Terrorism in Indonesia
Terrorism in Indonesia refer to acts of terrorism that take place within Indonesia or attacks on Indonesian people or interests abroad. These acts of terrorism often target the government of the Republic of Indonesia or foreigners in Indonesia, most notably Western visitors, especially those from the United States and Australia.
Traditionally the militias that politically opposed to Indonesian government interest were held responsible for series of terrorism attack in Indonesia. Separatist movements operating in Indonesia, such as the Darul Islam (Indonesia), Fretilin (East Timorese independence militia during Indonesian occupation of East Timor), Gerakan Aceh Merdeka, and Organisasi Papua Merdeka are often held responsible on terrorist attacks, such as bombings and shootings, in Indonesia. Recent terrorism in Indonesia can in part be attributed to the al-Qaeda-affiliated Jemaah Islamiyah Islamist terror group.
Since 2003, a number of 'western targets' have been attacked. Victims have included both foreign—mainly Western tourists—as well as Indonesian civilians. Terrorism in Indonesia intensified in 2000 with the Jakarta Stock Exchange bombing, followed by four more large attacks. The deadliest killed 202 people (including 164 international tourists) in the Bali resort town of Kuta in 2002. The attacks, and subsequent travel warnings issued by other countries, severely damaged Indonesia's tourism industry and foreign investment prospects. However, after the capture and killing of most of its key members and leaders, most notably Imam Samudra, Amrozi, Abu Dujana, Azahari Husin, and the latest one, Noordin Top, the terrorist cells in Indonesia are more and more insignificant.
Since 2011, the terrorist attack seems to be shifted, from targeting foreign Western interest and residents to attacking Indonesian police officers. Indonesian Police has been successfully cracking down terrorist cells in Indonesia, and as retaliation a new terrorist cell, identified as "Cirebon Cell" began targeting police officers. On 15 April 2011 a suicide bomber detonated an explosive device in a mosque in a police compound in the city of Cirebon, in West Java, during Friday prayer. The bomber was killed and at least 28 people were injured. The same cell also suspected to be involved in two more attacks in Solo, a church suicide bomb on 25 September 2011, and shooting targeting police on 17 August 2012. However these attacks were not as well-prepared and high scaled as previous attacks organized by terrorist group JI.
Although the terrorist attacks seems to be reduced in both amount and scale, some terrorist hotspots such as Poso, Central Sulawesi, remains as terrorist battleground. Poso was previously marred by religious violences between Muslims and Christian in the area. On 16 October 2012, Police discovered two corpses of murdered police that has been missing since three days earlier in Tamanjeka village, Poso Regency, Central Sulawesi. The victims were missing during investigation mission on suspected terrorist training ground in a forest at Poso Regency.
Similar attacks targeting Indonesian authorities, especially police officers, were also occurred in Papua, however these ones are not linked with Islamist terrorist cells, but with Papuan separatist movement instead. On 8 April 2012, Trigana Air PK-YRF airplane were shot by unidentified gunmen during landing approach on Mulia airstrip, Puncak Jaya, Papua on 08.21 AM. A Papua Pos journalist, Kogoya (35), were killed in this shooting. On 27 November 2012, three policemen stationed in remote Pirime police post, Jayawijaya, Papua, were killed in an attack by a group of unidentified men. Police suspected the Papua separatist movement were behind the attack.
Political and community responses
Conspiracy theories similar to those around the September 11 attacks appeared in the Indonesian media blaming the Bali bombings on a Western-Jewish-Chinese-Masonic plot to discredit Islam. Used to a culture of rumour and violence under the "New Order", many Indonesians considered such theories credible. Subsequent bombings in the centre of Jakarta, in which all but one victim were ordinary Indonesians, shocked the public and brought swift responses from the Indonesian security forces. Even the most reluctant politicians had to admit that the evidence was against a small group of Islamist agitators. The Jakarta bombings and legal prosecutions helped shift public opinion away from the use of extremist Islamic political violence, but also increased the influence of intelligence bodies, the police and military whose strength had diminished since 1998.
Political factors clouded Indonesian responses to the "War on Terror"; politicians were at pains not to be seen to be bowing to US and Australian opinion, and the term "Jemaah Islamiyah" is controversial in Indonesia as it means "Islamic community/congregation", and was also the subject of previous "New Order" manipulation of the term.
The attacks, and subsequent travel warnings issued by other countries including the United States and Australia, severely damaged Indonesia's tourism industry and foreign investment prospects. Bali's economy was particularly hard hit, as were tourism based businesses in other parts of Indonesia. In May 2008, the United States government decided to lift its warning. In 2006, 227,000 Australians visited Indonesia and in 2007 this rose to 314,000.
Detachment 88 is the Indonesian counter-terrorism squad, and part of the Indonesian National Police. Formed after the 2002 Bali bombing, the unit has had considerable success against the jihadi terrorist cells linked to Central Java-based Islamist movement Jemaah Islamiah.
Within the next three months after the 2002 Bali bombing, various militants, including the attack's mastermind Imam Samudra, the notorious 'smiling-bomber' Amrozi, and many others were apprehended. Samudra, Amrozi, and Amrozi's brother Ali Ghufron were executed by firing squad on November 9, 2008.
The police forces uncovered JI's new command structure in March 2007 and discovered a weapons depot in Java in May 2007. Abu Dujana, suspected leader of JI's military wing and its possible emir, was apprehended on June 9, 2007.
As of May 2008, Indonesian police have arrested 418 suspects, of which approximately 250 have been tried and convicted. According to sources within Detachment 88, the JI organisation has been "shrunk", and many of its top operatives have been arrested or killed.
On July 17, 2009, two blasts ripped two Jakarta hotels, JW Marriott and Ritz-Carlton, killing seven. It was the first serious attack for the country in the last five years. The police stated that it was committed by a splinter, yet more radical, group of JI, led by the man dubbed as the most wanted terrorist in Southeast Asia, Noordin Top. Top was killed in a raid two months later on September 17, 2009 in Solo, Central Java. All members of his cell were either killed or captured, including the recruiter and field coordinator of the attack, Ibrohim, killed on August 12, 2009, and the one said to be his successor, Syaifudin Zuhri, killed on October 9, 2009. After Top, many believed that terrorism in Indonesia had run out of charismatic leaders, and grew insignificant. According to South East Asian terrorism expert and director of South East Asia International Crisis Group, Sidney Jones, Top's death was "a huge blow for the extremist organizations in Indonesia and the region".
On March 9, 2010, Dulmatin, a senior figure in the militant group Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) and one of the most wanted terrorists in Southeast Asia was killed in a police raid in Pamulang, Jakarta by Detachment 88.
List of attacks
|28 March 1981||Garuda Indonesia Flight 206||6||2||Hijacking||Commando Jihad||-- Airports & Airlines
|21 January 1985||Borobudur||0||0||Improvised Explosive Device||Husein Ali Al Habsyie||-- Religious figures & institutions|
|15 March 1985||Banyuwangi||7||14||Improvised Explosive Device||Mochammad Achwan||-- Transport
|19 April 1999||Merdeka Square||0||4||Improvised Explosive Device||-||-- Religious figures & institutions|
|1 August 2000||Menteng||2||21||Car bomb||-||-- Diplomatic|
|14 September 2000||South Jakarta||15||27||Car bomb||Jemaah Islamiyah||-- Business|
|24 December 2000||Sukabumi||3||20||Improvised explosive device||Jemaah Islamiyah||-- Religious figures & institutions
|24 December 2000||Bandung||4||2||Improvised explosive device||Jemaah Islamiyah||-- Religious figures & institutions|
|24 December 2000||Jakarta||4||18||Car bomb||Jemaah Islamiyah||-- Religious figures & institutions
|24 December 2000||Pekanburu||5||8||Improvised explosive device||Jemaah Islamiyah||-- Religious figures & institutions
|10 May 2001||Setiabudi||2||2||Improvised explosive device||-||-- Government institutions
|22 July 2001||Duren Sawit||0||43||Improvised explosive device||-||-- Religious figures & institutions
|3 April 2002||Ambon City||4||58||Improvised explosive device||-||-- Private citizens & property|
|5 June 2002||Poso||5||17||Improvised explosive device||-||-- Transport|
|12 July 2002||Poso||1||5||Improvised explosive device||-||-- Transport|
|8 August 2002||Poso||1||4||Improvised explosive device||-||-- Transport|
|4 September 2002||Ambon City||4||-||Improvised explosive device||-||-- Private citizens & property
|12 October 2002||Kuta Beach||202||250+||Truck bomb & Suicide bomb||Jemaah Islamiyah||-- Private citizens & property (Foreign tourists)
See also: 2002 Bali bombings
|5 December 2002||Makassar||3||15||Suicide bombing||Laskar Jundullah Islamic Militia||-- Private citizens & property
|26 April 2003||Soekarno–Hatta International Airport||0||11||Improvised explosive device||Jemaah Islamiyah||-- Private citizens & property|
|5 August 2003||Setiabudi||12||150||Car bomb||Jemaah Islamiyah||-- Private citizens & property (Foreign tourists)
See also: 2003 Marriott Hotel bombing
|31 December 2003||Peureulak||10||45||Improvised explosive device||-- Private citizens & property
See also: 2003 Aceh New Year's Eve bombing
|10 January 2004||Palopo||4||3||Improvised explosive device||-||-- Private citizens & property
See also: 2004 Palopo cafe bombing
|9 September 2004||Setiabudi||9||150||Car bomb||Jemaah Islamiyah||-- Diplomatic
|13 November 2004||Poso||6||3||Improvised explosive device||-||-- Transport
See also: 2004 Poso bus bombing
|28 May 2005||Tentena||22||90||Improvised explosive device||-||-- Private citizens & property
See also: 2005 Tentena market bombings
|31 December 2005||Kuta & Jimbaran||23||100||Suicide bombing||Jemaah Islamiyah||-- Private citizens & property (Foreign tourists)
See also: 2005 Bali bombings
|31 December 2005||Palu||8||53||Nail bomb||-- Private citizens & property
See also: 2005 Palu market bombing
|17 July 2009||Setiabudi||9||53||Suicide bombing||Jemaah Islamiyah||-- Private citizens & property (Foreign tourists)
See also: 2009 Jakarta bombings
|15 April 2011||Cirebon||1||26||Suicide bombing||-||-- Government institution
See also: 2011 Cirebon bombing
|25 September 2011||Solo||1||14||Suicide bombing||-||-- Religious figures & institutions|
|16 October 2012||Poso||2||0||Small arms fire||-||-- Government institution
|2 June 2013||Poso||1||1||Suicide bombing||-||-- Government institution|
- "Commemoration of 3rd anniversary of bombings". AAP (The Age Newspaper). 10 December 2006.
- "Travel Warning: Indonesia" (Press release). US Embassy, Jakarta. 10 May 2005. Retrieved 26 December 2006.
- "Suicide Bomber Praying as He Detonates Bomb: Survivor". The Jakarta Globe. April 15, 2011.
- Arnaz, Farouk (April 15, 2011). "Update: Explosion Was Suicide Attack, Indonesian Police Say". The Jakarta Globe.
- "Dua polisi yang hilang di Poso ditemukan tewas". BBC Indonesia (in Indonesian). 16 October 2012.
- "Polisi kejar pelaku penembakan pesawat di Papua". BBC Indonesia (in Indonesian). 8 April 2012.
- "Tiga polisi Papua tewas diserang di Pirime Jayawijaya". BBC Indonesia (in Indonesian). 27 November 2012.
- Vickers, Adrian (2005). A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 218–219. ISBN 0-521-54262-6.
- Vickers, Adrian (2005). A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press. p. 219. ISBN 0-521-54262-6.
- McDonald, Hamish (30 June 2008). "Fighting terror with smart weaponry". Sydney Morning Herald. p. 17.
- "Police to quiz Bali 'mastermind'". BBC News. November 25, 2002. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
- "'Bali bomb maker' believed dead". BBC News. November 10, 2005. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
- Southeast Asian Terrorist Leader Is Under Arrest. Retrieved on June 14, 2007.
- "Noordin M Top Killed, Indonesian Police Chief Confirms | The Jakarta Globe". web.archive.org. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
- "- National - Tempo.Co :: Indonesian News Portal". Retrieved 30 November 2014.[dead link]
- "Reuters.com". Reuters. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- Bali bomber mastermind Dulmatin 'killed in shoot-out' Times Online 2010-03-09
- Conboy, Ken (2003), Kopassus: Inside Indonesia's Special Forces Equinox Publishing, ISBN 979-95898-8-6pp.277–288
- "1,100-Year-Old Buddhist Temple Wrecked By Bombs in Indonesia". The Miami Herald. 22 January 1985. Retrieved 17 August 2008.
- "Teror Bom di Indonesia (Beberapa di Luar Negeri) dari Waktu ke Waktu" (in Indonesian). Tempo Interaktif.com. 17 April 2004. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- Witular, Rendi A. (27 August 2010). "Shoemaker stoking the flames of sharia state". Jakarta Post. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Explosion rocks Istiqlal Mosque". Jakarta Post. 20 April 1999. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Bomb blast at home of Philippines ambassador to Indonesia". The Independent.ie. 2 August 2000. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- Bomb blast in Jakarta stock exchange ABC Radio September 14, 2000
- Two jailed for stock exchange bombing BBC News August 20, 2001
- "Two killed, 2 injured in Guntur bomb blast". The Jakarta Post. 11 May 2001. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Bombs at 2 Jakarta Churches Injure 43". Los Angeles Times. 22 July 2001. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Three suspects named in Ambon bombing". The Jakarta Post. 5 April 2002. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "Poso back to normal after bomb blast". The Jakarta Post. 14 July 2002. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "Bomb rips bus, kills four in Indonesia". UPI. 6 June 2002. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "Death toll from explosion in Indonesia's Ambon rises to four". Xinhua Online. 6 September 2002. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "Bali death toll set at 202". BBC News. 19 February 2003. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- "Six McDonald's bombing suspects go on trial in Makassar". Jakarta Post. 10 June 2003. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- "Jakarta airport bomb blast injures 11". ABC News Auatralia. 27 April 2003. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- "Indonesia considers measures after attack" Taipai Times/Reuters 14 August 2003
- "9 dead as bomb ends Aceh New Year's concert". ABC Australia. AFP. 1 January 2004. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- "Deadly blast, accidents mar New Year's Eve". The Jakarta Post. 2 January 2004. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
- "10 Killed and 45 Wounded by Bomb in Indonesia". New York Times. 2 January 2004. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
- Dillon, Paul (9 September 2004). "Blast rocks Jakarta near Australian Embassy". USA Today. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
- Ressa, Maria (9 September 2004). "JI 'claims Jakarta car bombing'". CNN. Archived from the original on 30 August 2007. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- Sangadji, Ruslan (21 November 2004). "Two Poso men released, no link to terror bomb found". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- "Bomb blasts kill at least 22 in Indonesia". Associated Press via msnbc.com. 28 May 2005. Retrieved 29 March 2011.
- "Bombing kills eight at Indonesian market". USA Today. Associated Press. 31 January 2005. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
- Brown, David (2009-07-17). "Eight dead in bomb blasts at Jakarta hotels". London: The Times. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
- "Bom guncang gereja di Solo". BBC Indonesia (in Indonesian). 25 September 2011.
- "Suicide bomber attacks Indonesia police station". Philippine Inquirer. 3 June 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2011.