Territorial changes of the People's Republic of China
Since its formation on 1 October 1949 the People's Republic of China's territorial claims have frequently been revised.
Until 1986, the total territory (or under control) of P.R.China was 10.45 million km2, includinga[›]:
- Continental mainland: ~9.40 million km2
- Islands and reefs: ~75,400 km2
- Coastal beaches and shoaly lands: ~12,700 km2
- Inner sea (mainly Bohai Sea): ~693,000 km2
- Territorial (sea only) waters: ~220,000 km2
During the 1990s and 2000s, the official size and value of China's territory is rarely officially declared or published, partly because of the frequent and ongoing changes in their territorial claims.
- In 1949, Zhou Enlai asked the Division of Campaign of General Staff Department of PLA to calculate out the total area of China's territory within two days. The result was said about 9.6 million km2.
- 1 October 1949. The establishment of the People's Republic of China was officially announced by Mao Zedong on the Tiananmen in Beijing.
- 1 May 1950, the Island of Hainan was fully under control of PLA.
- 19 May 1950, the largest archipelago of China - Zhoushan, was fully under control of PLA.
- 23 May 1951, area of Tibet Autonomous Region was claimed as an annex to the People's Republic of China.
- 21 November 1962, China won the military victory of Sino-Indian War but withdrew to the pre-war boundaries. Since then[clarification needed], India maintains control of North-East Frontier Agency area; China controls areas of Aksai Chin (~30,000 km2) and Trans-Karakoram Tract (5,181 km2). See article: Sino-Indian War.
- 1969, after Sino-Soviet border conflict, Soviet Union controlled Zhenbao Island (see article: Sino-Soviet border conflict). (Extra mark: Control of Zhenbao Island later was granted to China in the 2000s, see article: 1991 Sino-Russian border agreement).
- 23 November 1971, The People's Republic of China replaced the UN seat of R.O.China (in Taiwan). China claims Taiwan as a province of China, despite never having gained control of it. See articles: China and the United Nations, Political status of Taiwan, Legal status of Taiwan.
- 19 January 1974, after the Battle of the Paracel Islands, China controls over the Paracel Islands and surrounding waters. See article: Battle of the Paracel Islands.
- 14 March 1988, after the Johnson South Reef Skirmish, China controls (at least) 6 reefs in the South China Sea: Fiery Cross Reef, Cuarteron Reef, Hugh Reef/Hughes Reef, Nanxun Jiao/Nanxun Reef, Subi Reef, Chigua Jiao/Chigua Reef, and surrounding waters. See article Johnson South Reef Skirmish.
- 1991, after the 1991 Sino-Russian Border Agreement, many segments of territories and islands along the border between China and Russia were transferred to China. See article: 1991 Sino-Russian Border Agreement.
- 1 July 1997, Hong Kong, leased to the British for 99 years, (1,104 km2) returned to Chinese control. See article Transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong.
- 1998-1999, the Sino-Russian-North Korean border was fixed.
- 20 December 1999, Macau (29.2 km2) was handed to China. See article: Transfer of sovereignty of Macau.
- 14 October 2004 – 2 June 2005, a treaty establishing the eastern border between P.R.China and Russia was signed by P.R.China and Russia. It's said China "regained 337 km2" territory. See Russian article: Демаркация российско-китайской границы (2005); Chinese article: 中华人民共和国和俄罗斯联邦关于中俄国界东段的补充协定.
- September 2008 – 2009, the border between China and Tajikistan was surveyed. It's said that China "regained more than 1,000 km2".
- 31 December 2008, the borderline between P.R.China and Vietnam was determined, but detailed information hasn't yet been published.
- 2009, the artificial land (mainland China only) built by the nation would be 150 km2.
- 12 January: The Tajikistan parliament ratifies a deal ceding approximately 1000 square kilometres to China.
- 2012, after Scarborough Shoal standoff, P.R.China controls over Scarborough Shoal in the South China Sea.
- Land reclamations of the People's Republic of China
- Overseas expansion of the United States
- Territorial changes of the United States
- Territorial changes of Germany
- Territorial disputes of China (I): "现在所说的中国960万平方公里，是建国初期周恩来总理命令 解放军参谋部根据内战结束前的地图计算的，当时和许多邻国还没有 划定边界，中国领土其实不是960万，而是1042万平方公里。"
- Today in history: Libration of Hainan (information from People.com.cn)
- Liberation of Zhoushan Islands (from ChinaBaike.com)
- Information of Aksai Chin (from Baidu Encyclopedia)
- Borderline of China and Tajikistan determined
- China and Vietnam finished borderline survey
- CFi.cn: 2 trillion yuan to reclamate land
- 12 January 2011, Tajikistan agrees to give land to China, Washington Post
- 13 January 2011, Tajikistan cedes land to China, BBC News Asia-Pacific
- "Chinese ‘occupation’ of Bajo de Masinloc could reduce PH territorial waters by 38 percent". Malaya Business News Online. January 21, 2013. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
^ a: "... 1045万平方公里，其中陆地940万平方公里，岛屿75400平方公里，滩涂12700平方公里，内海693000平方公里，领海22万平方公里" -- 《中国领土面积》(The territory of China); 1986年4月20日《信息日报》 (20 December 1986; Daily Information)
Daily Information is a Chinese newspaper founded on 1 October 1984, reporting economic and communications news. See the introduction to the newspaper (in Chinese): 《信息日报》