|City of Texarkana|
Municipal Building in Texarkana, Texas
|Nickname(s): The Texas Side, T-Town, TK, TXK, & Twin City, One Horse Town|
|Motto: Twice as Nice|
Location of Texarkana, Texas
|• City Council||Mayor Bob Bruggeman
Bradfield H. Casteel
Brian L. Matthews
|• City Manager||John Whitson|
|• Total||29.5 sq mi (76.3 km2)|
|• Land||29.0 sq mi (75.2 km2)|
|• Water||0.4 sq mi (1.1 km2)|
|Elevation||299 ft (91 m)|
|• Density||1,254/sq mi (484.1/km2)|
|Time zone||Central (CST) (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|Area code(s)||903, 430|
|GNIS feature ID||1369752|
Texarkana is a city in Bowie County, Texas, United States, located in the Ark-La-Tex region. Together with neighboring Texarkana, Arkansas, it forms the community of Texarkana. The population of the Texas city was 36,411 at the 2010 census. The city and its Arkansas counterpart form the core of the Texarkana, Texas–Texarkana, Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area, encompassing all of Bowie County, Texas, and Miller County, Arkansas. The two cities had a combined population of 66,330 at the 2010 census, and the metropolitan area had a total population of 136,027.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Government
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Notable people
- 8 In popular culture
- 9 Photo gallery
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Railroads were quick to see the possibilities of this vast area, and in the late 1850s the builders of the Cairo and Fulton Railroad were pushing their line steadily across Arkansas. By 1874, they had crossed the Red River and had reached the Texas state line. Between February 16 and March 19, 1874, trains ran between the Texas border and the Red River, whence passengers and freight were ferried to Fulton to continue by rail. The Red River Bridge opened on March 20, 1874, and since then trains have run directly from Texarkana to St. Louis.
There was keen rivalry between the 1870s railroad builders. The Texas and Pacific Railroad reached across Texas to the Arkansas state line. The border was the logical place for the different railways to connect. On December 8, 1873, the Texas and Pacific sold the first town lots for the future city. First to buy was J.W. Davis, who purchased the land where today's Hotel McCartney now stands, opposite Union Station.
It is not known who gave Texarkana its name. A popular story credits Colonel Gus Knobel, who surveyed the Iron Mountain Railroad right-of-way from Little Rock to this section to the state line. He allegedly painted "TEX-ARK-ANA" on a plank and nailed it to a tree, saying, "This is the name of a town which is to be built here."
Miller County is probably the only county in the United States which was abolished, only to be reestablished later. Miller County was formed in 1820 to honor James Miller who was Arkansas' first governor. Miller County was formed with a large degree of uncertainty as to the location of the line dividing the county and the Mexican boundary. Consequently, settlers felt that Arkansas levied and collected taxes on land which eventually might be held by Mexico. Moreover, many who resented the oppression of Texans by the Mexicans were openly declaring allegiance to the Texans. This led to general unrest, and after the Texas Republic was created, it grew worse. So, in 1838, Governor James Conway proposed that the "easiest and most effective remedy is the abolition of Miller County to an area which is more patriotic." From that year until 1874, it was a part of Lafayette County. Its re-establishment sprung only from the sale of town lots in Texarkana in 1873. Efforts of the young town to be incorporated were not realized until October 17, 1880, nearly seven years after Texarkana, Texas (June 12, 1874) was formed. December 8, 1873, is generally recognized by both cities as the date of organization.
Texarkana is located at the junction of Interstate 30 and US highways 59, 67, 71, and 82 in extreme northeast Texas on the Texas-Arkansas border, at (33.437170, -94.067394). It is bordered by the city of Texarkana, Arkansas, to the east, and by the smaller cities of Nash and Wake Village, Texas, to the west. It is in the Central Time Zone.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the Texas city has a total area of 29.5 square miles (76.3 km2), of which 29.0 square miles (75.2 km2) is land and 0.42 square miles (1.1 km2), or 1.39%, is water.
- The warmest month is July.
- The highest recorded temperature was 117°F (47°C) in 1936.
- On average, the coolest month is January.
- The lowest recorded temperature was -6°F (-21°C) in 1989.
- The most precipitation on average occurs in November.
|Climate data for Texarkana, Texas|
|Record high °F (°C)||85
|Average high °F (°C)||52.5
|Average low °F (°C)||30.7
|Record low °F (°C)||−7
|Precipitation inches (mm)||3.91
As of the census of 2000, there were 34,782 people, 13,569 households, and 8,941 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,357.3 people per square mile (524.0/km²). There were 15,105 housing units at an average density of 589.4 per square mile (227.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 59.18% White, 37.05% African American, 0.34% Native American, 0.73% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.43% from other races and 1.22% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.91% of the population.
There were 13,569 households out of which 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.5% were married couples living together, 19.3% have a female householder with no husband present and 34.1% were non-families. 29.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.01.
In the city the age distribution of the population shows 26.0% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, and 15.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 89.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.4 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $29,727, and the median income for a family was $38,505. Males had a median income of $34,155 versus $21,143 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,815. About 19.4% of families and 24.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.8% of those under age 18 and 13.2% of those age 65 or over.
According to the city's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||Red River Army Depot & tenants||7,200|
|2||Christus St. Michael Health Care||1,883|
|3||Cooper Tire & Rubber Company||1,700|
|7||Wadley Regional Medical Center||850|
|8||Texarkana Independent School District||795|
|9||Texarkana Arkansas School District||785|
|10||Southern Refrigerated Transport||750|
According to the city's most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report Fund Financial Statements, the city's various funds had $36.0 million in revenues, $37.0 million in expenditures, $18.9 million in total assets, $3.5 million in total liabilities, and $7.2 million in investments.
The structure of the management and coordination of city services is:
|City Manager||John A. Whitson|
|Municipal Court Judge||Sherry Jackson|
|Police Chief||Daniel Shiner|
|Director of Human Resources||Jim Powell|
|Director of Community Redevelopment & Grants||Craig Lindholm-|
|Finance Director||Charles L. Bassett, Jr.|
|Chief Building Official||Lynn Henry|
|Marketing and Communications Director||Lisa Thompson|
|Director of Engineering and Infrastructure||Kyle Dooley|
|Director of Parks||Robby Robertson|
Public school districts
Colleges and universities
Texarkana is the headquarters of the theologically conservative American Baptist Association, whose Missionary Baptist churches are most numerous in Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Mississippi.
Though the city was historically Democratic, Texarkana is currently represented by Republicans in both houses of the Texas State Legislature. The state senator is Kevin Eltife from District 1. George Lavender of Texarkana represents Texas House District 1.
At the federal level, the two U.S. senators from Texas are Republicans John Cornyn and Ted Cruz; Texarkana is part of Texas's 4th congressional district, which is currently represented by Republican Ralph M. Hall.
The Federal Courthouse (which also holds the downtown post office) is located directly on the Arkansas-Texas state line and is the only federal office building to straddle a state line. During his campaign for the presidency in 1960. John F. Kennedy spoke on the steps of the courthouse.
Texarkana Union Station is located in downtown Texarkana along the state line, with daily Amtrak service west to Los Angeles via Dallas, San Antonio, and El Paso and east to Chicago via Little Rock and St. Louis.
The Texarkana Urban Transit District provides bus transportation to major areas of town along nine different routes. Service runs from 5:30 am to 6:20 pm Monday - Saturday.
Interstate 30 passes through Texarkana on the north. Loop 151 on the west of the city forms part of the Texarkana Loop, a three-quarter loop around the west, south and east of the twin cities with I-30 completing the loop on the north. Interstate 369 shares the western portion of Loop 151. Interstate 49 is a newly constructed interstate corridor on the Arkansas side of the city which will connect Texarkana to Shreveport, Louisiana.
- Miller Barber, golfer
- Jesse Belvin, singer, pianist and songwriter
- J.B. Bobo, magician
- Ben M. Bogard, clergyman, founder of American Baptist Association in Texarkana in 1924
- Willie Buchanon, football player
- David Crowder, musician
- Ocielia Gibson, model, first Texas winner of Miss Black USA Pageant
- V. E. Howard, clergyman who founded the International Gospel Hour and was the pastor of the Walnut Street Church of Christ in Texarkana
- LaMichael James, football player for the San Francisco 49ers
- Brandon Jones, NFL player for the Baltimore Ravens
- Parnelli Jones, race car driver
- Scott Joplin, musician and composer (founder of ragtime music)
- Jeff Keith, lead singer of rock band Tesla
- Joshua Logan, film and stage director
- Ryan Mallett, quarterback in the NFL for the New England Patriots
- Eddie Mathews, baseball player
- Julie Meadows, former pornographic actress
- Will Middlebrooks, baseball player for the Boston Red Sox
- Dustin Moseley, baseball player
- Craig Monroe, baseball player
- Mac Morgan, opera singer
- Ross Perot, businessman and politician
- Charles B. Pierce, movie producer
- Molly Quinn, actress
- Lindsey Rayl, actress and singer/songwriter
- James Theodore Richmond, writer and conservationist
- Bill Rogers, golfer
- Dame Marjorie Morris Scardino, Pulitzer Prize-winning publisher and CEO of Pearson PLC
- Michael Jarboe Sheehan, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Santa Fe
- Rod Smith, NFL player, Denver Broncos
- Gunnar Stansson, YouTube celebrity, the star of videos such as "Unforgivable"
- Drew Stubbs, Major League Baseball player for the Cleveland Indians
- Marshall Terrill, best-selling author
- Aysel Teymurzadeh, singer-performer
- Jeremiah Trotter, NFL player
- Nathan Vasher, NFL player
- Michael Wacha, professional baseball pitcher for the St. Louis Cardinals
- Frank D. White, governor of Arkansas from 1981 to 1983
- Otis Williams, musician, founding member of The Temptations
In popular culture
- Texarkana is referenced in the song "Cotton Fields" by the American folk and blues musician Lead Belly and later recorded by several notable country rock artists, including The Highwaymen, Buck Owens, The Beach Boys and Creedence Clearwater Revival. Lead Belly, aka Huddie Ledbetter, was born on a cotton plantation near Linden, Texas, about 40 miles southwest of Texarkana, and later worked on a plantation near DeKalb Texas, abpout 35 miles west.
- Other popular songs that name-check the city include "I've Been Everywhere" by Hank Snow, later covered by Johnny Cash; "Gimme Gimme Good Lovin'" by Crazy Elephant; "24 Hours at a Time" by the Marshall Tucker Band; "Texarkana Baby" by Bob Wills and the Texas Playboys, covered by Tennessee Ernie Ford; and two songs by Joe Ely, "Fingernails" and "I'm Gonna Strangle You Shorty."
- Brenda Lee's 1959 song "Let's Jump the Broomstick" references the city with the lyric "Goin' to Alabama back from Texarkana, Goin' all around the world".
- Texarkana is referenced as one of the places visited by a the red car in The Brave Little Toaster during the song "Worthless"
- Texarkana is the subject and title of a 1991 song by R.E.M.. The track appears on the band's seventh studio album, Out of Time.
- In the novel A Canticle for Leibowitz, centuries after a nuclear war that reduces world civilization to second dark age, Texarkana rises as the capital of a burgeoning empire that expands across the former United States and becomes known as the Atlantic Confederacy.
- In the 1977 movie Smokey and the Bandit, The Bandit and The Snowman (Burt Reynolds and Jerry Reed) are making a run from Atlanta to Texarkana to get a load of beer. Jerry Reed's 1977 hit song "East Bound and Down" from the soundtrack refers to the city in the lyric "The boys are thirsty in Atlanta and there's beer in Texarkana," regarding the lack of availability of Coors beer east of Texas at that time. (In fact, Texarkana, Texas, is dry and the alcohol distributor is actually in Texarkana, Arkansas.)
- In the movie Zombieland, Woody Harrelson refers to the relationship with his new zombie-killing companion, Jesse Eisenberg, that he figures it will last "all the way to Texarkana".
- In Season 5, Episode 5 "Southbound and Down" of the FX TV show Archer, Archer and the crew from ISIS encounter a hostile biker gang in Texarkana while on their way to Austin, Texas.
Central Christian Church, a Disciples of Christ congregation, at 4605 North State Line in Texarkana, Texas
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Texarkana city, Texas". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Texarkana, TX-Texarkana, AR Metro Area". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- History of Texarkana
- "Our City". Ci.texarkana.tx.us. Retrieved 2010-12-29.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- City of Texarkana 2009 CAFR. Retrieved 2010-11-15.
- City of Texarkana Contact Directory. Retrieved 2010-11-15.
- "Parole Division Region I." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 15, 2010.
- "Contact Information." Texas Sixth Court of Appeals. Retrieved on March 10, 2010.
- "FCI Texarkana Contact Information." Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved on June 2, 2010.
- "Ward Map." City of Texarkana, Texas. Retrieved on July 2, 2010.
- "Benjamin Marcus Bogard (1868–1951)". encyclopediaofarkansas.net. Retrieved August 2, 2013.
- "Verna Elisha Howard (1911-2000)". therestorationmovement.com. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- City of Texarkana, Texas portal
- Texarkana Chamber of Commerce
- Handbook of Texas Online: Texarkana, Texas
- Texarkana Business Reviews
- Texarkana Gazette
- Texarkana Convention & Visitors Bureau