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High-frequency stimulation causes an increase in release called post-tetanic potentiation (Kandel 2003). This presynaptic event is caused by calcium influx. Calcium-protein interactions then produce a change in vesicle exocytosis. The result of these changes is to make the postsynaptic cell more likely to fire an action potential.
Tetanic stimulation is used in medicine to detect a non-depolarizing block or a depolarizing block on the neuromuscular junction.  Lower elicitations of tetanic stimulation in aged muscles were shown to be caused by lower levels of anaerobic energy provision in skeletal muscles.
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