The following is a list of non-state terrorist incidents that have not been carried out by a state or its forces (see state terrorism and state-sponsored terrorism). Assassinations are listed at List of assassinated people.
Definitions of terrorism vary, so incidents listed here are restricted to those that:
- are not approved by the legitimate authority of a recognized state
- are perpetrated against non-combatant targets
- are done to further political, religious, or ideological objectives
- United States In 1865–1877: 3,000 Freedmen and their Republican Party allies are killed by the Ku Klux Klan and well-organized campaigns of violence by other local whites in a campaign of terrorist violence that weakens the reconstructionist governments in the American South and helped re-establish legitimized segregation.
- United States 4 May 1886: Haymarket Affair. A peaceful rally in Haymarket, Chicago, Illinois, is disrupted when a bomb was detonated as police were dispersing the public demonstration.
- United States 1892, 23 July: Alexander Berkman, a Russian expatriate, attempts to assassinate Henry Clay Frick, an American industrialist, financier, and art patron, in Pittsburgh. Berkman is arrested and Frick survives. Berkman claims inspiration from the Haymarket Affair.
- Italy 1900, 29 July: King Umberto I of Italy is killed by the American immigrant and anarchist Gaetano Bresci.
- United States 1901, 6 September: William McKinley, the 25th President of the United States, is shot and fatally wounded at the Pan-American Exposition by Leon Czolgosz, who was inspired by the anarchist Bresci (see above) the year before.
- Morocco 1904, 18 May: Ion Perdicaris and Cromwell Varley are kidnapped and held for ransom by bandit Mulai Ahmed er Raisuli in Morocco.
- United States 1920, 16 September: Wall Street bombing kills 38 people and wounds 300 others.
- Italy 1920, 14 October: In Trieste, nationalists throw six bombs at the editorial office of a Socialist newspaper, resulting in one death and ten injuries.
- Italy 1920, 15 October: In Milan, anarchists are responsible for throwing two bombs at a hotel holding a British delegation attending the Milan International Conference; there are two injuries.
- United States 1921, 31 May: The Tulsa race riot kills 39 people and injures over 800.
- Romania 1921, 13 December: 100 soldiers and police officers are killed by a bomb thrown by Bessarabian separatists at the Bolgrad palace.
- Israel 1954, 17 March: an Israeli civilian passenger bus is attacked by unknown assailants at the Scorpions Pass in the Negev, resulting in the deaths of eleven passengers.
- Cyprus 1956, 16 June: The United States vice consul is killed and six other consulate staff are injured when a terrorist throws 2 bombs in a restaurant in Nicosia.
- Lebanon 1958, 15 August: Three people are killed in a bomb blast in Beirut. The bombing also injures ten more at a grocery store near the Lebanese Parliament.
- Cuba 1960, 5 March: The French freighter La Coubre explodes, killing between 75 and 100 people with 200 injured. The government suspects sabotage.
- Greece 1967, 12 November: A bomb explodes on board Cyprus Airways Flight 284 near Rhodes killing all 66 people on the aircraft.
- Israel 1968, 4 September: Three bombs are detonated in Tel Aviv, killing one person and injuring 51 people.
- Italy 1969, 12 December: Piazza Fontana bombing in Milan kills at least thirteen people and injures at least 85. Three additional blasts occur in Rome, injuring 16 people.
- ^ Jonathan M. Bryant: Ku Klux Klan in the Reconstruction Era, The New Georgia Encyclopedia, 3 October 2002
- ^ Fettman, Eric (20 January 2008). "The Bloody Shirt Terror After Appomattox by Stephen Budiansky Viking Press". New York Post. Retrieved 2011-03-27.
- ^ "PERDICARIS AND VARLEY ARE IN GRAVE DANGER; An American Resident of Tangier Tells of the Situation". The New York Times. 22 May 1904. Retrieved 2015-03-05.
- ^ "History News Service". H-net.org. Retrieved 2011-03-27.
- ^ a b "BOMB WARFARE RAGING IN ITALY". The New York Times. 15 October 1920. Retrieved 2014-12-13.
- ^ Austin Sarat (1 January 2009). When Law Fails: Making Sense of Miscarriages of Justice. NYU Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-8147-6225-7. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- ^ "PALACE BOMBED, 100 KILLED; Bessarabian Conspirators Accused of Outrage at Bolgard". The New York Times. 14 December 1921. Retrieved 2011-10-15.
- ^ "Mad Bomber,' Now 70, Goes Free Today; Mad Bomber,' Now 70, Goes Free Today 37 Blasts Set Initials 'F.P.' Explained Institute Assailed". The New York Times. 13 December 1973. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
- ^ "POLICE DIE IN BLAST; Timed Device Explodes After it is Taken out of Pavilion". The New York Times. 5 July 1940. Retrieved 2015-03-05.
- ^ Clarke, Thurston. By Blood and Fire, G. P. Puttnam's Sons, New York, 1981
- ^ Pistole, John S. (3 March 2011). "Administrator Pistole’s remarks before the American Bar Association’s 6th Annual Homeland Security Law Institute". TSA. Retrieved 2011-08-17.
- ^ "Pair Admits Planting Bomb That Killed 13". The Telegraph-Herald. 3 June 1949. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
- ^ Israel's Border Wars, 1949–1956, p. 309, Benny Morris, Oxford University Press, 1997
- ^ Gilroy, Harry (22 March 1954). "Exploiting of Negev's Resources May Be Slowed by Bus Slayings; Security Moves May Act as a Brake on Developing Area Vital to Israel". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
- ^ Bigart, Homer (17 June 1956). "U.S. Vice Consul Is Killed By Cyprus Terrorist Bomb". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-12-13.
- ^ Brewers, Sam Pope (16 August 1958). "TERRORIST'S BOMB KILLS 3 IN BEIRUT". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-12-13.
- ^ Phillips, R. Hart (5 March 1960). "75 DIE IN HAVANA AS MUNITIONS SHIP EXPLODES AT DOCK". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-12-13.
- ^ "Crash Off Turkey Kills All 66 on Jet". The New York Times. 12 October 1967. Retrieved 2015-03-05.
- ^ Feron, James (5 September 1968). "Fatal Bombing in Tel Aviv Stirs Mob Attack on Arabs". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-12-13.
- ^ "Blast in Milan Kills 13, Hurts 85; 3 More Bombs Injure 16 in Rome". The New York Times. 13 December 1969. Retrieved 2015-03-05.