The club was founded in 1920 as Klubi Sportiv Urani, which literally translates to Uranium Sport Clup, and they changed their name to Sport Klub Durrës just two years later in 1922. They kept the same name until they joined the Albania National Championship as one of the original six members alongside SK Tiranë, Skënderbeu Korçë, Bashkimi Shkodran, Urani Elbasan and Sportklub Vlorë. In 1930, before entering the National Championship, the club changes its name to the Klubi Sportiv Teuta Durrës, in reference to Queen Teuta of Illyria. In the first National Championship they finished fifth out of six teams, collecting three wins and two draws out of ten games. The following season they finished as runners-up in the league, as they lost 4–1 in the championship final against SK Tiranë, where the club's goalkeeper Niko Dovana famously scored the equaliser in the first leg which ended in a 1–1 draw.
In 1999 local businessman and owner of Eurotech Cement Edmond Hasanbelliu was named as the new president of the club, and he brought in Hasan Lika as manager immediately. He began investing in the club and introduced Albanian internationals Sokol Prenga and Suad Liçi in the club, alongside a host of other players including Orges Shehi and Arjan Sheta. In the club's first season under Hasan Lika and Edmond Hasanbelliu they finished in third place, behind Tomori Berat and eventual winners KF Tirana. They also had a successful Albanian Cup run as they eliminated Flamurtari Vlorë, KF Tirana and Dinamo Tirana to reach the final against KS Lushnja, which ended 0–0 after extra time and Teuta won won the game 5–4 on penalties. They qualified for the second qualifying round of the UEFA Cup in the following season, where they faced Austrian side SK Rapid Wien. They were elimated following a 6–0 aggregate loss, after 4–0 and 2–0 losses.
In November 2013 the president Hasanbelliu announced that the club had sold a 50% stake to Swiss company Gea Sport, who promised investment in the club in order to achieve domestic success as well as have good runs in Europe. The firm's first action as shareholders was to replace the Albanian coach Gugash Magani with the Italian Roberto Sorrentino, who became the club's first ever foreign coach. Following less than 2 months as shareholders Gea Sport were instrumental in bringing in 11 players during the January transfer window, most of which were foreigners, in an attempt to push for the title. on 24 February 2014, Sorrentino was fired as the first team coach following a string of poor results. The club announced the appointment of Ilir Daja the day after Sorrentino's departure.
The club play their home games at the Niko Dovana Stadium which was built in 1925 and currently has a capacity of around 13,000. The stadium was previously known as the Lokomotiva Stadium between 1958 and 1991 during Communism while the club was named Lokomotiva Durrës. The stadium has also been host to the Albania national team in 2010 where they played a friendly against Uzbekistan. During the 2013–14 season, according to the club's official website the average league attendance was 2,638.