sima Qian – Shiji Volume 6 《史记·秦始皇本纪》 Original text: 始皇初即位,穿治郦山,及并天下,天下徒送诣七十余万人,穿三泉,下铜而致椁,宫观百官奇器珍怪徙臧满之。令匠作机驽矢,有所穿近者辄射之。以水银为百川江河大海,机相灌输,上具天文,下具地理。以人鱼膏为烛,度不灭者久之。二世曰:"先帝后宫非有子者,出焉不宜。" 皆令从死,死者甚众。葬既已下,或言工匠为机,臧皆知之,臧重即泄。大事毕,已臧,闭中羡,下外羡门,尽闭工匠臧者,无复出者。树草木以象山。 Translation: When the First Emperor ascended the throne, the digging and preparation at Mount Li began. After he unified his empire, 700,000 men were sent there from all over his empire. They dug down deep to underground springs, pouring copper to place the outer casing of the coffin. Palaces and viewing towers housing a hundred officials were built and filled with treasures and rare artifacts. Workmen were instructed to make automatic crossbows primed to shoot at intruders. Mercury was used to simulate the hundred rivers, the Yangtze and Yellow River, and the great sea, and set to flow mechanically. Above, the heaven is depicted, below, the geographical features of the land. Candles were made of "mermaid"'s fat which is calculated to burn and not extinguish for a long time. The Second Emperor said: "It is inappropriate for the wives of the late emperor who have no sons to be free", ordered that they should accompany the dead, and a great many died. After the burial, it was suggested that it would be a serious breach if the craftsmen who constructed the tomb and knew of its treasure were to divulge those secrets. Therefore after the funeral ceremonies had completed, the inner passages and doorways were blocked, and the exit sealed, immediately trapping the workers and craftsmen inside. None could escape. Trees and vegetation were then planted on the tomb mound such that it resembled a hill.
  10. ^ Clements 2007, p. 158.
  11. ^ Shui Jing Zhu Chapter 19 《水经注·渭水》Original text: 秦始皇大兴厚葬,营建冢圹于骊戎之山,一名蓝田,其阴多金,其阳多美玉,始皇贪其美名,因而葬焉。
  12. ^ Portal 2007, p. 202.
  13. ^ Shui Jing Zhu Chapter 19 《水经注·渭水》 Original text: 项羽入关,发之,以三十万人,三十日运物不能穷。关东盗贼,销椁取铜。牧人寻羊,烧之,火延九十日,不能灭。Translation Xiang Yu entered the gate, sent forth 300,000 men, but they could not finish carrying away his loot in 30 days. Thieves from northeast melted the coffin and took its copper. A shepherd looking for his lost sheep burned the place, the fire lasted 90 days and could not be extinguished.
  14. ^ Sima Qian – Shiji Volume 8 《史记·高祖本纪》 Original text: 项羽烧秦宫室,掘始皇帝冢,私收其财物 Translation Xiang Yu burned the Qin palaces, dug up the First Emperor's tomb, and expropriated his possessions.
  15. ^ Han Shu汉书·楚元王传》:Original text: "项籍焚其宫室营宇,往者咸见发掘,其后牧儿亡羊,羊入其凿,牧者持火照球羊,失火烧其藏椁。" Translation: Xiang burned the palaces and buildings. Later observers witnessed the excavated site. Afterward a shepherd lost his sheep which went into the dug tunnel; the shepherd held a torch to look for his sheep, and accidentally set fire to the place and burned the coffin.
  16. ^ "Royal Chinese treasure discovered". BBC News. 2005-10-20. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  17. ^ "A Magic Army for the Emperor". Upf.edu. 1979-10-01. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  18. ^ Portal 2007, p. 170.
  19. ^ John Simpson, Greg Hurst 3 December 2011 12:01 am. "Terracotta soldier – in full colour". The Times. UK. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  20. ^ "Terracotta army emerges in its true colors". China Daily. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  21. ^ a b "The First Emperor". Channel4.com. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  22. ^ "Application of geographical methods to explore the underground palace of the Emperor Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum". Google. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  23. ^ Nature. "Terracotta Army saved from crack up". Nature.com. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  24. ^ Larmer, Brook. "Terra-Cotta Warriors in Color." National Geographic June 2012: 86. Print
  25. ^ Early links with West likely inspiration for Terracotta Warriors, argues SOAS scholar, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London
  26. ^ Lukas Nickel, The First Emperor and sculpture in China, SOAS, University of London, Cambridge University Press, 2013
  27. ^ a b "The Necropolis of First Emperor of Qin". History.ucsb.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  28. ^ A Magic Army for the Emperor Lothar Ledderose
  29. ^ Ledderose 1998, pp. 51-73 A Magic Army for the Emperor
  30. ^ "The Mausoleum of the First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty and Terracotta Warriors and Horses". China.org.cn. 2003-09-12. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  31. ^ Portal 2007.
  32. ^ "China unearths 114 new Terracotta Warriors". BBC News. 2010-05-12. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  33. ^ Terracotta Warriors[dead link]
  34. ^ "Terracotta Accessory Pits". Travelchinaguide.com. 2009-10-10. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  35. ^ "Decoding the Mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shihuang". China Daily. 2010-05-13-. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  36. ^ "Exquisite Weaponry of Terra Cotta Army". Travelchinaguide.com. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  37. ^ Bronze Weapons "Terracotta Warriors (Terracotta Army)". China Tour Guide. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  38. ^ Cotterell, Maurice. (2004). The Terracotta Warriors: The Secret Codes of the Emperor's Army. Rochester: Bear and Company. ISBN 1-59143-033-X. Page 102.
  39. ^ Zhewen Luo (1993). China's imperial tombs and mausoleums. Foreign Languages Press. p. 216. ISBN 7-119-01619-9. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  40. ^ "Terracotta Warriors". National Geographic. 2009. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  41. ^ a b "The First Emperor - China's Terracotta Army - Teacher's Resource Pack". British Museum. 
  42. ^ The First Emperor: China's Terracotta Army. The British Museum
  43. ^ a b Higgins, Charlotte (2008-07-02). "Terracotta army makes British Museum favourite attraction". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2010-05-25. 
  44. ^ "British Museum sees its most successful year ever". Best Western. 2008-07-03. Archived from the original on 2012-02-16. 
  45. ^ "The First Emperor: China’s Terracotta Army (British Museum)". Great Exhibitions. 2008-02-09. Archived from the original on 2008-06-22. 
  46. ^ a b Whitworth, Damian (2008-07-09). "Is the British Museum the greatest museum on earth?". The Times (London). Retrieved 2010-05-25. 
  47. ^ DesarrolloWeb (2007-04-19). "Los guerreros de Xian, en el Forum de Barcelona". Guiarte.com. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  48. ^ "Guerreros de Xian". Futuropasado.com. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  49. ^ "Llegan a Chile los legendarios Guerreros de Terracota de China". Latercera.com. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  50. ^ "Record-Breaking Terracotta Army Exhibition at Atlanta museum". Retrieved 16 January 2010. 
  51. ^ "ROM's terracotta warriors show a blockbuster". CBC. 6 January 2011. 
  52. ^ "China's Terracotta Army, Stockholm, Sweden, Reviews". Retrieved 20 January 2010. 
  53. ^ "World Famous Terracotta Army Arrives in Stockholm for Exhibition at Ostasiatiska Museum". Retrieved 20 January 2010. 
  54. ^ "Terracotta warriors, Picassos heading to Sydney". ABC News. 14 October 2010. Retrieved 23 January 2011. 
  55. ^ "Empereur Guerrier De Chine Et Son Armee De Terre Cuite". Mbam.qc.ca. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  56. ^ Bertrand, Loïc; Robinet, Laurianne; Thoury, Mathieu; Janssens, Koen; Cohen, Serge X.; Schöder, Sebastian (26 November 2011). "Cultural heritage and archaeology materials studied by synchrotron spectroscopy and imaging". Applied Physics A 106 (2): 377–396. doi:10.1007/s00339-011-6686-4. 
  57. ^ Liu, Z.; Mehta, A.; Tamura, N.; Pickard, D.; Rong, B.; Zhou, T.; Pianetta, P. (November 2007). "Influence of Taoism on the invention of the purple pigment used on the Qin terracotta warriors". Journal of Archaeological Science 34 (11): 1878–1883. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2007.01.005. 
  58. ^ a b Rees, Simon (6 March 2014). "Chemistry unearths the secrets of the Terracotta Army". Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  59. ^ Martinón-Torres, Marcos; Li, Xiuzhen Janice; Bevan, Andrew; Xia, Yin; Zhao, Kun; Rehren, Thilo (20 October 2012). "Forty Thousand Arms for a Single Emperor: From Chemical Data to the Labor Organization Behind the Bronze Arrows of the Terracotta Army". Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory. doi:10.1007/s10816-012-9158-z. 

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Bibliography

External links