|• Total||1,068 km2 (412 sq mi)|
|Elevation||468 m (1,535 ft)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Area code(s)||+389 044|
Tetovo (Macedonian: Тетово, [ˈtɛtɔvɔ] ( listen); Albanian: Tetova, Tetovë; Turkish: Kalkandelen) is a city in the northwestern part of Macedonia, built on the foothills of Šar Mountain and divided by the Pena River. The city covers an area of 1,080 km2 (417 sq mi) at 468 metres (1,535 ft) above sea level, with a population of 52,915. The city of Tetovo is the seat of Tetovo Municipality.
The home of several ethnic Albanian political parties and a population in which Albanians form a relative majority, Tetovo has become the "unofficial capital" of a predominantly Albanian region which extends in an arc from Tetovo to Debar. Tetovo is also the headquarters of the main Albanian-centred political parties, the Democratic Union for Integration and the Democratic Party of Albanians. Just outside of Tetovo is the South East European University, Macedonia’s third largest university after Skopje and Bitola. Tetovo is also home to the State University of Tetovo.
There have been archaeological discoveries near Tetovo which date back to the Bronze Age (2200-1200BC). In the Republic of Macedonia, the oldest artefact, a Mycenae sword from the Bronze Age, was found outside Tetovo. It is now on show in the Museum of Macedonia in Skopje.
Early antiquity 
In early antiquity, Tetovo was first mentioned as Oaeneum. The early inhabitants of Oaeneum were the Penestae, an Illyrian tribe that controlled the regions of Oaeneum, Draudacum (Gostivar), Uskana (Kicevo), Divra (Debar) and the main outlets towards Styberra (Prilep) in northern Pelagonia. Remote though it was, the territory of the Penestae had strategic importance. It provided the one of the few passages from Illyria to Macedonia and Dardania to Macedonia via Oaeneum-Draudacum-Uskana-Styberra. In the period of 800-550BC, the Dardani broke into Pelagonia via Tetovo and Gostivar and pushed the Phrygian Briges there into the northern hills. It is probable that they overran Lyncus, Eordaea and Edessa. The Illyrian influence of the region has been noted in the archaeological discovery of a statue of bronzed dancer from the Illyrian period, 6th century BC.
In 171 BC, Gentius was allied with the Romans against the Macedonians, and together In 170BC, The Romans lead by Appius Claudius were on the verge of victory. However, Gentius in 169BC had changed sides and allied himself with Perseus of Macedon and lead his army to a victory over the Romans in Uskana via Oaeneum. In 169BC, Oaeneum fell into the hands of the Romans again. The Penestae were generally allied with the Romans. After the conquest of Uskana, Perseus marched his army towards Oaeneum. The location of the town was a good one, and in particular there was a pass there to the Labeatae, Gentius’ kingdom. One of Perseus’ men familiar with the area said there was no point in taking Oaeneum unless he controlled Draudacum. Perseus took Draudacum with ease. However, when Perseus reached Oaeneum, it could not be taken without a full-scale assault. It’s strength lay in having rather more men of military age than other places, in the fortified walls of the town, and in being enclosed on one side be a river and on the other by a mountain which was very high and difficult of access. These factors gave the townspeople some hope of resisting. Perseus invested the town and began constructing a ramp on the upper side of the city; its height would bring him up over the city walls. As soon as the ramp reached the city wall, the assault began and led to Perseus capturing Oaeneum. The town was plundered and the adult males were slaughtered.
By 168BC, Gentius and Perseus were both defeated by the Romans and the area of Oaeneum became apart of the Roman province of Illyricum
Roman Period 
Taught by the large barbaric incursions (Celts, Ostrogoths, Huns) which had happened more frequently from the 3rd century AD and continued in the following centuries, in the late 4th century AD, the Roman emperors started to build strong in-wall cities and fortresses on dominant hills. From this period are dating the numerous castrums, castles and refugee settlements for the population of Tetovo area of which most significant were those near present villages of Rogle, Orašje, Lešok, Jegunovce, Otunje, Gradec and the Isar-Banjiče site near Tetovo.
Although the Christianization in Macedonia came along with the St. Apostle Paul in the 50’s of the 1st century AD, even after the king Constantine declared this religion legal in 313, got through the common people more massively, and also the building of Early Christian churches- basilicas started. Until today in Polog trails of 16 such Early Christian basilicas have been revealed, of which 12 in Tetovo area and 4 in Gostivar area, and best has been investigated the one in Stenče dating from the 5th century AD, which is unique in Macedonia with 3 baptisteries, and the one in Tudence dating from the second half of 6th century AD, and being the only one the oldest three-conhal church in R. Macedonia and is rare even in whole southern Europe.
Yet after the strong Avaric-Slavic incursions in the late 6th century AD, all the fortresses were abandoned but not entirely demolished. Large part of them, two-three centuries afterwards, when again stabile state organization was introduced, had been restored for the same purpose, but this time they had been inhabited by the dominant Slavic population laid foundations of the new medieval towns.
Ottoman Period 
At the end of the 14th century, Tetovo, with the rest of Macedonia, fell under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. According to the official Ottoman statistics of Nahiya Tetovo, in 1452 there were 146 Christian households and 60 Muslim, 1453 the population consists of 153 Christian and 56 Muslim families, and in 1468 - 180 Christian and 41 Muslim families, in 1545 there were 99 Christian and 101 Muslim families (38 were islamicised), in 1568 there were 108 Christian and 329 Muslim (184 islamicised).
During the Ottoman period, the town was known as Kalkandelen, which means Shield Penetrator, in honor of the local weapon-smiths. Their superior craftsmanship extended to the advent of small firearms and cannons, which were traded all over the Balkans. The small hill above the town, near the present-day village of Lavce, has been fortified since Paeonian times and the Ottomans also built a substantial fortress there, known as the Baltepes fortress. A number of mosques were built, such as The Colored or Painted Mosque (Aladzha or Sharena Dzamija), also known as the Pasha Mosque, was built in 1459 by the Ottoman Turks; and in the 16th century, the Bektashi order also settled in Tetovo, where they remain at the Bektashi Teke. Tetovo under Ottoman tutelage became an important trade center for the local farmers and craftsmen, as well as an important military fortification. Haci Halife in the 17th century noted in his writings that Kalkandelen was expanding at an amazing rate in its lowland areas. By the 19th century, when the population of Kalkandelen began to increase with settlement from the surrounding villages, the French traveler Ami Boue noted that the population had reached about 4,500 people, which are Bulgarians, Albanians and Serbs. The total population of the Pashalik of Kalkandelen (Tetovo) is 30,000-40,000 and is consisted of Bulgarians and Serbs who are Orthodox and of Albanian Muslims.
According the statistics of the Bulgarian ethnographer Vasil Kanchov in 1900 the population of Tetovo consists of 8,500 Bulgarians, 9,000 Turks, 500 Arnauts and 1,200 Roma. According to the statistics of the secretary of the Bulgarian Exarchate Dimitar Mishev in 1905 the population of the town consists of 7,408 Bulgarians and 30 Roma.
In the Ottoman Empire, Kalkandelen came under the Vilayet of Kosovo and was strongly orientated towards Albanians and the Albanian struggle for independence from Ottoman rule. In 1843, the Uprising of Dervish Cara led to Albanians revolting against the Sultan due their disagreement with the Tanzimat reforms. Kalkandelen was liberated by Dervish Cara from January 1844 until September 1844, where Omar Pasha defeated the rebel forces and Kalkandelen remained within the Ottoman Empire.
During World Wars I & II 
During the breakup of the Ottoman Empire, Tetovo came under Albanian control by Albanian revolutionaries led by Hasan Prishtina. From a period between 1913 to 1915, during the Balkan war, the Serbian army captured Tetovo. During World War I, a rift occurred between Bulgaria and Serbia. The Bulgarian army started making way through the area and annexed Tetovo and the rest of the Macedonia region. At the end of the war, however Serbia gained momentum, proclaiming the area as "South Serbia". When the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was formed, Tetovo was under the Vardar Banovina.
Under Royalist Yugoslavia, a crackdown on Albanians and Turks forced many from Tetovo to immigrate to the US and Canada, while thousands of Serbs were encouraged to move into the town to develop the mining and hydro-electric industries. Orthodox churches were built, skiing and pony trekking started in the Sar Mountains and White Russian settlers arrived; the town was booming. The 1930s were good for the new Slav settlers of Tetovo until World War II. In 1941, Vardar Banovina ceased to exists due to the arrival of the Axis powers. Tetovo was once again under Albanian rule. The Balli Kombetar ruled Tetovo with military and financial aid from the Axis powers. With the German’s losing the war, the situation favoured the communists. The new Serb settlers set up the Macedonian Communist Party, founded on 19 March 1943 in Tetovo, but by then the Albanian Communist party was also fighting for the town.
Under Communism 
The town became part of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia. The early years of Socialist Yugoslavia were turbulent for Tetovo’s Albanian population. Many were subjected to repression, causing many to immigrate. Those who remained demonstrated periodically but violently against the communist regime, notably in the Yucel Incident of 1957 and the Kalkandelen Incident of 1968. In 1974, a new federal constitution was ratified which eased the tension of the local Albanians.
Tetovo under Josip Broz Tito's Yugoslavia went through major changes. Many Communist styled apartments were built around the city centre of Tetovo as well as concrete roads. New suburbs such as the Hajdućka suburb were formed to help accommodate the rising number of Macedonians moving to the city. Some of the city's historic buildings, such as the Old Mosque, were demolished to accommodate the increase in population.
When troubles in neighbouring Kosovo began in 1981, Tetovo had to be put under control of paramilitary police due to the rioting and show of sympathy with the Kosovar Albanians. The same happened again in 1989.
Break up of Yugoslavia 
When it became obvious in 1990 that Yugoslavia was about to fall, over 2,000 ethnic Albanians marched through Tetovo demanding secession from the Socialist Republic of Macedonia and unity with Albania. Self-determination of an ethnic minority within a state was not a right under the Socialist Republic of Macedonia’s constitution, and protesting their lack of representation under the constitution of a new Republic of Macedonia, the Albanians of Macedonia boycotted the referendum on independence from Yugoslavia and were thus excluded from almost any representation in the new government. Tetovo became headquarters of the new Albanian political parties, which were regarded as unconstitutional by the Republic of Macedonia. Tensions worsened, Tetovo, along with the city of Gostivar, took in and sheltered several thousands of Bosnian Muslim refugees from 1992 until the end of the Bosnian war. Prior to the NATO bombing of Serb forces in Kosovo, Tetovo became the rear supply base for the Kosovo Liberation Army, and then later home to over 100,000 Kosovar refugees from the Kosovo war. In 1997, Alajdin Demiri, the mayor of Tetovo, was jailed for raising the double headed eagle flag of Albania from Tetovo town hall, and by 2000 the outbreak of hostilities in Tanusevci had spilled into the towns of Tetovo and Gostivar. In 2001, civil war had erupted in Macedonia with Tetovo being the main backdrop of the war. Fortunately, the Ohrid Agreement was established, allowing peace to return to the city again.
In economic terms Tetovo is one of the most developing cities in Macedonia with some multinational companies (Ecolog International, Renova, Zikoprom) being located in this town. Despite the interest of private companies in Tetovo, the city is neglected by the government. Tetovo suffers from urban sprawl. Due to the lack of government regulations and no system for building permits, many houses and buildings have been built in unsafe ways and are built in random parts of the city i.e. on the footpaths, roads and parks.
Tetovo is one of the educational centres in Macedonia hosting two universities South East European University (Public Private Non-profitable) and State University of Tetovo (Public University). The prior one has educational leadership in the region, whereat the Bologna Process is applicable since its establishment, has the best campus in the region of South East Europe and is trend with international developments in education. More than 20,000 students get their education and degrees in this town.
In addition, Tetovo is a centre of politics. Most Albanian political parties (Democratic Party of Albanians (DPA), Democratic Union for Integration (DUI) and the Party for Democratic Prosperity (PDP) have their main seats in this city.
The most popular sport in Tetovo is Football. Tetovo is represented by three clubs all of which play in the Macedonian First League. FK Shkëndija, supported by the majority of the Albanians living in Tetovo, FK Teteks, supported by the Macedonians living in Tetovo and FK Renova, mainly supported by Albanians but has significant Macedonian support. FK Ljuboten (Macedonian: ФК Љуботен) founded in 1919, is the oldest football club in Macedonia. The club currently plays in the Macedonian Third League. FK Vrapčište currently plays in the Macedonian Second League, however, they are in located in the outskirts of Tetovo, village named Vrapčište. Wrestling, karate and volleyball are also fairly popular sports in Tetovo. Few volleyball teams are active in the volleyball league of Macedonia: Škendija, Bami Kor Medika, etc.)
Main sights 
- Šarena Džamija ("The Painted Mosque").
- Lešok Monastery. The Monastery of Lešok with the churches of St. Athanasius and of the Church of the Holy Virgin are only 8 kilometres (5 mi) away from Tetovo, by the road leading to the village of Brezno. The Church of the Holy Virgin, built in 1326, is an excellent example of Byzantine style and architectural tradition. The church has three layers of frescoes. The 1st and bottom layer is from the first time of construction, the second and middle one was added sometime in the 17th century, and the third and top layer was added in 1879. Several marble columns from the original church can still be seen in the Tetovo museum. The church of St. Athanasius was built in 1924 next to the church of the Holy Mother of God. In the yard of the Monastery of Lešok is the tomb of the cleric, writer and enlightener Kiril Peichinovich, who was born in 1770. In his honor, this monastery hosts an International Meeting of Literary Translators. Tetovo is also a host to the Festival of the Macedonian Choirs.
- Tetovo Hamam, Wudu (avdes, abdest).
- Tetovo Kale Fortress (Baltepes Fortress), located on the top of the Baltepes hill, above Tetovo. It was built in 1820 from Abdurahman Pasha. The Baltepes had a series of tunnels from all the main Ottoman houses in the town leading to the fortress. The thinking behind the tunnel system was to enable the defenders of the fortress to escape behind enemy lines if the fortress was besieged, allowing the besiegers themselves to be encircled. The last tunnel collapsed in 1960s and since excavation started, two of the tunnels, to Selce and Lavce, have been found.
- Saat Mosque ("The Clock Mosque"), the name implies it used to have a clock in its minaret.
- Kumluk Mosque ("The Sandy Mosque"), an old mosque in the upper bazaar area of Tetovo. The name is derived from the reddish-yellow exterior of the mosque.
- Arabati Baba Tekke, built by Sersem Ali Dede from 1538–1548
- Tetovo's Stone Bridge, one of three stone bridges in the city. It crosses the Pena river
Most of the old heritage buildings are situated in the old town, near the centre of Tetovo. Tetovo has many old buildings and monuments however, they are endangered of being demolished by people building unpermitted buildings
As of 2002, the city of Tetovo has 52,915 inhabitants and the ethnic composition was the following:
- Albanians - 28,897 (54.6%)
- Macedonians - 18,555 (35.1%)
- Roma - 2,352 (4.5%)
- Turks - 1,878 (3.6%)
- Serbs - 587 (1.1%)
- Bosniaks - 156 (0.3%)
- others - 490 (0.9%)
|census 1948||census 1953||census 1961||census 1971||census 1981||census 1994||census 2002|
Popova Šapka is a ski resort located in the Šar Mountains. Despite being around seven kilometers from the city, it is generally associated with Tetovo. Popova Šapka attracts many tourists in winter due it being one of the popular ski resorts in the former Yugoslavia. Aside from hosting recreational and competitive skiing competitions, Popova Šapka has many villas and restaurants to accommodate visitors. The rise in hotels was because the cable car that took people from Tetovo to Popova Šapka was destroyed during the 2001 Macedonia conflict. Therefore, people stay at Popova Šapka overnight before returning to Tetovo.
Notable people from Tetovo 
Honorary citizens 
International relations 
Twin towns — Sister cities 
Tetovo is twinned with:
See also 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Tetovo|
- 2002 Census results
- Cook, Bernard A. (2001). Europe since 1945: an encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. pp. 814–. ISBN 978-0-8153-4058-4.
- Trankova, Dimana (2011). "Tito, Teto and Some Troubled Tourism Await You in Tetovo, Macedonia". Balkan Traveller.
- Evans, Thammy (2012). Macedonia. Bradt Travel Guides Ltd, IDC House, The Vale, Chalfront St Peter, Bucks SL9 9RZ, England: The Globe Pequot Press Inc. pp. 238–239. ISBN 13: 978 1 84162 395 5 Check
|isbn=value (help). Retrieved 2013-02-26.
- Smith, William (2012). Dictionary of Greek and Roman geography, Volume 2. p. 457. Retrieved 2013-02-26.
- Rome's Mediterranean Empire : Books 41-45 and the Periochae: Books 41-45. great clarendon street oxford ox2 6dp: Oxford University Press. 2012. p. 113. ISBN 13: 978 0 19 283340 2 Check
|isbn=value (help). Retrieved 2013-02-26.
- Hammond, N. G. L. (1988). A History of Macedonia Volume III: 336-167 B.C. great clarendon street oxford ox2 6dp: oxford university press. ISBN 13: 978-0-19-814815-9 Check
|isbn=value (help). Retrieved 2013-02-26.
- Venning, Timothy (2012). A Chronology of the Roman Empire. the tower building 11 york road London se1 7nx: continuum international publishing group. p. 148. ISBN 978 1441 15478 Check
|isbn=value (help). Retrieved 2013-02-26.
- VICKERS, MIRANDA (1988). Between Serb and Albanian A History of Kosovo. Columbia University Press. ISBN 13: 978-0-19-814815-9 Check
|isbn=value (help). Retrieved 2013-02-26.
- From the newest book on Tetovo history: Darko Gavrovski “ТЕТОVO ANTIQUITIES - Polog valley from Prehistory to 7th century AD, with special emphasis on the Tetovo region”, Tetovo, 2009 (Дарко Гавровски, "Тетовски древности. Полог од Праисторијата до 7.век н.е., со посебен осврт на тетовскиот крај", Тетово, 2009). More details on: www.gavro.com.mk . The data here are edited by the author Darko Gavrovski.
- Составот на населението во Тетовската нахија во XV век
- La Turquie d'Europe; observations sur la geographie, la géologie, l'histoire naturelle, etc. (Paris, 1840), p. 306-307.
- Ami Boue
- Vasil Kanchov. „Macedonia — ethnography and statistics“, Sofia, 1900
- D.M.Brancoff. "La Macédoine et sa Population Chrétienne". Paris, 1905, pages 122-123
- John Sparrow. "International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies". Retrieved 10 March 2011.
- Macedonian International News Agency
- Macedonian census, language and religion
- Censuses of population 1948 - 2002
- Enisa Bajrami. "Tanja Fajon visited Tetova!". Retrieved 1 February 2013.
- FOCUS Information Agency. "Taratur, Macedonia: Ramush Haradinaj to become an honorary citizen of Tetovo". Retrieved 1 February 2013.
- tetova.gov.mk. "Mesic: Tetovo is a home to people with different cultural backgrounds". Retrieved 1 February 2013.
- South East European University. "Ferid Murad, Honoured Guest of the SEEU Graduation Ceremony". Retrieved 1 February 2013.
- Тетово се збратимува со турскиот град Коња -Утрински весник
- http://www.gavro.com.mk/ - 'The Secrets of Tetovo' - The most detailed page on Tetovo history
- http://www.cdnh.edu.mk/Proekti/multimedija2007/kirilpejcinovik2/inter.htm - web page for Kiril Pejchinovic - Tetoec
- Vratnica - A village near Tetovo