Terrorism in the European Union

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GSG9 team returning in 1977 after liberating the passengers of Lufthansa Flight 181

The failed, foiled and successfully executed acts of terrorism in the European Union are according to the European Police Office either uspecified, or pertains to religious issues, animal rights, right wing, left wing or separatist movements. The field is subject to considerable cooperation among national authorities.

Law enforcement[edit]

The seat of the European Police Office (Europol) in The Hague.

European cooperation in the field of counter-terrorism include Europol, an EU agency, and Interpol. TREVI was an early example of EU cooperation in this field.

In July 2014 France introduced legislation to combat terrorism by toughening surveillance, making it lawful to detain individuals linked to radical Islamist groups, and to block Internet sites that incite anti-Semitism, terrorism and hatred. The country's Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve revealed 600 French nationals were in Syria at the time or planned to go there. The bill includes a ban on foreign travel for up to six months for radicalized individuals, provides for the confiscation and invalidation of passports, and prohibits airlines from allowing such individuals to fly.[1]

Trend[edit]

Europol provides annual statistics regarding terrorist attacks and terrorist related arrests in the EU, with data available from 2006.[2] According to these data the vast majority of terrorist attacks in the EU are affiliated with Ethno-national or separatist motives, followed by left-wing attacks and those that are registered as 'unspecified'. A smaller number of terrorist attacks is motivated religiously or associated with right-wing or single-issue groups, respectively (animal rights extremists). However, among those arrested on terror-related grounds separatists form the largest group, followed by religiously motivated terror suspects. The relatively high incidence of arrests related to religiously motivated terrorism (in comparison to the number of such attacks) is at least in part related to recruitment networks for violent action outside the EU and to the dissemination of terrorist propaganda.[3] Europol's reports do not provide a breakdown of the proportion of attacks that have been completed or the type of damage inflicted. In January 2015, The Economist compiled data regarding deaths due to political violence in western Europe since 2001. These data show that the death toll associated with Islamist terror is particularly high, especially when compared with the low overall proportion of religiously motivated attacks reported by Europol.[4]

List of incidents[edit]

The following is an incomplete list of incidents in the European Union its preceding European communities:

Terrestrial[edit]

Date Location State Deaths Injuries Means Perpetrator
15 September 1958 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 1 3 Small arms fire 'FLN (Algerian nationalists)'
5-6 September 1972 Muenchen Kleines Stadtwappen.svg Munich Coat of arms of Germany.svg Germany 17 uk hostage taking Black September
14 December 1973 Blason Marseille.svg Marseille Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 4 20 Improvised Explosive Device Charles
Martel Group
15 September 1974 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 2 34 Improvised Explosive Device PFLP (Palestinian nationalists)
24 October 1975 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 2 - Grenade & Small arms fire 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
20 May 1978 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 4 3 Grenade & Small arms fire 'PFLP (Palestinian nationalists)'
5 October 1978 Blason Marseille.svg Marseille Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 9 12 Small arms fire
23 December 1979 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 1 - Grenade & Small arms fire 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
28 January 1980 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 1 8 Improvised Explosive Device
17 July 1980 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 2 4 Small arms fire 'Guards of Islam
(Iranian agents)'
29 July 1980 Blason Ville fr Lyon.svg Lyon Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 2 11 Small arms fire 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
3 October 1980 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 4 40 Improvised Explosive Device -
25 November 1980 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 2 1 Small arms fire -
4 March 1981 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 2 1 Small arms fire 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
24 September 1981 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 1 2 Small arms fire -- Hostage taking

(2 days)

'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
29 March 1982 Blason région fr Limousin.svg Ambazac Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 5 27 Improvised Explosive Device 'Carlos the Jackal'
22 April 1982 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 1 47 Car bomb 'Carlos the Jackal'
9 August 1982 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 6 22 Grenade & Small arms fire 'Abu Nidal Organization'
21 August 1982 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 1 2 Improvised Explosive Device -
28 February 1983 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 1 4 Improvised Explosive Device 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
15 July 1983 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 8 55 Improvised Explosive Device 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
5 August 1983 Blason ville fr Avignon (Vaucluse).svg Avignon Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 7 - Small arms fire
1 October 1983 Blason Marseille.svg Marseille Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 1 26 Improvised Explosive Device 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
31 December 1983 Blason Marseille.svg Marseille Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 5 58+ Improvised Explosive Device 'Carlos the Jackal'
7 February 1984 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 2 1 Small arms fire 'Hezbollah & Islamic Jihad'
8 February 1984 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 1 - Small arms fire 'Abu Nidal Organization'
25 January 1985 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 1 - Small arms fire 'Action Directe'
23 February 1985 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 1 15 Improvised Explosive Device -
3 March 1985 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 4 - Small arms fire -
20 March 1986 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 2 28 Improvised Explosive Device 'CSPPA (Lebanese faction)'
25 April 1986 Blason Ville fr Lyon.svg Lyon Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 1 - Small arms fire -
9 September 1986 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 1 18 Improvised Explosive Device 'CSPPA (Lebanese faction)'
15 September 1986 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 1 51 Improvised Explosive Device 'CSPPA (Lebanese faction)'
17 September 1986 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 5 50+ Improvised Explosive Device 'CSPPA (Lebanese faction)'
18 October 1986 Blason région fr Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur.svg Toulon Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 4 - Car bomb -
17 November 1986 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 1 - Small arms fire 'Action Directe'
19 December 1988 Blason région fr Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur.svg Cagnes sur Mer Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 1 12 Improvised Explosive Device
21 July 1981 Insigne Athenarum.svg Athens Lesser coat of arms of Greece.svg Greece 2 - Small arms fire
7 November 1983 Insigne Athenarum.svg Athens Lesser coat of arms of Greece.svg Greece 1 1 Small arms fire 'Abu Nidal Organization'
15 November 1983 Insigne Athenarum.svg Athens Lesser coat of arms of Greece.svg Greece 2 - Small arms fire '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
28 March 1984 Insigne Athenarum.svg Athens Lesser coat of arms of Greece.svg Greece 2 - Small arms fire 'Abu Nidal Organization'
21 February 1985 Insigne Athenarum.svg Athens Lesser coat of arms of Greece.svg Greece 2 - Small arms fire '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
26 November 1985 Insigne Athenarum.svg Athens Lesser coat of arms of Greece.svg Greece 1 14 Car bomb '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
28 June 1988 Insigne Athenarum.svg Athens Lesser coat of arms of Greece.svg Greece 1 - Car bomb '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
11 July 1988 Insigne Athenarum.svg Athens Lesser coat of arms of Greece.svg Greece 11 98 Car bomb -- Grenade & Small arms fire 'Abu Nidal Organization'
27 September 1989 Insigne Athenarum.svg Athens Lesser coat of arms of Greece.svg Greece 1 - Small arms fire '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
19 April 1991 Coats of arms of None.svg Patras Lesser coat of arms of Greece.svg Greece 7 7 Improvised Explosive Device (Palestinian nationalists)
14 July 1992 Insigne Athenarum.svg Athens Lesser coat of arms of Greece.svg Greece 1 5 Rocket propelled grenade fire '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
12 December 1969 Insigne Mediolani.svg Milan CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 17 88 Improvised explosive device Ordine Nuovo
22 July 1970 Coat of Arms of the Province of Reggio-Calabria.svg Gioia Tauro CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 6 72 Improvised explosive device Ordine Nuovo
31 May 1972 Friuli-Venezia Giulia-coat-of-arms.png Sagrado CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 3 2 Improvised explosive device 'Vincenzo Vinciguerra & Charles Cicuttini'

(Neo-fascists)

17 May 1973 Insigne Mediolani.svg Milan CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 4 45 Improvised explosive device 'Gianfranco Bertoli'

(alleged Gladio agent)

17 December 1973 Insigne Romanum.svg Rome CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 31 21 Grenade & Small arms fire -
28 May 1974 Coats of arms of None.svg Brescia CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 8 103 Improvised explosive device -
4 August 1974 Coat of arms of bolonia italy.png San Benedetto Val di Sambro CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 12 48 Improvised explosive device Ordine Nero
20 November 1974 Coat of arms of Liguria.svg Savona CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 1 13 Improvised explosive device -
2 December 1975 Drenthe wapen.svg Wijster Arms of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands 3 - Hostage taking

(12 days)

South Moluccan nationalists
4 December 1975 Insigne Amstelodamensis.svg Amsterdam Arms of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands 1 - Hostage taking

(16 days)

South Moluccan nationalists
16 December 1976 Coats of arms of None.svg Brescia CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 1 11 Improvised explosive device -
23 May 1977 Escudo de Groniga 1581.svg Glimmen Arms of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands 8 6 Hostage taking

(20 days)

South Moluccan nationalists
9 June 1977 Insigne Romanum.svg Rome CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 1 Small arms fire 'JCAG (Armenian nationalists)'
13 March 1978 Drenthe wapen.svg Assen Arms of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands 2 1 Hostage taking

(2 days)

South Moluccan nationalists
23 March 1979 Blason Ville La Haye.svg The Hague Arms of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands 2 - Small arms fire 'PIRA (Irish republicans)'
12 October 1979 Blason Ville La Haye.svg The Hague Arms of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands 1 - Small arms fire 'JCAG (Armenian nationalists)'
16 March 1978 Insigne Romanum.svg Rome CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 6 - Grenade & Small arms fire -- Hostage taking

(55 days)

'Red Brigades'
3 May 1979 Insigne Romanum.svg Rome CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 2 1 Grenade & Small arms fire 'Red Brigades'
10 March 1980 Insigne Romanum.svg Rome CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 2 12 Improvised explosive device 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
27 July 1980 AntwerpenSchild.png Antwerp Royal Arms of Belgium.svg Belgium 1 20 Grenade 'Abu Nidal Organization'
2 August 1980 Bologna-Stemma.png Bologna CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 85 200+ Improvised explosive device Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari
20 October 1981 AntwerpenSchild.png Antwerp Royal Arms of Belgium.svg Belgium 3 106 Truck bomb -
13 July 1983 Coat of Arms of Brussels.svg Brussels Royal Arms of Belgium.svg Belgium 1 - Small arms fire -
17 September 1983 Coat of arms of Walloon Brabant.svg Nivelles Royal Arms of Belgium.svg Belgium 3 1 Small arms fire Brabant massacres
1 December 1983 Hainaut Modern Arms.svg Anderlues Royal Arms of Belgium.svg Belgium 2 - Small arms fire Brabant massacres
1 May 1985 Coat of Arms of Brussels.svg Brussels Royal Arms of Belgium.svg Belgium 2 13 Car bomb 'Communist Combatant Cells'
27 September 1985 Coat of arms of Flemish Brabant.svg Overijse & Braine-l'Alleud Royal Arms of Belgium.svg Belgium 8 2 Small arms fire Brabant massacres
9 November 1985 Wapen van Oost-Vlaanderen.svg Aalst Royal Arms of Belgium.svg Belgium 8 15 Small arms fire Brabant massacres
6 December 1985 Blason liege.svg Liège Royal Arms of Belgium.svg Belgium 1 2 Improvised Explosive Device
22 July 1985 Lesser coat of arms of Copenhagen.svg Copenhagen National Coat of arms of Denmark no crown.svg Denmark 1 27 Improvised Explosive Device
9 October 1982 Insigne Romanum.svg Rome CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 1 37 Grenade & Small arms fire 'Abu Nidal Organization'
23 December 1984 Coat of arms of Tuscany.svg Tuscany CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 17 267 Improvised explosive device Mafia, Camorra, neo-fascists
13 January 1985 Insigne Romanum.svg Rome CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 1 - Small arms fire '-'
2 April 1985 Coat of arms of Sicily.svg Pizzolungo CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 3 8 Improvised explosive device 'Sicilian Mafia'
25 September 1985 Insigne Romanum.svg Rome CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 1 14 Improvised explosive device 'Abu Nidal Organization'
27 December 1985 Insigne Romanum.svg Rome CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 19 99 Grenade & Small arms fire 'Abu Nidal Organization'
14 April 1988 CoA Città di Napoli 2.svg Naples CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 5 15 Improvised explosive device 'Japanese Red Army'
1 May 1988 Coats of arms of None.svg Roermond & Nieuw-Bergen Arms of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands 3 3 Improvised Explosive Device -- Small arms fire 'PIRA (Irish republicans)'
4 January 1991 Coat of arms of bolonia italy.png San Lazzaro di Savena CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 3 2 Small arms fire
16 March 1992 Lesser coat of arms of Copenhagen.svg Copenhagen National Coat of arms of Denmark no crown.svg Denmark 1 - Improvised Explosive Device -
23 May 1992 Coat of arms of Sicily.svg Capaci CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 5 - Car bomb 'Corleonesi mafia clan'
19 July 1992 Palermo-Stemma da Il blasone in Sicilia (Tav 82).png Palermo CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 6 10 Car bomb -
27 May 1993 FlorenceCoA.svg Florence CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 6 26 Improvised explosive device 'Corleonesi mafia clan'
28 July 1993 Insigne Mediolani.svg Milan CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 5 6+ Improvised explosive device 'Corleonesi mafia clan'
24 January 1994 Insigne Athenarum.svg Athens Lesser coat of arms of Greece.svg Greece 1 - Small arms fire '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
5 October 1994 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 4 6 Small arms fire -- Hostage taking -
2 February 1995 Coat of arms of Oberwart.svg Oberwart EU Member States' CoA Series- Austria.svg Austria 4 - Improvised explosive device 'Bavarian Liberation Army'
25 July 1995 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 8 150 Improvised explosive device 'GIA
(Islamists)
'
3 December 1996 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 3 85 Improvised explosive device 'GIA
(Islamists)
'
28 May 1997 Insigne Athenarum.svg Athens Lesser coat of arms of Greece.svg Greece 1 - Small arms fire '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
17 November 1999 Insigne Athenarum.svg Athens Lesser coat of arms of Greece.svg Greece 1 - Improvised Explosive Device 'Revolutionary Nuclei'
19 April 2000 COA fr BRE.svg Plévin Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 1 - Improvised explosive device -
8 June 2000 Insigne Athenarum.svg Athens Lesser coat of arms of Greece.svg Greece 1 - Small arms fire '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
11 October 2002 Insigne Helsingiae.svg Helsinki Coat of Arms of Finland Alternative style.svg Finland 7 166 Suicide bombing Petri Gerdt
11 March 2004 Blason de Madrid.svg Madrid File-Arms of Spain (corrections of heraldist requests).svg Spain 191 2050 [144] Improvised Explosive Device 'Abu Hafs al-Masri Brigade part of Al-Qaida'
25 November 2004 Insigne Vindobonae.svg Oismae Insigne Estonicum.svg Estonia 2 3 Suicide bombing -
7 July 2005 Lesser Coat of Arms of The City of London.svg London Arms of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 52 700 Suicide bombing 'Islamists'
6 December 2007 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 1 4 Improvised explosive device -
1 May 2009 Wapenapeldoorn.JPG Apeldoorn Arms of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands 7 12 Vehicle 'Karst Tates'
17 June 2009 Insigne Athenarum.svg Athens Lesser coat of arms of Greece.svg Greece 1 - Small arms fire 'Sect of Revolutionaries'
28 March 2010 Insigne Athenarum.svg Athens Lesser coat of arms of Greece.svg Greece 1 2 Improvised Explosive Device
24 June 2010 Insigne Athenarum.svg Athens Lesser coat of arms of Greece.svg Greece 1 - Improvised Explosive Device
19 July 2010 Insigne Athenarum.svg Athens Lesser coat of arms of Greece.svg Greece 1 - Small arms fire 'Sect of Revolutionaries'
11 December 2010 Stockholm vapen bra.svg Stockholm Armoiries Suède moderne.svg Sweden 1 2 Suicide bombing 'Taimour Abdulwahab al-Abdaly (Islamist)
2 March 2011 Insigne Francofurti.svg Frankfurt Coat of arms of Germany.svg Germany 2 2 Small arms fire 'Islamist'
29 August 2011 Lesser coat of arms of Copenhagen.svg Copenhagen National Coat of arms of Denmark no crown.svg Denmark 1 1 Small arms fire -
15 March 2012 Blason Languedoc.svg Montauban Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 2 1 Small arms fire 'Mohammed Merah (Islamist)'
19 March 2012 Blason ville fr Toulouse (Haute-Garonne).svg Toulouse Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 4 1 Small arms fire 'Mohammed Merah (Islamist)'
19 May 2012 Coat of Arms of Apulia.svg Brindisi CoA Marina Mercantile.svg Italy 1 5 Improvised explosive device 'Giovanni Vantaggiato'
18 July 2012 Burgas-coat-of-arms.svg Burgas Insigne Bulgaricum.svg Bulgaria 7 30 Suicide bombing 'Hezbollah & Islamic Jihad'
24 May 2014 Coat of Arms of Brussels.svg Brussels Royal Arms of Belgium.svg Belgium 4 0 Small arms fire Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant[164]
7 January 2015 Blason paris 75.svg Paris Arms of France (UN variant).svg France 12 11 Small arms fire Al-Qaeda in Yemen
14 February 2015 Lesser coat of arms of Copenhagen.svg Copenhagen National Coat of arms of Denmark no crown.svg Denmark 2 5 Small arms fire Omar Abdel Hamid El-Hussein

Aerial[edit]

Date Sub Flight Dead Hurt Pax. Type Perpetrator Description
18 February 1969 Flag of the Netherlands.svg

Flag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg

Flag of Israel.svg

El Al — 432

AMSZRHTLV

1 8 28 Grenade & Small arms fire PFLP (Palestinian nationalists) Ground. Zurich Kloten Airport, Switzerland
An El Al operated Boeing 720-058B is attacked by a squad of four armed militants while it was preparing for takeoff at the Zurich International Airport in Kloten. At least 8 passengers and crew were injured during the attack and co-pilot, Yoram Peres, died of his wounds a month later. The plane was severely damaged. A greater disaster was averted when an undercover Israeli security agent stationed on the plane, opened fire at the attackers and killed the squad leader.[168]
17 December 1973 Flag of Italy.svg

Flag of Germany.svg

Lufthansa
— 'Unnamed Boeing 737'

FCOATHDAMKWA

2 2 10 Hijacking -- Hostage taking

(2 days)

- —Hijacking on ground at Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport, Italy & hostages freed in Kuwait
Following the attack on Pan Am Flight 110, 5 Italian hostages are captured and placed on a Lufthansa airliner, and the pilot forced to fly to Beirut. An Italian customs agent dies in the terminal during the capture of the five Italians. After Lebanese authorities refused to let the plane land, it landed in Athens, where the terrorists demanded the release of 2 Arab terrorists. In order to make Greek authorities comply with their demands, the terrorists killed a hostage and threw his body onto the tarmac.
The plane then flew to Damascus, where it stopped for two hours to obtain fuel and food. It then flew to Kuwait, where the terrorists released their hostages in return for passage to an unknown destination. The Palestine Liberation Organization disavowed the attack, and no group claimed responsibility.[77]
8 September 1974 Flag of Israel.svg

Flag of Greece.svg

Flag of Italy.svg

Flag of the United States.svg

Trans World Airlines — 841

TLVATHFCOJFK

88 - 88 Improvised Explosive Device Abu Nidal Organisation

(Suspected)

—Greek airspace
About 30 minutes after takeoff, the TWA operated Boeing 707-331B crashed into the Ionian Sea. The out of control aircraft was observed on the flight deck of Pan Am 110. They watched the TWA aircraft execute a steep climb, the separation of an engine from the wing, and the craft spiral into the ocean. All 79 passengers and nine crew members were killed. The National Transportation Safety Board determined the plane was destroyed by a bomb in the cargo hold, which caused structural failure resulting in uncontrollable flight.
Forty-nine passengers boarded the plane in Tel Aviv for Italy and the United States. They included 17 Americans (plus a baby), 13 Japanese, 4 Italians, 4 French, 3 Indians, 2 Iranians, 2 Israelis, 2 Sri Lankans, an Australian and a Canadian. The nationalities of 30 other passengers and the 9 crew members were not immediately known at the time. Reuters reported a total of 37 Americans aboard.
27 June 1976 Flag of Israel.svg

Flag of France.svg

Flag of Uganda.svg

Air France — 193

TLV BENEBB

4 10 260 Hijacking -- Hostage taking

(8 days)

PFLP-EO (Palestinian nationalists) & Revolutionary Cells —Hijacking in Israeli airspace & raid to free hostages at Entebbe Airport, Uganda
The dead include 4 hostages, 1 Israeli soldier and 7 hijackers. Up to 50 more Ugandan soldiers are killed in the Israeli operation.
13 October 1977 Flag of Spain.svg

Flag of Germany.svg

Flag of Somalia.svg

Lufthansa — 181

PMIFCOLCABAHDXBADEMGQ

1 4 91 Hijacking -- Hostage taking

(6 days)

PFLP (Palestinian nationalists) —Hijacking in French airspace & raid to free hostages at Aden Adde Intl. Airport, Somalia
One member of the crew is killed along with 3 hijackers. Another crew member and 3 passengers are also injured.
See also: German Autumn
14 June 1985 Flag of Greece.svg

Flag of Italy.svg

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg

Flag of Lebanon.svg

Trans World Airlines — 847

ATHBEYALGBEYALGBEY

1 5 147 Hijacking -- Hostage taking

(3 days)

Hezbollah & Islamic Jihad —Hijacking in Greek airspace & hostages freed in Beirut, Lebanon
A Trans World Airlines Boeing 727 is hijacked by two Lebanese men, who had smuggled pistols and grenades through the Athens airport security, after originally taking off from Cairo. The flight was en route from Athens to Rome and then scheduled to terminate in London. The hijackers were seeking the release of 700 Shi'ite Muslims from Israeli custody.
Some passengers were threatened and some beaten. United States Navy diver Robert Dean Stethem was killed, and his body was thrown onto the tarmac. Dozens of passengers were held hostage over the next two weeks until released by their captors after some of their demands were met.[169]
23 November 1985 Flag of Greece.svg

Flag of Egypt.svg

Flag of Malta.svg

Egypt Air — 648

ATHMLA

58 20+ 95 Hijacking -- Hostage taking

(2 days)

Abu Nidal Organisation —Hijacking in Greek airspace & raid to free hostages at Malta International Airport, Malta
The Boeing 737-266 took off at 20:00 (UTC+2) on an Athens-to-Cairo route. Ten minutes after takeoff, three Palestinian gunmen hijacked the aircraft. The terrorists, calling themselves the Egypt Revolution, were armed with guns and grenades. During the initial hijacking an Egyptian Security Service agent opened fire, killing one terrorist instantly before being wounded along with two flight attendants. In the exchange of fire the fuselage was punctured, causing a rapid depressurization. The aircraft was forced to descend to 14,000 feet (4,300 m) to allow the crew and passengers to breathe. The ailing plane was diverted to land in Malta.
The chief hijacker threatened to kill a passenger every 15 minutes until his demands were met. An Israeli woman, Nitzan Mendelson and an American, Scarlett Marie Rogenkamp, were executed.
On 25 November, the storming of the aircraft by the Egyptian Al-Sa'iqa (Thunderbolt) unit — Task Force 777 — killed 54 out of the remaining 87 passengers, two crew members and one hijacker. A total of 58 out of the 95 passengers and crew had died and 2 out of the 3 hijackers by the time the crisis was over. Maltese medical examiners estimated that 4 passengers were shot to death by the commandos.
2 April 1986 Flag of Italy.svg

Flag of Greece.svg

Trans World Airlines — 840

FCOATH

4 7 122 Improvised Explosive Device Abu Nidal Organisation —Greek airspace
About 20 minutes before landing, a bomb hidden underneath seat 10-F is detonated on the Boeing 727-231 -- flying en route from Rome to Athens -- while it was over Argos, Greece, blasting a hole in the plane's starboard side. Four American passengers, including a nine-month-old infant, are ejected through the hole to their deaths below. Seven others on the aircraft were injured by shrapnel as the cabin suffered a rapid decompression. The remaining 110 passengers survived the incident as pilot Richard "Pete" Petersen made an emergency landing.[170]
19 September 1989 Flag of the People's Republic of Congo.svg

Flag of France.svg

Union de Transport Aériens
— 772

BZVNDJCDG

170 - 170 Improvised explosive device Libyan
agents
Niger airspace
A McDonnell Douglas DC-10 aircraft operated by the French airline Union des Transports Aériens took off from N'Djamena International Airport at 13:13. Forty-six minutes later, at its cruising altitude of 10,700 metres (35,100 ft), a bomb explosion caused UTA Flight 772 to break up over the Sahara Desert 450km east of Agadez in the southern Ténéré of Niger. All 155 passengers and 15 crew members died.[171]
24 December 1994 Flag of Algeria.svg

Flag of France.svg

Air France — 8969

ALG MRS

3 16 232 Hijacking GIA
(Islamists)
—Hijacking in Algiers & raid to free hostages at Marseille Provence Airport, France.
An Air France Airbus A300B2-1C is hijacked by the Armed Islamic Group at Houari Boumedienne Airport, Algiers, Algeria, with the intention of blowing up the plane over the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Three passengers are killed. When the aircraft reaches Marseille, the GIGN, an intervention group of the French National Gendarmerie, storms the plane and kills all four hijackers. Thirteen passengers, three crew and nine GIGN members are injured.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Legislation to crack down on jihadists planned by France". France News.Net. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  2. ^ Europol statistics, europol.europa.eu, retrieved 15 January 2015 
  3. ^ Europol Terrorism Report 2014, europol.europa.eu, retrieved 15 January 2015 
  4. ^ The Economist: Terror in western Europe, economist.com, retrieved 17 January 2015 
  5. ^ David C. Rapoport, ed. (2006). Terrorism: The second or anti-colonial wave. Taylor & Francis. pp. 244–245. ISBN 9780415316521. 
  6. ^ "Bomb at Algerian Consulate". The Glasgow Herald. Associated Press. 15 December 1973. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  7. ^ Guinness, Molly (4 November 2010). "Carlos the Jackal's Parisian trail of destruction". Radio France International. Retrieved 9 February 2014. 
  8. ^ Rubin 2008, p. 69
  9. ^ "Assassinated Turkish Diplomats/Officials and Their Families Serving in Missions Abroad". Republic of Turkey: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 10 February 2014. 
  10. ^ Lewis, Flora (May 21, 1978). "3 TERRORISTS KILLED IN ATTACK IN PARIS ON EL AL PASSENGERS; 3 French Tourists Bound for Israel Are Injured and One Policeman Is Killed in 25-Minute Fight". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 October 2011. 
  11. ^ "Gangsters In France Gun Down Nine Rivals". Bangor Daily News. 5 October 1978. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  12. ^ "Turkish official murdered in Paris". The Montreal Gazette. 23 December 1979. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
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