Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid

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Not to be confused with 11-nor-9-Carboxy-THC.
Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid
Tetrahydrocannabinolicacid.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(6aR,10aR)-1-hydroxy-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6h-benzo[c]chromene-2-carboxylic acid
Clinical data
Legal status
  •  ?
Identifiers
CAS number 23978-85-0
ATC code None
PubChem CID 98523
Chemical data
Formula C22H30O4 
Mol. mass 358.4733 g/mol

Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA, 2-COOH-THC), is a biosynthetic precursor of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component of Cannabis.[1][2][3][4] THCA is found in variable quantities in fresh, undried cannabis, but is progressively decarboxylated to THC with drying, and especially under intense heating such as when cannabis is smoked.[5] While THCA does not have psychoactive effects in its own right, it does have antiinflammatory and neuroprotective effects.[6][7] Despite the ready decarboxylation by drying or heating ex vivo, conversion of THCA to THC in vivo appears to be very limited, giving it only very slight efficacy as a prodrug for THC.[8] Consequently it is believed to be important in less-psychoactive preparations of cannabis used for medical use, such as cannabis tea.[9] It is also commonly used as a biomarker in drug testing along with THCV, to distinguish between prescribed synthetic Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, such as Marinol, and cannabis plant material which may also be used by patients.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Baker PB, Taylor BJ, Gough TA. (Jun 1981), The tetrahydrocannabinol and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid content of cannabis products, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 33 (6): 369–72, doi:10.1111/j.2042-7158.1981.tb13806.x, PMID 6115009 
  2. ^ Sirikantaramas S, Morimoto S, Shoyama Y, Ishikawa Y, Wada Y, Shoyama Y, Taura F. (2004-09-17), The gene controlling marijuana psychoactivity: molecular cloning and heterologous expression of Delta1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase from Cannabis sativa L., Journal of Biological Chemistry 279 (38): 39767–74, doi:10.1074/jbc.M403693200, PMID 15190053 
  3. ^ Moore C, Rana S, Coulter C. (2007-06-01), Simultaneous identification of 2-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol, tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol and cannabidiol in oral fluid, J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 852 (1-2): 459–64, doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2007.02.016, PMID 17321807 
  4. ^ Taura F. (Jun 2009), Studies on tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase that produces the acidic precursor of tetrahydrocannabinol, the pharmacologically active cannabinoid in marijuana, Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 3 (3): 83–7, PMID 22495534 
  5. ^ Dussy FE, Hamberg C, Luginbühl M, Schwerzmann T, Briellmann TA. (2005-04-20), Isolation of Delta9-THCA-A from hemp and analytical aspects concerning the determination of Delta9-THC in cannabis products, Forensic Science International 149 (1): 3–10, doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.05.015, PMID 15734104 
  6. ^ Ruhaak LR, Felth J, Karlsson PC, Rafter JJ, Verpoorte R, Bohlin L. (2011), Evaluation of the cyclooxygenase inhibiting effects of six major cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa, Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 34 (5): 774–8, doi:10.1248/bpb.34.774, PMID 21532172 
  7. ^ Moldzio R, Pacher T, Krewenka C, Kranner B, Novak J, Duvigneau JC, Rausch WD. (2012-05-07), Effects of cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiol in MPP(+) affected murine mesencephalic cultures, Phytomedicine 19 (8-9): 819–24, doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2012.04.002, PMID 22571976 
  8. ^ Jung J, Meyer MR, Maurer HH, Neusüss C, Weinmann W, Auwärter V. (Oct 2009), Studies on the metabolism of the Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol precursor delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (Delta9-THCA-A) in rat using LC-MS/MS, LC-QTOF MS and GC-MS techniques, Journal of Mass Spectrometry 44 (10): 1423–33, doi:10.1002/jms.1624, PMID 19728318 
  9. ^ Hazekamp A, Bastola K, Rashidi H, Bender J, Verpoorte R. (2007-07-15), Cannabis tea revisited: a systematic evaluation of the cannabinoid composition of cannabis tea, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 113 (1): 85–90, doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.05.019, PMID 17604926 
  10. ^ Radünz L, Westphal F, Maser E, Rochholz G. (2012-02-10), THCVA-A - a new additional marker for illegal cannabis consumption, Forensic Science International 215 (1-3): 171–4, doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.03.001, PMID 21454026