Territorial authorities of New Zealand

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Map of New Zealand territorial authorities. Cities are bolded and capitalised. Regions are indicated with colours.

Territorial authorities are the second tier of local government in New Zealand, below regional councils. There are 67 territorial authorities: 12 city councils, 53 district councils, Auckland Council and Chatham Islands Council. Six territorial authorities (Auckland Council, Nelson City Council, the Gisborne, Tasman, and Marlborough district councils and Chatham Islands Council) also perform the functions of a regional council and thus are unitary authorities. Territorial authority districts are not subdivisions of regions, and some of them fall within more than one region. Taupo District has the distinction of straddling the boundaries of four different regions (see below). Regional council areas are based on water catchment areas, whereas territorial authorities are based on community of interest and road access. Regional councils are responsible for the administration of many environmental and public transport matters, while the territorial authorities administer local roading and reserves, sewerage, building consents, the land use and subdivision aspects of resource management, and other local matters. Some activities are delegated to council-controlled organisations.

Territorial authorities[edit]

North Island[edit]

Name Seat Area (km2)[1] Population[1] Density (/km2) Region(s)
Far North District Kaikohe 7,505 58,300 7.77 Northland
Whangarei District Whangarei 3,314 81,300 24.53 Northland
Kaipara District Dargaville 3,122 19,050 6.10 Northland
Auckland Auckland 5,600 1,529,300 273.09 Auckland (Unitary authority)
Thames-Coromandel District Thames 3,193 27,100 8.49 Waikato
Hauraki District Paeroa 1,186 18,750 15.81 Waikato
Waikato District Ngaruawahia 4,506 64,900 14.40 Waikato
Matamata-Piako District Matamata 1,755 32,200 18.35 Waikato
Hamilton City Hamilton 94 150,200 1,597.87 Waikato
Waipa District Te Awamutu 1,473 46,400 31.50 Waikato
South Waikato District Tokoroa 1,814 22,500 12.40 Waikato
Otorohanga District Otorohanga 2,063 9,330 4.52 Waikato
Waitomo District Te Kuiti 3,551 9,410 2.65 Waikato (94.87%)
Manawatu-Wanganui (5.13%)
Taupo District Taupo 6,955 34,400 4.95 Waikato (73.74%)
Bay of Plenty (14.31%)
Hawke's Bay (11.26%)
Manawatu-Wanganui (0.69%)
Western Bay of Plenty District Greerton, Tauranga City 2,120 45,800 21.60 Bay of Plenty
Tauranga City Tauranga 168 117,600 700.00 Bay of Plenty
Opotiki District Opotiki 3,098 8,590 2.77 Bay of Plenty
Whakatane District Whakatane 4,441 34,200 7.70 Bay of Plenty
Rotorua District Rotorua 2,614 68,600 26.24 Bay of Plenty (61.52%)
Waikato (38.48%)
Kawerau District Kawerau 22 6,720 305.45 Bay of Plenty
Gisborne District Gisborne 8,351 46,700 5.59 Gisborne (Unitary authority)
Wairoa District Wairoa 4,124 8,050 1.95 Hawke's Bay
Hastings District Hastings 5,218 75,700 14.51 Hawke's Bay
Napier City Napier 106 57,800 545.28 Hawke's Bay
Central Hawke's Bay District Waipawa 3,324 13,300 4.00 Hawke's Bay
New Plymouth District New Plymouth 2,225 74,700 33.57 Taranaki
Stratford District Stratford 2,161 9,200 4.26 Taranaki (68.13%)
Manawatu-Wanganui (31.87%)
South Taranaki District Hawera 3,577 26,800 7.49 Taranaki
Ruapehu District Taumarunui 6,730 13,050 1.94 Manawatu-Wanganui
Rangitikei District Marton 4,476 14,650 3.27 Manawatu-Wanganui (86.37%)
Hawke's Bay (13.63%)
Wanganui District Wanganui 2,372 43,100 18.17 Manawatu-Wanganui
Manawatu District Feilding 2,628 27,900 10.62 Manawatu-Wanganui
Palmerston North City Palmerston North 337 85,900 254.90 Manawatu-Wanganui
Tararua District Dannevirke 4,367 17,400 3.98 Manawatu-Wanganui (98.42%)
Wellington (1.58%)
Horowhenua District Levin 1,066 30,600 28.71 Manawatu-Wanganui
Masterton District Masterton 2,298 23,400 10.18 Wellington
Kapiti Coast District Paraparaumu 733 50,000 68.21 Wellington
Carterton District Carterton 1,181 7,820 6.62 Wellington
South Wairarapa District Martinborough 2,452 9,430 3.85 Wellington
Upper Hutt City Upper Hutt 542 41,700 76.94 Wellington
Porirua City Porirua 182 53,300 292.86 Wellington
Hutt City Lower Hutt 377 102,900 272.94 Wellington
Wellington City Wellington 289 204,000 705.88 Wellington
  • ^ Population as of June 2013 estimate.

South Island[edit]

Name Seat Area (km2)[1] Population[2] Density (per km2) Region(s)
Tasman District Richmond 9,786 48,600 4.97 unitary authority
Nelson City Nelson 445 46,800 105.17 unitary authority
Marlborough District Blenheim 12,484 45,900 3.68 unitary authority
Buller District Westport 7,950 10,050 1.26 West Coast
Grey District Greymouth 3,516 13,650 3.88 West Coast
Westland District Hokitika 11,870 8,950 0.75 West Coast
Kaikoura District Kaikoura 2,050 3,770 1.84 Canterbury
Hurunui District Amberley 8,661 11,650 1.35 Canterbury
Selwyn District Rolleston 6,557 44,200 6.74 Canterbury
Waimakariri District Rangiora 2,216 50,700 22.88 Canterbury
Christchurch City Christchurch 1,610[3] 366,000 227.33 Canterbury
Ashburton District Ashburton 6,208 31,100 5.01 Canterbury
Mackenzie District Fairlie 7,442 4,070 0.55 Canterbury
Timaru District Timaru 2,726 45,200 16.58 Canterbury
Waimate District Waimate 3,577 7,730 2.16 Canterbury
Waitaki District Oamaru 7,212 21,000 2.91 Canterbury (59.61%)
Otago (40.39%)
Queenstown-Lakes District Queenstown 9,368 30,200 3.22 Otago
Central Otago District Alexandra 9,966 18,850 1.89 Otago
Dunedin City Dunedin 3,340 127,900 38.29 Otago
Clutha District Balclutha 6,406 17,350 2.71 Otago
Southland District Invercargill 32,605[4] 29,800 0.91 Southland
Gore District Gore 1,251 12,200 9.75 Southland
Invercargill City Invercargill 491 52,900 107.74 Southland

Stewart Island/Rakiura[edit]

Name Seat Area (km2) Population Region
Part of Southland District Invercargill, South Island 1746 402 Southland

Chatham Islands[edit]

Other islands[edit]

There are a number of islands where the Minister of Local Government is the territorial authority, two of which have a 'permanent population and/or permanent buildings and structures.' The main islands are listed below (population according to 2001 census in parenthesis):

In addition, seven of the nine groups of the New Zealand Outlying Islands are outside of any territorial authority:

1989 local government reforms[edit]

For many decades until the local government reforms of 1989, a borough with more than 20,000 people could be proclaimed a city. The boundaries of councils tended to follow the edge of the built-up area, so little distinction was made between the urban area and the local government area.

New Zealand’s local government structural arrangements were significantly reformed by the Local Government Commission in 1989 when approximately 700 councils and special purpose bodies were amalgamated to create 87 new local authorities. Regional councils were reduced in number from 20 to 13, territorial authorities (city/district councils) from 200 to 75, and special purpose bodies from over 400 to 7.[2] The new district and city councils were generally much larger and most covered substantial areas of both urban and rural land. Many places that once had a city council were now being administered by a district council.

As a result, the term "city" began to take on two meanings.

The word "city" came to be used in a less formal sense to describe major urban areas independent of local body boundaries. This informal usage is jealously guarded. Gisborne, for example, adamantly described itself as the first city in the world to see the new millennium. Gisborne is administered by a district council, but its status as a city is not generally disputed.

Under the current law the minimum population for a new city is 50,000.

Changes since 1989[edit]

Since the 1989 reorganisations, there have been few major reorganisations or status changes in local government. Incomplete list:

Reports on completed reorganisation proposals since 1999 are available on the Local Government Commission's site (link below).

2007–2009 Royal Commission on Auckland Governance[edit]

On 26 March 2009, the Royal Commission on Auckland Governance recommended the Rodney, North Shore, Waitakere, Auckland City, Manukau, Papakura and Franklin territorial councils and the Auckland Regional Council be abolished and the entire Auckland region to be amalgamated into one "supercity".[4] The area would consist of one city council (with statutory provision for three Maori councillors), four urban local councils, and two rural local councils:

  • Rodney local council would lose Orewa, Dairy Flat, and Whangaparaoa but retain the remainder of the current Rodney District. The split areas as well as the current North Shore City would form a Waitemata local council.
  • Waitakere local council would consist of the current Waitakere City as well as the Avondale area.
  • Tamaki Makaurau would consist of the current Auckland City and Otahuhu (excluding CBD)
  • Manukau local council would consist of the urban parts of the current Manukau City and of the Papakura District.
  • Hunua local council would consist of the entire Franklin District, much of which is currently in the Waikato Region, along with rural areas of the current Papakura District and Manukau City.
  • The entire Papakura District would be dissolved between urban and rural councils.

Central Government response[edit]

The National-led Government responded within about a week. Its proposal, which will go to a Select Committee, has the supercity and many community boards but no local councils and for the first election no separate seats for Maori.

Public response[edit]

Public reaction to the Royal Commission report was mixed, especially in regards to the Government's amended proposal. Auckland Mayor John Banks supported the amended merger plans.[5]

Criticism of the amended proposal came largely from residents in Manukau, Waitakere and North Shore Cities.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12] In addition, Maori Affairs Minister Pita Sharples spoke against the exclusion of the Maori seats, as recommended by the Royal Commission.[13][14] Opposition Leader Phil Goff called for a referendum on the issue.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Living Density: Table 1, Housing Statistics, Statistics New Zealand. Accessed 25 January 2009. Areas are based on 2001 boundaries. Water bodies greater than 15 hectares are excluded.
  2. ^ Local Government Reform in New Zealand Wallis, J.and Dollery, B. (2000) Local Government Reform in New Zealand. Working Paper Series in Economics, No 2000-7,May 2000, ISBN 1-86389-682-1, University of New England School of Economic Studies, Armidale NSW 2351 Australia. Copyright 2000 by Joe Wallis and Brian Dollery.
  3. ^ Chatham Islands Council Act 1995, Parliament of New Zealand, 1995, Statute No 041, Commenced: 1 November 1995, retrieved 4 February 2008.
  4. ^ Thompson, Wayne (28 March 2009). "Super-city tipped to save $113m a year". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  5. ^ Thompson, Wayne (8 April 2009). "Proposal 'a great start' says Banks, but other mayors critical – Super City – NZ Herald News". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  6. ^ "Protest gets backing". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  7. ^ "Marching for Waitakere". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  8. ^ "Supercity protesters hit the streets – national". Stuff.co.nz. 22 April 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  9. ^ Udanga, Romy. "Call for a united front". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  10. ^ Udanga, Romy. "Supercity fears emerge". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  11. ^ Kemeys, David. "Who stole our voice? – auckland". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  12. ^ "Govt's super-council leaflets anger mayor – National – NZ Herald News". The New Zealand Herald. 24 April 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  13. ^ Tahana, Yvonne (8 April 2009). "Anger rises over lack of Maori seats – National – NZ Herald News". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  14. ^ Kotze, Karen. "Hui calls for representation". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  15. ^ "Let Auckland decide on local government changes | Scoop News". Scoop.co.nz. 24 April 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 

External links[edit]