Alvin M. Johnston
|Alvin M. "Tex" Johnston|
|Full name||Alvin M. "Tex" Johnston|
August 14, 1914|
|Died||October 29, 1998(aged 84)|
|Famous flights||Boeing 707 and B-52 test flights|
|Awards||1946 Thompson Trophy|
Johnston was born August 18, 1914, in Admire, Kansas, to farmers Alva and Ella Johnston. He made his first flight in 1925, at eleven years old, when a barnstormer landed near his home. That day, he decided to become a pilot. He received mechanics and pilot instruction, soloing at age fifteen. After graduating from high school, Johnston began barnstorming himself. Later he returned to school for engineering, but dropped out in 1939 before he finished the required courses to get his degree.
He married his wife DeLores in 1935.
In December 1942, Johnston moved to Bell Aircraft as a flight test engineer. He flew the P-39 Airacobra and the XP-63 during the prototype phases. He also flew the first US jet, the XP-59 Airacomet. Johnston earned his nickname "Tex" because of his penchant for wearing cowboy boots and a Stetson hat on the flightline.
After World War II ended, he bought two surplus Airacobras and modified them to enter and win the Thompson Trophy at the 1946 National Air Races. He set a world speed record of 379 miles per hour (610 km/h).
Johnston helped design and flew the rocket propelled Bell X-1 on May 22, 1947. He stayed on the program as a design advisor on modifications to the trim controls that he discovered were unusable in their manufactured configuration at high subsonic speeds. In 1991, he recounted his experience in the rocket plane in The Discovery Channel's documentary series "Frontiers of Flight" stating "...the airplane was just gorgeous" and that its 18 G design was "indestructible".
Johnston is best known for performing a barnstormer-style barrel-roll maneuver with Boeing's pioneering 367-80 jet in a demonstration flight over Lake Washington outside of Seattle, on August 7, 1955. The maneuver was caught on film and was frequently shown on the Discovery Wings cable channel in a three-minute short as part of the Touched by History series, while the channel still aired. Called before the then-president of Boeing, Bill Allen, for rolling the airplane, Johnston was asked what he thought he was doing, and responded with "I was selling airplanes". He kept his position as a test pilot, and did not get in legal trouble for his actions. Along with his cowboy style of dress, such maverick behavior is said to have inspired the creation of Dr. Strangelove's Maj. T.J. "King" Kong character, who, in rodeo style, rode a balky nuclear weapon to its target.
From 1964 to 1968, he was manager of the Boeing Atlantic Test Center in Cocoa Beach, Florida, working on two of Boeing's programs, the Minuteman missile and the Lunar Orbiter designed for the Apollo missions. He also worked with NASA managing Saturn and Apollo programs.
In 1968 Johnston left Boeing to manage Tex Johnston, Inc., Total-In-Flight-Simulator Inc. and Aero Spacelines (which handled the manufacture and certification of an outsized cargo airplane known as the Pregnant Guppy).
In 1975, he became director and chief pilot of Stanley Aviation Corporation, focusing on personnel escape systems (ejection seats). Johnston was inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame in 1993.
Family and death
In 1991, Johnston wrote his memoirs, Tex Johnston: Jet Age Test Pilot, with writer Charles Barton.
Johnston developed Alzheimer's disease in the 1990s and died in 1998. He is survived by his wife DeLores and three children.
- Jackson, Kenneth T.; Markoe, Karen; Markoe, Arnie (1998). The Scribner Encyclopedia of American Lives. United States: Simon and Schuster. pp. 295–296. ISBN 978-0-684-80663-1.
- Sam Howe Verhovek, Jet Age: The Comet, the 707, and the Race to Shrink the World, c. pp. 48-49
- "NASA - Dryden History - Historic Aircraft - X-1 Flight Summary."
- "Boeing: News Feature - B-52 50th Anniversary - First Flight."
- Thompson, R.G. (May 1, 1987). "Dash 80 - The story of the prototype 707". Air & Space Magazine. Retrieved March 14, 2009.
- "Alvin "Tex" Johnston". National Aviation Hall of Fame. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
- Johnston, A.M. and Barton, C.. Tex Johnston: Jet Age Test Pilot. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Press, 2000. ISBN 1-56098-931-9.
- Video interview
- Video of Johnston's Barrel Roll on YouTube
- Alvin "Tex" Johnston at the National Aviation Hall of Fame