Terrorism in Greece

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Terrorism in Greece is primarily committed by far-left revolutionary organizations.

Banned terrorist organizations[edit]

Note: the term "terrorist" is most often given by the state and/or the media when referring to groups that take revolutionary action, rather than coined from the organizations themselves.

Revolutionary Organization 17 November[edit]

The Greek government arrested many members of the 17 November organization in the summer of 2002. In 2003 15 members were found guilty of multiple murders and convicted for more than 2,500 crimes. In December 2005 a three-judge panel began an appeals trial.[1]

Revolutionary Struggle[edit]

The Revolutionary Struggle is a far-left Greek paramilitary group known for its attacks on Greek government buildings. It is widely described as a terrorist organization by both the Greek government[2] and the media.[3][4]

Revolutionary Nuclei[edit]

Main article: Revolutionary Nuclei

Revolutionary Nuclei was a far-left, anti-U.S., anti-NATO, and anti-European Union terrorist organization that conducted 13 bomb attacks in Athens between 1996 and 2000. The first attack for which RN took credit was a bomb attack on Greek Coast Guard installations in Piraeus on 11 May 1997, but it later acknowledged that two earlier attacks were carried out by RN members. Per its four proclamations, RN fought against the "imperialist domination, exploitation, and oppression" of Greece.[5]

On 27 April 1999 an RN bomb targeting a conference at the Intercontinental Hotel in Athens killed one person (Despite telephoned warnings, the building was not evacuated). In December 1999 RN set off explosives near Texaco's offices in Athens.[5] RN members bombed the Citigroup offices in Athens and a Greek-American sculptor's studio in November 2000. RN then disappeared without explanation.

Sect of Revolutionaries[edit]

Conspiracy of Fire Nuclei[edit]

Timeline[edit]

Greece
Date Location Deaths Injuries Type Perpetrator Description
2 September 1970 Athens 2 - Car bomb - -- Diplomatic (United States)
At 16:00 (UTC+2), a bomb -- planted inside a car -- explodes in the parking area of the United States Embassy on Queen Sephic Avenue in Athens, killing a man and woman. Neither of the casualties were personnel of the Embassy. The two victims were allegedly responsible for making and transporting the bomb.[6][7]
5 August 1973 Athens 5 55 Grenade & Small arms fire Black September (Palestinian nationalists) -- Airports & Airlines
Two Arab gunmen stage an armed assault on passengers nearby the Trans World Airlines lounge, within the Athens International Airport, killing five and wounding up to 60 others. Two Americans and an Austrian are among the deceased. The initial target was intended to be passengers on a flight to Tel Aviv.[8][9][10]
24 February 1974 Lavrion 2 - Improvised Explosive Device People's Resistance Organized Army -- Business
A bomb at an American-owned Dow chemical plant, South of Athens, kills two Army bomb disposal experts.[11]
23 December 1975 Athens 1 - Small arms fire 17N (Marxist guerrillas) -- Diplomatic (United States)
Five men in a stolen Simca follow Richard Welch, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency's station chief in Athens, home as he returned from a Christmas party. While two men covered his wife and driver, a third shoots him dead with a .45 Colt M1911 pistol at close range.[12]
17 January 1980 Athens 2 - Small arms fire 17N (Marxist guerrillas) -- Government institutions
Pantelis Petrou, the deputy director of the Monades Apokatastasis Taksis (Riot police), is shot to death in an Athens suburb by three assailants using two 45mm pistols. A few days later Sotiris Stamoulis, his driver, also dies from the wounds inflicted during the attack.[13]
31 July 1980 Athens 2 2 Small arms fire ASALA (Armenian nationalists) -- Diplomatic (Turkish)
Armenian gunmen attack the Turkish Embassy Administrative Attaché, Galip Ozmen, and his family as they are waiting in their automobile at a traffic light. Mr. Ozmen and his fourteen-year-old daughter, Neslihan Ozmen, are killed. His wife, Sevil Ozmen, and his sixteen-year-old son, Kaan Ozmen, are seriously wounded but survive.[14]
21 July 1981 Athens 2 - Small arms fire -- Private citizens & property
Two gunmen open fire on the offices of the Angeli Koussis Shipping and Tourism Co., killing two employees of the firm.[15]
7 November 1983 Athens 1 1 Small arms fire Abu Nidal Organization -- Diplomatic (Jordanian)
A gunman shoots two security guards in front of the Jordanian Embassy, in a tour alley near the Acropolis. One of the victims dies of his injuries.[16]
15 November 1983 Athens 2 - Small arms fire 17N (Marxist guerrillas) -- Diplomatic (United States)
George Tsantes, deputy chief of the U.S. military assistance mission (JUSMAGG), along with his driver Nick Veloutsos, were shot dead by two young people riding a motorcycle, using a .45 caliber pistol.[17]
28 March 1984 Athens 2 - Small arms fire Abu Nidal Organization -- Diplomatic (British)
British Cultural Attache and British Council representative Kenneth Whitty is killed in his car on an Athens street by a single gunman. His passenger, fellow British council employee Artemis Economidou, is seriously wounded and later succumbs to her injuries.[18][19]
21 February 1985 Athens 2 - Small arms fire 17N (Marxist guerrillas) -- Business
Major Greek center-right press publisher and banker, Nikolaos Momferatos, is shot and killed by a gunman. His driver, Panagiotis Rousetis, also dies in the attack in the Athens suburb of Kolonaki.[20]
26 November 1985 Athens 1 14 Car bomb 17N (Marxist guerrillas) -- Government institutions
A car-bomb explosion next to a Greek riot police bus in Kaisariani, Athens, kills police officer Ioannis Georgakopoulos and injures 14 more. The 17N proclamation states that the attack was made to avenge the death of 15-year-old Michalis Kaltezas during clashes at the day of the rally commemorating the public uprising that led to the fall of the Greek military junta.[21][22]
28 June 1988 Athens 1 - Car bomb 17N (Marxist guerrillas) -- Diplomatic (United States)
A car bomb, detonated by remote control, kills the US naval attache in Athens. Capt. William Nordeen was killed instantly by the blast that originated in a vehicle parked by his house.[23]
11 July 1988 Athens 11 98 Car bomb -- Grenade & Small arms fire Abu Nidal Organization -- Private citizens & property
Three gunmen board the ship, City of Poros, as part of its normal intake of passengers at Aegina, and wait until the ship had left the port and is three miles into its journey before they attack, at approximately 20:30 (UTC+02:00). Using concealed automatic weapons and hand grenades, they opened fire on their fellow passengers, who scattered in panic, many jumping overboard, which inadvertently caused many casualties among people who became caught in the ship's propellers. Nine tourists are killed and up to 100 others are wounded. On the day of the attack, there were 471 people on board the ship.
Earlier on the day of the attack, the pier that the City of Poros usually berthed at in Piraeus was rocked by the detonation of a large car bomb. The only fatalities were the two occupants of the vehicle.[24][25][26]
27 September 1989 Athens 1 - Small arms fire 17N (Marxist guerrillas) -- Government institutions
Pavlos Bakoyannis, the spokes man of the leading political party at the time -- New Democracy -- is shot and killed in the hallway of his office in downtown Athens.[27]
12 March 1991 Athens 1 - Improvised Explosive Device 17N (Marxist guerrillas) -- Government institutions (Foreign: United States Military)
United States Air Force member, Sgt. Ronald O. Stewart, is killed by a remotely detonated bomb outside his apartment in the seaside Athens suburb of Glyfada. Sgt. Stewart had been working at the United States Air Base at Hellenikon.[28]
19 April 1991 Patras 7 7 Improvised Explosive Device (Palestinian nationalists) -- Private citizens & property
A parcel bomb explodes in the offices of a courier service, killing seven people and wounding seven others in the western port city of Patras. Six of the dead were employees and the other a customer. The bombed building also housed offices of an American concern, United Parcel International, and is near the British Consulate.[29][30][31]
14 July 1992 Athens 1 5 Rocket propelled grenade fire 17N (Marxist guerrillas) -- Government institutions
The Greek Minister of Finance, Ioannis Paleokrassas, narrowly escapes assassination when terrorists launch a 3.5 inch RPG round at his armored limousine in broad daylight. The attack, near the center of Athens, kills a bystander and injures 5 other people, including Minister Paleokrassas. The Minister had been driving out of his office accompanied by his wife and daughter.[32]
24 January 1994 Athens 1 - Small arms fire 17N (Marxist guerrillas) -- Government institutions
The former chairman of Greece's largest state-owned bank, Michalis Vranopoulos, is shot to death on an Athens street. He had been testifying in a judicial investigation into the bank's potentially fraudulent sale of a majority stake in a cement company.[33]
4 July 1994 Athens 1 - Small arms fire 17N (Marxist guerrillas) -- Diplomatic (Turkish)
Deputy Chief of Mission at the Turkish Embassy in Athens, Ömer Haluk Sipahioğlu, is shot and killed on an Athens street. Authorities believe three men in a car pulled alongside the vehicle of the second-ranking Turkish diplomat in Greece and opened fire, killing him.[34][35]
28 May 1997 Athens 1 - Small arms fire 17N (Marxist guerrillas) -- Business
Greek shipping tycoon, Constantine Peratikos, is shot to death in broad daylight on an Athens street. The group issued a manifesto claiming that Peratikos was targeted because he allegedly misused a large government bailout and threatened to close down his shipyard, which would have forced the layoff of 2,000 employees.[36]
17 November 1999 Athens 1 - Improvised Explosive Device Revolutionary Nuclei -- Private citizens & property
A Greek bystander is killed when a bomb explodes near the Intercontinental Hotel, where then United States President Bill Clinton was due to stay on a state visit to Greece.[37]
8 June 2000 Athens 1 - Small arms fire 17N (Marxist guerrillas) -- Diplomatic (British)
At approximately 7:48 (UTC+2) two gunmen on a motorcycle shoot Brig. Stephen Saunders, the military attache at the British Embassy in Athens, while he was driving alone on a busy suburban street to work at the British Embassy. The gunmen escaped in traffic. Brigadier Saunders died at a hospital.[38][39][40]
17 June 2009 Athens 1 - Small arms fire Sect of Revolutionaries -- Government institutions
Several gunmen shoot a 41-year-old anti-terrorism officer several times at close range. The officer died in his car as the assailants fled on motorcycles in the densely populated Patissia area of Athens.[41]
28 March 2010 Athens 1 2 Improvised Explosive Device -- Private citizens & property
A bomb explodes outside an institute for training public officials in the Patissia area of the Greek capital Athens, killing a 15-year-old boy. The boy's 10-year-old sister was seriously injured and their mother, 45, was slightly hurt. Police said the family, all Afghans, were apparently just walking past the building when the bomb, contained in a bag, exploded.[42]
24 June 2010 Athens 1 - Improvised Explosive Device Revolutionary Struggle -- Government institutions
A powerful bomb sent in a package to the minister of public order explodes near his office, killing his 52-year-old assistant, who opened the package. The minister, Michalis Chrysochoidis, who is in charge of the police and counter-terrorism, was not in his office at the time.[43]
19 July 2010 Athens 1 - Small arms fire Sect of Revolutionaries -- Journalists & Media
At 5:25 (UTC+2), in the Llioupoli area of Athens unidentified gunmen armed with nine millimeter pistols shot and killed an investigative journalist, Sokratis Giolias, outside his residence. He was shot 15 times by three gunmen dressed as security personnel reporting someone had stolen his car. The authorities said the 37-year-old Giolias was killed by at least three assailants firing a pair of nine-millimetre handguns -- the same weapons which the Revolutionary Sect group had used to kill an anti-terrorist officer in 2009.[44]
01 November 2013 Athens 2 1 Small arms fire The Fighting People's Revolutionary Powers -- Political
On 1 November 2013, two Golden Dawn members, Giorgos Fountoulis (27 years old) and Manos Kapelonis (22 years old), were shot dead outside the party's offices in Neo Irakleio, a northern suburb of Athens. A third one, Alexandros Gerontas, was severely injured. According to a Golden Dawn member, a man got off a motorcycle wearing a helmet and then fired.[45][46] Two weeks later, the previously unknown "anti-establishment" group "The Fighting People's Revolutionary" Powers claimed responsibility for what it described characterized them as "political executions of the fascist members of the neo-Nazi Golden Dawn party".[47]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Background Note: Greece United States Department of State
  2. ^ "Revolutionary Struggle terror group claims responsibility for attacks on labor ministry, police buses". Embassy of Greece to the United States. June 10, 2005. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  3. ^ George Gilson (December 23, 2005). "Robin Hood terrorists". Athens News. 
  4. ^ Anthee Carassava (January 12, 2007). "U.S. Embassy in Athens Is Attacked". New York Times. 
  5. ^ a b List of known terrorist organizations Center for Defense Information
  6. ^ Staff writers (3 September 1970). "Bomb Kills Two At Us Embassy". The Palm Beach Post. United Press International. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  7. ^ "Premature Bomb Explosion At Us Embassy In Athens". Quebec Chronicle-Telegraph. 3 September 1970. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  8. ^ Staff writers (22 January 1975). "How Often Are Arab Terrorists Punished? Hardly Ever!". The Day. Associated Press. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  9. ^ Staff writers (6 August 1973). "Terrorists Kill 2 Americans In Attack In Athens Airport". Toledo Blade. Associated Press. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  10. ^ Staff writers (24 January 1974). "2 Arabs Face Athens Court, Plead Guilty". Eugene Register-Guard. United Press International. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  11. ^ Staff writers (25 February 1974). "Terrorists Claim Credit For Bombing". The News and Courier. United Press International. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  12. ^ Landler, Mark (9 December 2003). "Greek Court Convicts 15 in 27-Year-Old Terror Group". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  13. ^ Staff writers (18 January 1980). "Riot Police Chief Killed". The Sydney Morning Herald. Reuters. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  14. ^ AP (August 1, 1980). "Turk Killed In Greece". Spokesman-Review. Retrieved 17 November 2012. 
  15. ^ Staff writer (22 July 1981). "Gunmen Slay Two In Greek Attack". Lodi News-Sentinel. United Press International. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  16. ^ "Gunman Kills Embassy Guard". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. 8 November 1983. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  17. ^ "U.S. NAVY OFFICER IS ASSASSINATED IN ATHENS BY UNKNOWN GUNMEN". The New York Times. 16 November 1983. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  18. ^ "Gunman Kills British Diplomat". The Glasgow Herald. 29 March 1984. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  19. ^ Philps, Alan (20 August 2002). "Mystery end of Abu Nidal - the retired terrorist". The Telegraph. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  20. ^ Kassimeris, George (2013). Inside Greek Terrorism. Oxford University Press. p. 43. ISBN 9780199333394. 
  21. ^ "ΤΑ ΧΤΥΠΗΜΑΤΑ ΤΗΣ «17 ΝΟΕΜΒΡΗ» Νο 6-10". To Vima (in Greek). 28 July 2002. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  22. ^ Staff writers (28 November 1985). "Police Scour Athens For 3 Suspects In In Fatal Bombing". The News and Courier. Associated Press. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  23. ^ Staff writers (29 June 1988). "Us Naval Officer Killed In Greece By Remote-control Car-bomb Blast". Schenectady Gazette. United Press International. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  24. ^ Staff writer (August 8, 1988). "A Smoking Gun Points at Libya". World Notes TERRORISM (TIME magazine). Retrieved 2006-05-05. 
  25. ^ Staff writer (17 November 1992). "Germans Arrest Palestinian In 1988 Cruise Ship Attack". New York Times. Retrieved 2006-05-05. 
  26. ^ Staff writers (12 July 1988). "Cruise-ship terrorists leave 11 dead, 98 hurt". Reading Eagle. Associated Press. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  27. ^ Staff writers (27 September 1989). "Greek Party Spokesman Shot, Killed". Eugene Register-Guard. Associated Press. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  28. ^ Staff writers (13 March 1991). "Blast In Greece Kills American". The Bryan Times. United Press International. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  29. ^ "7 People Killed in Terrorist Bombing in Greece". The New York Times. 20 April 1991. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  30. ^ "Bomb Blast Kills 7 At Air Courier Office". Observer-Reporter. Associated Press. 19 April 1991. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  31. ^ "Terrorist Bomb Meant For British Consulate". The Prescott Courier. Associated Press. 28 April 1991. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  32. ^ "Minister Escapes Assassination Try". Toledo Blade. 15 July 1992. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  33. ^ "Former Greek Banker Killed By Gunfire". The Milwaukee Journal. 25 January 1994. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  34. ^ "Gunmen Kill Turkish Diplomat". Eugene Register-Guard. 5 July 1994. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  35. ^ Staff writers (5 July 1994). "Turkish diplomat shot dead in Athens". The Herald (Glasgow). Reuters. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  36. ^ "Europe and Eurasia Overview". Patterns of Global Terrorism: 1997. United States Department of State. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  37. ^ Stanley, Alessandra (18 November 1999). "Huge March In Athens Protests Visit By Clinton". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  38. ^ "British diplomat shot dead in Athens". BBC News. 8 June 2000. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  39. ^ Stanley, Alessandra (9 June 2000). "British Attache Is Assassinated On Greek Street". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  40. ^ Anast, Alan (12 August 2002). "I killed diplomat, says Greek terrorist". The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  41. ^ "Gunmen kill Greek anti-terrorist policeman". Reuters. June 17, 2009. Retrieved June 17, 2009. 
  42. ^ "Athens bomb kills Afghan boy and injures two". BBC News. 29 March 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  43. ^ Kitsantonis, Niki (24 June 2010). "Greece: Bomb Kills Cabinet Minister’s Assistant". The New York times. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  44. ^ "Greek police suspect far-left in Greek journalist's killing". Agence France-Presse. 19 July 2010. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  45. ^ Golden Dawn members killed outside party office, Associated Press, 1 November 2013.
  46. ^ Two members of Greece's Golden Dawn shot dead, BBC News, 1 November 2013.
  47. ^ "Golden Dawn shootings: group claims responsibility". The Guardian. 17 November 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2013.