Texas's 23rd congressional district
|Texas's 23rd congressional district|
|Current Representative||Pete Gallego (D–Alpine)|
|Ethnicity||41% White, 2% Black, 55.1% Hispanic, 2.2% other|
|Cook PVI||R+5 (2012)|
The district runs along the majority of Texas's border with Mexico, just north of the Rio Grande. While it encompasses numerous county seats and a few towns of regional economic importance, the district is predominantly rural, with no major urban area in the district. It abuts El Paso at its western point and San Antonio at its eastern point. Its large size is due to its low population density—one of the lowest in the country. It encompasses all of Big Bend National Park and Big Bend Ranch State Park. Major economic activities in the district include farming, ranching, oil and mineral extraction, recreation and tourism.
As of the 2000 census, the district contained 651,620 people. Of these, 41% are non-Hispanic whites, 55.1% Hispanic, 2% black, and 2.2% other. The district's population is 74.6% urban. Per capita Income for the district is $18,692. The district has a 6.5% unemployment rate. Of the employed, 71.8% is private, 19.4% government, and 8.4% self-employed. Major industries include Retail trade, Education services, Health Care, and Manufacturing. 222,012 households are within the district, with an average of 2.8 persons per household.
Election results 
Elections from 1967 to 1992 
This district was created in 1967, following passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In addition, it followed the case of Wesberry v. Sanders, resulting in Texas' previous congressional map being tossed out. Democrats held the district until 1993.
Elections from 1992 to 2002 
Following the 1990 census, in 1992, the Texas Legislature created the new 28th District, mostly from the eastern portion of the 23rd. In the process, the legislature left a heavily Republican section of San Antonio in the 23rd. Charging the 8-year incumbent, Democrat Albert Bustamante, with neglecting the 23rd's needs, the Republican Henry Bonilla won his seat in 1992 by the largest margin of victory against an incumbent that year, and took his seat in 1993.
Although the 23rd constituents had a slight Democratic lean, Bonilla had a very conservative voting record. Largely because of his popularity in San Antonio, he didn't face a credible challenger until 2002, when the former Democratic Texas Secretary of State, Henry Cuellar, came within 2 points of unseating him.
2004 election 
During the 2003 Texas redistricting, the Republican-controlled Texas Legislature shifted most of Laredo, which had been one of the bases of the 23rd from the beginning, into the 28th district. Several heavily Republican suburbs of San Antonio were shifted into the 23rd district, all but ensuring Bonilla of a seventh term.
|Texas's 23rd congressional district election, 2004|
2006 election 
On June 28, 2006, the U.S. Supreme Court, in League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry ruled that the 23rd District violated the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The case turned on the fact that the 23rd District was a protected majority-Hispanic district. If the 23rd were redrawn to put Hispanics in a minority, a new majority-Hispanic district had to be created. Although Hispanics made up 55 percent of the new 23rd's population, they comprised only 46 percent of the new 23rd's voting-age population. Therefore, the Court said, the new 23rd was not a true majority-minority district. The Court found that the new Austin-to-McAllen 25th District was not compact enough to be an acceptable replacement. The Court ruled that the legislature had violated the rights of Hispanic voters.
As a result, on August 4, 2006, a three-judge panel announced replacement district boundaries for the 2006 election in the 23rd district. Due to the 23rd's size, nearly every district along the El Paso-San Antonio corridor had to be redrawn as well.
In the change, the new 23rd lost many of the heavily Republican areas given to it in 2003, as well as the rest of Laredo. It received a large portion of south San Antonio, which was heavily Democratic. Four other districts were affected: the 28th (represented by Democrat Henry Cuellar), 25th (Democrat Lloyd Doggett), 15th (Democrat Ruben Hinojosa) and 21st (Republican Lamar S. Smith). As a result, on November 7, 2006 (the day of the general election), these five districts held open primaries, called a "jungle primary." If no candidate were to receive as much as 50% of the vote, a runoff election in December would decide the seat.
In the 23rd, the incumbent Bonilla had two significant opponents, both Democrats: the Vietnam War veteran Rick Bolanos and Ciro Rodriguez, the former Congressman of the 28th district. In the Spring, Bolanos won the now moot 23rd district Democratic primary. Rodriguez lost a primary challenge to Cuellar in the 28th district, which was also vacated. The redrawing placed Rodriguez' home, along with most of his old base, into the 23rd district. Other candidates in the special election were: Albert Uresti, the retired San Antonio Fire Department district chief and brother of the state Senator Carlos Uresti; Lukin Gilliland, a rancher and businessman from Alamo Heights; Adrian De Leon, the owner of a truck stop in Carrizo Springs; and August Beltran of San Antonio. Craig T. Stephens, an independent candidate, also filed to run.
On November 7, 2006, Henry Bonilla received significantly more votes than any of his challengers, but did not receive 50% of the votes cast. Though none of the Democratic candidates came close to Bonilla individually, as a whole the six Democratic candidates received slightly more votes than Bonilla, the only Republican candidate. However, neither party received more than 50% of the vote because of a third party candidate.
A runoff election was held on December 12, 2006 between Bonilla and Rodriguez, and Rodriguez won.
|Texas's 23rd congressional district runoff election, 2006|
|Republican||Henry Bonilla (incumbent)||32,165||45.68%||-23.9|
|Democratic gain from Republican||Swing||24.5|
2010 election 
The National Republican Congressional Committee targeted Texas' 23rd Congressional District to try to regain it, and strongly supported the Republican campaign financially. Francisco "Quico" Canseco, a San Antonio businessman, became the Republican nominee for the district after defeating Will Hurd, Robert Lowry, Joseph Mack Gould, and Michael Kueber in the Republican primary. Canseco won the General Election on November 2, 2010, defeating the incumbent, and took office on January 3, 2011.
|2010 23rd Congressional District of Texas Elections|
|Republican gain from Democratic||Swing|
2012 election 
Democratic challenger Pete Gallego defeated Republican incumbent Quico Canseco in the race for Texas' 23rd district on November 6, 2012. Since 1991, Gallego served as a state representative of the Texas House from the state's 74th District, which is the nation's largest United States-Mexico border district. As of November 8, 2012, Canseco has yet to concede the race and alleges voting irregularities and fraud in two of the district's counties. The Dallas Morning News reports that, "According to Texas state law, a final canvas and certification of votes must take place between 15 to 30 days of the election. Under the law, Canseco has grounds for a recount. Any potential recount would not delay canvassing."
|Texas's 23rd congressional district election, 2012|
|Republican||Francisco "Quico" Canseco||87,255||45.52%|
|Libertarian||Jeffrey C. Blunt||5,827||3.04%|
Electoral history 
List of representatives 
|District created||January 3, 1967|
|Abraham Kazen, Jr.||Democratic||January 3, 1967 – January 3, 1985||Laredo||Lost re-nomination in 1984|
|Albert G. Bustamante||Democratic||January 3, 1985 – January 3, 1993||San Antonio||Lost general election in 1992|
|Henry Bonilla||Republican||January 3, 1993 – January 3, 2007||San Antonio||Lost runoff election in 2006|
|Ciro D. Rodriguez||Democratic||January 3, 2007 – January 3, 2011||San Antonio||Lost general election in 2010|
|Francisco "Quico" Canseco||Republican||January 3, 2011 – January 3, 2013||San Antonio||Lost general election in 2012|
|Pete Gallego||Democratic||January 3, 2013 –||San Antonio||Incumbent|
- "Texas Redistricting", Austin American-Statesman, 4 August 2006
- Matthew Spieler (August 31, 2006). "Rodriguez Drops Bid in Texas 23, But Only Briefly".
- "NRCC Memo Reveals 24 Democratic Targets". Roll Call. 2008-03-06. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- Flores, Canseco win GOP nods Politico April 14, 2010. Retrieved April 15, 2010.
- TX Secretary of State TX Secretary of State Election Returns November 2, 2010. Retrieved November 3, 2010.
- "2010 General Election, Election Night Returns, Unofficial Elections Results As Of: 11/3/2010 12:14:58 PM". Texas Secretary of State. 2010-11-03. Retrieved 2010-11-22.
- "Democrat Takes The Texas 23rd Congressional District". KPBS. 2012-11-07. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
- "Canseco not conceding congressional race". The Austin American-Statesman. 2012-11-07. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
- "TX 23: Canseco continues to contest race outcome". The Dallas Morning News Trail Blazers Blog. 2012-11-08. Retrieved 2012-11-08.