Teuku Muhammad Hasan

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Teuku Muhammad Hasan
Mr T.M. Hasan.jpg
Mr. Teuku Muhammad Hasan
1st Governor of Sumatra
In office
1945–1949
Preceded by New Term
Succeeded by Position Abolished
Minister of Education and Culture
In office
1948–1949
Preceded by Ali Sastroamidjojo
Succeeded by Sarmidi Mangunsarkoro
Minister of Religious Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia
In office
1948–1949
Preceded by Masjkur
Succeeded by Masjkur
Personal details
Born (1906-04-04)April 4, 1906
Netherlands Pidie, Aceh, Dutch East Indies
Died September 21, 1997(1997-09-21) (aged 91)
Indonesia Jakarta, Indonesia
Alma mater Leiden University
Religion Islam

Teuku Muhammad Hasan (April 4, 1906 – September 21, 1997) was an Indonesian politician, and the first Governor of Sumatra after Indonesian Independence in 1945,[1] and Deputy Chairman, concurrently Home Affairs, Education & Culture and Religious Affairs ad interim in Sjafruddin Prawiranegara's Indonesia Emergency Cabinet (22 December 1948 – 13 July 1949).[2]

Early life[edit]

He was born in April 4, 1906 as Teuku Sarong, into an aristocratic family in Sigli, Aceh. His father, Teuku Bintara Pineung Ibrahim was an Ulèë Balang in Pidie (Ulèë Balang was an aristocratic class in Aceh who led a district).

He went to Volksschool (Common School) in Lampoeh Saka from 1914-1917. In 1924 he studied at Dutch-language Uuroprrsche Lagere School (RLS), After graduated in 1924, he studied at Koningen Wilhelmina School (KWS) in Batavia (now Jakarta). Then attended Rechtshoogeschool (Law High School).

Time in the Netherlands[edit]

He decided to go to the Netherlands when he was 25 years old, studying Law at Leiden University.

During his time in Netherlands, he joined Indonesian student organization Perhimpunan Indonesia and became an independence activist with another Indonesian students like Mohammad Hatta and Sutan Sjahrir.

He graduated as Dutch: Meester in de Rechten (Master of Laws) in 1933.

Independence struggle[edit]

Teuku Muhammad Hasan returned to Indonesia, and landed in Ulèë Lheuë Sea Port, Kutaradja (now Banda Aceh) in 1934. He was suspected by the Dutch authorities for bringing issues about Indonesian independence movement, and took all his books and other possession.

He was active in an Islamic organization Muhammadiyah and education. During this era, they made schools and the woman branch of the organization, Aisyiah.

His other education activity was establishing Perguruan Taman Siswa Aceh Chapter in Kutaraja, in 11 Juli 1937. Served as chairman, and with Teuku Nyak Arif as secretary.

He made a scholarship foundation Atjehsche Studiefonds (Aceh Students Foundation) for supporting prospective but poor students.

He also chaired 'Perkumpulan Usaha Sama Akan Kemajuan Anak (Mutual Struggle Association for Children Development, or abbreviated as PUSAKA) with aim to build a school similar to Dutch's Holland Inlandsche School.

During Japanese Invasion in Indonesia 1942 - 1945, he was the chairman of Koperasi Ladang Pegawai Negeri (Field Cooperative for the Civil Servants) in Medan

He was the member of the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence in August 7, 1945, as the continuation from Committee for Preparatory Work for Indonesian Independence. This body was chaired by Sukarno. Independence was declared on August 17, 1945, two days after Japan surrendered to the Allied Forces in the end of Pacific War.

Governor of Sumatra[edit]

He was appointed by the new created Republic of Indonesia Government as the first Governor of Sumatra on August 22, 1945.[3]

Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia[edit]

In December 1948, the Dutch launched their second "Police Action" and focused their attack on Yogyakarta. Sukarno and Hatta, instead of running away to fight guerrilla warfare chose to remain in the city and were arrested.

Hearing the president was arrested, Mr Sjafruddin Prawiranegara, the Minister of Welfare, who was in Bukit Tinggi met Mr. Teuku Muhammad Hasan/Governor of Sumatera and Colonel Hidayat, Commander of Army and Territory of Sumatera in December 19, 1948. and established Government in Exile dubbed Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia (PDRI), on December 22, 1948, in Bukittinggi, Sumatra. Sjafruddin served as chairman of the emergency cabinet[4]

Mr. Teuku Muhammad Hasan was appointed as Deputy Chairman of PDRI, Minister of Home Affairs, Education & Culture and Religious Affairs ad interim.[5]

The leaders of the PDRI moved around West Sumatra in an effort to evade arrest by the Dutch who wanted to abolish the PDRI. In 1949 the PDRI government contacted the leaders of Indonesian forces in Java and the six Republic of Indonesia government ministers in Java who had escaped arrest.

Based on the Roem-Royen peace agreement, on July 13, 1949, Dutch troops were to be pulled out from Republic of Indonesia regions and the Republic of Indonesia leaders were to be freed. The PDRI would therefore no longer be required, and Mr. Sjafruddin Prawiranegara disbanded the PDRI and returned the mandate to the President of RI.

Oil companies nationalization[edit]

In 1951, as the chairman of Trading and Industry Commission of DPRS (People's Representative Council), he recommended Oil Companies Nationalization in Indonesia and other mining companies. His motion was accepted in August 2, 1951. This motion resulted nationalization some Dutch Oil Companies into Permina (1957) and Pertamin (1961). Both companies were merged in 1968 as Pertamina.[6][7]

Later life[edit]

Mr. Teuku Muhammad Hasan established Serambi Mekkah University in Banda Aceh,[8] and writing books. One of his book is Sejarah Perminyakan di Indonesia (published by Yayasan Sari Pinang Sakti, 1985).[9]

Mr. Teuku Muhammad Hasan died in September 21, 1997 in Jakarta.

Awards and honors[edit]

In 1990, University of North Sumatra honored him Doctor Honoris Causa.[9]

Mr. Teuku Muhammad Hasan was recognized as National Hero of Indonesia by Republic Indonesia Government with Keputusan Presiden (Keppres) Nomor 085/TK/Tahun 2006 dated November 3, 2006.[10]

A street in Banda Aceh is named after his name.[11]

Notes[edit]

External links[edit]

  • (Indonesian) [1] Kepustakaan Presiden RI
  • (Indonesian) [2] TEUKU MUHAMMAD HASAN MENTERI PENDIDIKAN ”DARURAT”
  • (Indonesian) [3] Sejarah Pertamina