Terrorist Financing Convention
|International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism|
|Type||anti-terrorism, international criminal law|
|Drafted||9 December 1999|
|Signed||10 January 2000|
|Location||New York, United States|
|Effective||10 April 2002|
|Depositary||United Nations Secretary-General|
|Languages||Arabic Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish|
The Terrorist Financing Convention (formally, the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism) is a 1999 United Nations treaty designed to criminalise acts of financing terrorist activities. The convention also seeks to promote police and judicial co-operation to prevent, investigate and punish the financing of such acts. As of August 2013, the treaty has been ratified by 186 states; in terms of universality, it is therefore one of the most successful anti-terrorism treaties in history.
Article 2.1 defines the crime of terrorist financing as the offence committed by "any person" who "by any means, directly or indirectly, unlawfully and wilfully, provides or collects funds with the intention that they should be used or in the knowledge that they are to be used, in full or in part, in order to carry out" an act "intended to cause death or serious bodily injury to a civilian, or to any other person not taking an active part in the hostilities in a situation of armed conflict, when the purpose of such act, by its nature or context, is to intimidate a population, or to compel a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act."
State parties to this treaty also commit themselves to the freezing and seizure of funds intended to be used for terrorist activities and to share the forfeited funds with all state parties. Moreover, state parties commit themselves not to use bank secrecy as a justification for refusing to co-operate in the suppression of terrorist financing.
Entry into force and ratifications
The treaty entered into force on 10 April 2002. It has been ratified by 185 states, which includes all but 11 member states of the United Nations plus the Cook Islands, the Holy See, and Niue. It has not been ratified by Burundi, Chad, Eritrea, Gambia, Iran, Lebanon, Somalia, South Sudan, Tuvalu, and Zambia. (Burundi and Somalia have signed the convention but have not yet ratified it.)
- Definition of terrorism
- International conventions on terrorism
- United Nations General Assembly Sixth Committee (Legal)
- ASIL, Conventions on the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings and on Financing, 96 American Journal of International Law, 255–258.(2002)
- C.F. Diaz-Paniagua, Negotiating terrorism: The negotiation dynamics of four UN counter-terrorism treaties, 1997–2005, City University of New York (2008).
- Roberto Lavalle, The International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, Heidelberg Journal of International Law 492 (2000).
- Introductory note by Pierre Klein, procedural history note and audiovisual material on the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism in the Historic Archives of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law