List of designated terrorist organizations

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This is a list of designated terrorist organizations by national governments, former governments and inter-governmental organizations, where the proscription has a significant impact on the group's activities. Many organizations that are accused of being a terrorist organization deny using terrorism as a military tactic to achieve their goals, and there is no international consensus on the legal definition of terrorism.[1][2]

This listing does not include unaffiliated individuals accused of terrorism, which are considered under lone wolf terrorism. This list also excludes groups that might be widely considered terrorist, but who are not officially so designated according to the criteria specified above.

This list is not all inclusive. For more inclusive lists, including people, entities (corporations), and specific vehicles, refer to lists under Process of designation.

Organizations currently officially designated as terrorist by various governments[edit]

Organization AUS

Flag of Australia.svg

CAN

Flag of Canada.svg

EGY

Flag of Egypt.svg

EU

Flag of Europe.svg

IND

Flag of India.svg

IRN

Flag of Iran.svg

KZ

Flag of Kazakhstan.svg

KSA

Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg

PRC

Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg

RUS

Flag of Russia.svg

TUN

Flag of Tunisia.svg

TUR

Flag of Turkey.svg

UK

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg

UN

Flag of the United Nations.svg

US

Flag of the United States.svg

Abdullah Azzam Brigades Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Abu Nidal Organization Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[5] Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Flag of Jihad.svg Abu Sayyaf Symbol confirmed.svg[7] Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Aden-Abyan Islamic Army Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Akhil Bharat Nepali Ekta Samaj Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
al-Aqsa Foundation Symbol confirmed.svg[5]
al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[5] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Al-badr flag.png Al-Badr Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[5] Symbol confirmed.svg[9] Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Al Ghurabaa Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
al-Haramain Foundation Symbol confirmed.svg[9]
Flag of Jihad.svg Al-Itihaad al-Islamiya Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Al-Mourabitoun Symbol confirmed.svg[10]
Flag of Jabhat al-Nusra.jpg Al-Nusra Front Symbol confirmed.svg[7] Symbol confirmed.svg[11] Symbol confirmed.svg[12][13] Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[14] Symbol confirmed.svg[15]
al-Qaeda Symbol confirmed.svg[7] Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[16] Symbol confirmed.svg[8] Symbol confirmed.svg[17] Symbol confirmed.svg[9] Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[18] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
ShababFlag.svg al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula Symbol confirmed.svg[7] Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[19] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Flag of Jihad.svg al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb Symbol confirmed.svg[7] Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[9] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
ShababFlag.svg Al-Shabaab Symbol confirmed.svg[7] Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Takfir wal-Hijra Symbol confirmed.svg[5]
Al-Umar-Mujahideen Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
In tpdf.gif All Tripura Tiger Force Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
Ansar al-Sharia (Tunisia) Symbol confirmed.svg[20] Symbol confirmed.svg[20]
Flag of Ansar al-Islam.svg Ansar al-Islam Symbol confirmed.svg[7] Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Jamaat Ansar al-Sunna Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
ShababFlag.svg Ansar Bait al-Maqdis Symbol confirmed.svg[21] Symbol confirmed.svg[10] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
ShababFlag.svg Ansar Dine Symbol confirmed.svg[22]
Flag of Ansaru.svg Ansaru Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[23]
Armed Islamic Group of Algeria Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Army of Islam Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Osbat al-Ansar Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[9] Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Aum Shinrikyo Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[24] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Babbar Khalsa International Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[5] Symbol confirmed.svg[8] Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Flag of the Balochistan Liberation Army.svg Balochistan Liberation Army Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Logo of Boko Haram.svg Boko Haram Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[25] Symbol confirmed.svg[23]
Flag of Caucasian Emirate.svg Caucasus Emirate Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[9] Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[26]
South Asian Communist Banner.svg Communist Party of India (Maoist) Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
NPA.png Communist Party of the Philippines/
New People's Army
Symbol confirmed.svg[5] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist–Leninist Symbol confirmed.svg[27]
Conspiracy of Fire Nuclei Symbol confirmed.svg[28]
Continuity Irish Republican Army Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Cumann na mBan Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Deendar Anjuman Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
Dukhtaran-e-Millat Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
East Turkestan Information Center Symbol confirmed.svg[29]
Flag of Turkistan Islamic Party.jpg East Turkestan Islamic Movement Symbol confirmed.svg[29] Symbol confirmed.svg[30]
The Flag of East Turkistan Republic.png East Turkestan Liberation Organization Symbol confirmed.svg[24] Symbol confirmed.svg[29]
Egyptian Islamic Jihad Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[9] Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
El Kaide Terör Örgütü Türkiye Yapılanması Symbol confirmed.svg[27]
Ergenekon Symbol confirmed.svg[27]
ETA Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[5] Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Sunburst Flag.svg Fianna Éireann Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
IBDA-C.svg Great Eastern Islamic Raiders' Front Symbol confirmed.svg[5] Symbol confirmed.svg[27]
Flag of Hamas.svg Hamas Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[31] Symbol confirmed.svg[5] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Flag of Hamas.svg Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades Symbol confirmed.svg[7] Symbol confirmed.svg[5]
Haqqani network Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Flag of Jihad.svg Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Harkat-al-Jihad al-Islami in Bangladesh Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Flag of Harkat-ul-Mujahideen.svg Harkat-ul-Mujahideen Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[8] Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Flag of Harkat-ul-Mujahideen.svg Harakat-Ul-Mujahideen/Alami Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Hezbi Islami.svg Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Hezbollah Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[32][33] Symbol confirmed.svg[27] Symbol confirmed.svg[34] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Hezbollah (Military Wing) Symbol confirmed.svg[35] Symbol confirmed.svg[34]
Hezbollah (External Security Organisation) Symbol confirmed.svg[7] Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Logo of Hezbollah Al-Hejaz.svg Hezbollah Al-Hejaz Symbol confirmed.svg[19]
Hilafet Devleti Symbol confirmed.svg[27]
Hizb ut-Tahrir Symbol confirmed.svg[9]
Hizbul Mujahideen Symbol confirmed.svg[5] Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
Hofstad Network Symbol confirmed.svg[5]
Holy Land Foundation
for Relief and Development
Symbol confirmed.svg[5]
Houthis Symbol confirmed.svg[11]
Indian Mujahideen Symbol confirmed.svg[8] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
International Sikh Youth Federation Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[5] Symbol confirmed.svg[8] Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
StarryPlough.svg Irish National Liberation Army Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Irish People's Liberation Organisation Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Islamic Jihad - Jamaat Mujahideen Symbol confirmed.svg[9]
Islamic Jihad Union Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Flag of Jihad.svg Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Symbol confirmed.svg[7] Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[9] Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Flag of Islamic State of Iraq.svg Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Symbol confirmed.svg[7] Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[11] Symbol confirmed.svg[14] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Jaishi-e-Mohammed.svg Jaish-e-Mohammed Symbol confirmed.svg[7] Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[8] Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Jamaat Ul-Furquan Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh Symbol confirmed.svg[8] Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Jamiat al-Islah al-Idzhtimai Symbol confirmed.svg[9]
Jamiat ul-Ansar Symbol confirmed.svg[7]
Flag of Jamiat-e Islami.svg Jamiat-e Islami Symbol confirmed.svg[9]
Jemaah Islamiyah Symbol confirmed.svg[7] Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Jamaah Ansharut Tauhid Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Jund al-Sham Symbol confirmed.svg[9]
Jundallah Symbol confirmed.svg[36] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Flag of Kach and Kahane Chai.svg Kach and Kahane Chai Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Kangleipak Communist Party Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
Kata'ib Hezbollah flag.svg Kata'ib Hezbollah Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Khalistan Commando Force Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
Khalistan Zindabad Force Symbol confirmed.svg[5] Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
Khuddam ul-Islam Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Komalah Symbol confirmed.svg[37][38]
PDK Bakur.png Kurdistan Democratic Party/North Symbol confirmed.svg[27]
Kurdistan Freedom Falcons Symbol confirmed.svg[5] Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Flag of Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK).svg Kurdistan Workers' Party Symbol confirmed.svg[7] Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[5] Symbol confirmed.svg[39] Symbol confirmed.svg[27] Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Flag of Lashkar-e-Taiba.svg Lashkar-e-Taiba Symbol confirmed.svg[7] Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[8] Symbol confirmed.svg[9] Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Lashkar-e-Jhangvi Symbol confirmed.svg[7] Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Flag of Tamil Eelam.svg Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Symbol confirmed.svg[40] Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[5] Symbol confirmed.svg[8] Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Libyan Islamic Fighting Group Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Loyalist Volunteer Force Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Manipur People’s Liberation Front Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
Maoist Communist Centre of India Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
Mlkpbanner.PNG Marxist–Leninist Communist Party Symbol confirmed.svg[27]
Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Muslim Brotherhood Emblem.jpg Muslim Brotherhood Symbol confirmed.svg[41] Symbol confirmed.svg[11] Symbol confirmed.svg[42]
Front Nacional Democratic Bodoland.svg National Democratic Front of Bodoland Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
Flag of ELN.svg National Liberation Army Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[5] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
National Liberation Front of Tripura Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
Orange Volunteers Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Palestine Liberation Front Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Flag of the Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine.svg Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine Symbol confirmed.svg[7] Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[5] Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Drapeau du Parti pour une vie libre au Kurdistan - PJAK.png Party of Free Life of Kurdistan Symbol confirmed.svg[43]
People's Congress of Ichkeria and Dagestan Symbol confirmed.svg[9]
Bandera FPRM Manipur.png People's Liberation Army of Manipur Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
People's Mujahedin of Iran Symbol confirmed.svg[44]
People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[5] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
PFLP-GC Flag.svg Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[5] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Provisional Irish Republican Army Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[45]
Real Irish Republican Army Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Real Irish Republican Army Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Red Hand Defenders Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Flag of the FARC-EP.svg Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[5] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Revolutionary Organization 17 November Symbol confirmed.svg[46] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
PSK.png Revolutionary Party of Kurdistan Symbol confirmed.svg[27]
Dhkp.svg Revolutionary People's Liberation Party–Front Symbol confirmed.svg[5] Symbol confirmed.svg[27] Symbol confirmed.svg[6] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Revolutionary Struggle Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Flag of Russia.svg Russian Federation Symbol confirmed.svg[9]
Saor Éire Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
The Saved Sect Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Tevhid-Selam (Al-Quds Army) Symbol confirmed.svg[27]
Flag of Sendero Luminoso.svg Shining Path[47] Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[5] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Society of the Revival of Islamic Heritage Symbol confirmed.svg[9]
Stichting Al Aqsa Symbol confirmed.svg[5]
Students Islamic Movement of India Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
Supreme Military Majlis ul-Shura of the United Mujahideen Forces of Caucasus Symbol confirmed.svg[9]
Flag of Taliban.svg Taliban Symbol confirmed.svg[9]
Tnsm-flag.svg Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Tamil Nadu Liberation Army Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
Tamil National Retrieval Troops Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
Flag of the Ulster Defence Association.svg Ulster Defence Association Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Flag of the Ulster Volunteer Force..svg Ulster Volunteer Force Symbol confirmed.svg[6]
Flag of United Liberation Front of Asom.svg United Liberation Front of Assam Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
Bandera UNLF.svg United National Liberation Front Symbol confirmed.svg[8]
Flag of AUC.svg United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia Symbol confirmed.svg[4] Symbol confirmed.svg[3]
Vanguards of Conquest Symbol confirmed.svg[4]
World Tamil Movement Symbol confirmed.svg[4]
Kokbayraq flag.svg World Uygur Youth Congress Symbol confirmed.svg[29]

Organizations officially designated as terrorist in the past[edit]

Below is the list of organizations that have officially been designated as terrorist in the past, by the respective parties, but have since been delisted.

Organization AUS

Flag of Australia.svg

CAN

Flag of Canada.svg

EU

Flag of Europe.svg

UK

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg

US

Flag of the United States.svg

IND

Flag of India.svg

RUS

Flag of Russia.svg

PRC

Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg

TUR

Flag of Turkey.svg

African National Congress Flag.svg African National Congress 1988-08[48] to 2008[49][50]
Aum Shinrikyo  ? to 2011-07-18[5][51]
Flag of AUC.svg United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia  ? to 2011-07-18[5][51]
Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine - Flag.svg Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine 1997-08-10 to 1999-08-10[3]  ? to ?[citation needed]
Fatah Flag.svg Fatah  ? to ?[citation needed]
Hynniewtrep National Liberation Council 2000-11-16[52] to 2011[8][53]
Flag of Kach and Kahane Chai.svg Kach and Kahane Chai  ? to 2010-07-12[54][55]
Japanese Red Army 1997-10-08 to 2001-10-08[56]
Flag of Democratic Kampuchea.svg Khmer Rouge 1997-10-08 to 1999-10-08[56]
FPMR Chile.SVG Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front 1997-10-08 to 1999-10-08[56]
Ir mohajedin.gif People's Mujahedin of Iran  ? to 2012-12[citation needed]  ? to 2010[57] 1997-10-08 to 2012-09-28[3]
Palestine Liberation Front  ? to 2010-07-12[54][55]
Flag of Palestine.svg Palestine Liberation Organization 1988[58] to 1991[59]
Revolutionary Nuclei 1997-08-10 to 2009-05-18[56]
Flag of the MRTA.svg Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement 1997-08-10 to 2001-10-08[56]
South Asian Communist Banner.svg Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist)  ? to 2012-09-06[60]

Process of designation[edit]

Australia[edit]

Since 2002, the Australian Government maintains a Listing of terrorist organizations as per the Security Legislation Amendment (Terrorism) Act 2002.[7] Listing, de-listing and re-listing follows a protocol[7] that mainly involves the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation and the Attorney-General's Department.[61]

Canada[edit]

Since December 18, 2001, article 83.05 of the Canadian Criminal Code allows the Governor in Council to maintain a list of entities that are engaged in terrorism, facilitating it, or acting on behalf of such an entity.[62]

Entities are reviewed by the Minister and the Chief Justice of the Federal Court, and finally published in the Canada Gazette.[62] The list is also published on the website of Public Safety Canada.[63]

European Union[edit]

The European Union has two lists of designated terrorist organisations that provide for different sanctions for the two groups.[64]

India[edit]

Under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, the Ministry of Home Affairs maintains a list of banned organizations: List of organizations banned by the Government of India.[8]

People's Republic of China[edit]

The Ministry of Public Security maintains a list of terrorist organizations on its website mps.gov.cn. This list has been translated to English by the Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the USA at www.china-embassy.org.

Russia[edit]

Single federal list of organizations recognized as terrorist by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation.[65]

Ukraine[edit]

In Ukraine, the Donetsk and Lugansk People's Republics are classified as terrorist organizations. Authorities claim that the two organizations are made up of a rigid hierarchy, financing channels and supply of weapons with the purpose of deliberately propagating violence, seizing hostages, carrying out subversive activity, assassinations, and the intimidation of citizens.[66]

UN 1267 regime list[edit]

Al-Qaeda, the Taliban and their associates.

  • prohibition of sale or transfer of arms and related materiel.
  • the freezing of funds and other financial assets or resources.
  • the prevention of entry onto or transit through the territories of member states.
  • a prohibition on provision of technical assistance or training in military matters or in the manufacture or maintenance of arms and related materiel.

The EU provides exceptions to the implementation of relevant asset-freezing sanctions per UN resolution 1452 (2002). Upon request, a competent national authority may determine to release funds on the following grounds if, within the time limit provided for, there has been no objection made, or a release has been explicitly approved, by the UN Sanctions Committee.

  • necessary to cover basic expenses, intended for the payment of professional fees for legal services or for the payment of fees or services in relation to the maintenance of frozen funds or assets
  • necessary for extraordinary expenses

Autonomous list[edit]

All other designated organizations.

  • the freezing of all funds, other financial assets and economic resources.
  • a ban on directly or indirectly making funds, other financial assets and economic resources available.

It is important to note that sanctions are only applicable to EU-external groups regardless of designation. For example, 47 groups are listed as terrorist organizations in the EU but sanctions are only applied to 27 of these. Member States do have an obligation to assist each other in preventing and combating terrorist acts but this is the only action that follows from the designation of an EU-internal organization.

  • European Union list of terrorist groups and individuals, 25 June 2012.[67]

United Kingdom[edit]

United States[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Schmid, Alex P. (2011). "The Definition of Terrorism". The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research. Routledge. p. 39. ISBN 0-203-82873-9. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc "Foreign Terrorist Organizations". State.gov. 2012-09-28. Retrieved 2014-01-22. 
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  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Single federal list of organizations recognized as terrorist by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation". 
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  13. ^ 3 Haziran 2014 Tarihli ve 29019 Sayılı Resmî Gazete (Turkish)
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  22. ^ "Terrorist Designations of Ansar al-Dine". State.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-19. 
  23. ^ a b "US names Boko Haram as 'terror organisation' - Africa". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2014-02-19. 
  24. ^ a b East Turkistan Liberation Organization (ETLO) Globalsecurity.org
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  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l [1][dead link]
  28. ^ http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2011/10/175362.htm U.S. Department of State
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  40. ^ [2][dead link]
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  47. ^ 'Shining Path' (Spanish: Sendero Luminoso) is the name given by Peruvian mass media and government sources to the Maoist Communist Party of Peru.
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