Texas's 4th congressional district
|Texas's 4th congressional district|
|Current Representative||Ralph Hall (R–Rockwall)|
|Ethnicity||83.0% White, 10.4% Black, 0.6% Asian, 7.9% Hispanic, 0.8% Native American, 0.2% other|
|Cook PVI||R+21 (2012)|
Texas District 4 of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves an area that includes some counties along the Red River north of the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex, including semi-rural Rockwall County and the large non-urbanized portion of Collin County. It also includes counties in East Texas such as Rains County. As of the 2000 census, District 4 represents 651,620 people who are predominantly Caucasian (80.8%) and middle-class (median family income is US$46,086, compared to $50,046 nationwide).
Texas has had at least four congressional districts since the state was readmitted to the Union after the Civil War. The district's current seat dates from 1903; only four men have represented it since then.
Once a reliably Democratic district, the district swung rapidly into the Republican column as Dallas' suburbs spilled into the western portion of the district. In fact, it has not supported a Democrat for president since 1964. For many years, it was based in Tyler, but a controversial 2003 redistricting orchestrated by then-House Majority Leader Tom DeLay drew it and neighboring Longview out of District 4 and into neighboring District 1 which made District 1 significantly more Republican.
Ralph Hall, the current dean of the Texas congressional delegation, has represented the district since 1981. Originally a Democrat, he became a Republican in 2004. Congressman Ralph Hall has been a fence rider for many years, voting in large part with the Democratic party, and as needed with the Republican Party when his vote did not matter. He had been rumored as a party switcher for some time, and many experts believed his district was almost certain to be taken over by a Republican anyway once he retired. In 1996 a conservative Republican candidate Jerry Ray Hall, ran against Congressman Ralph Hall, and to the surprise of conservative Republicans, Senator Phil Gramm endorsed Congressman Ralph Hall,a Democrat at the time. The Republican Senator campaigned with the Democratic Congressman throughout the district. This enraged the Republican Women's groups. The Women Republican's demanded Senator Phil Gramm's retirement because of his endorsement of a Democrat against Jerry Ray Hall the Republican nominee. Wendy Gramm was involved in the Enron Scandal which also contributed to Senator Phil Gramm's demise. Before and after his party switch, Congressman Hall has proven to be in the middle of the road.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower was born in the fourth district.
Even as late as 1996, Bill Clinton carried 10 of the 16 counties currently in this district.
After the 2012 redistricting process, a large portion of Collin County had been removed, and replaced with the portion of Cass County that had been in Texas's 1st congressional district, all of Marion County, and a large portion of Upshur County.
Election results from recent presidential races
|2000||Bush 66 - 34%|
|2004||Bush 70 - 29%|
|2008||McCain 69 - 30%|
List of representatives
The district was created in 1869, one of two new districts that Texas gained after the 1860 Census, but was not filled due to the Civil War and Reconstruction.
|American Civil War/Reconstruction|
|Edward Degener||Republican||March 31, 1870 –
March 3, 1871
|John Hancock||Democratic||March 4, 1871 –
March 3, 1875
|Redistricted to the 5th district|
|Roger Q. Mills||Democratic||March 4, 1875 –
March 3, 1883
|Redistricted from the At-large district;
Redistricted to the 9th district
|David B. Culberson||Democratic||March 4, 1883 –
March 3, 1897
|Redistricted from the 2nd district|
|John W. Cranford||Democratic||March 4, 1897 –
March 3, 1899
|Vacant||March 3, 1899 –
March 4, 1899
|John Levi Sheppard||Democratic||March 4, 1899 –
October 11, 1902
|Vacant||October 11, 1902 –
November 15, 1902
|Morris Sheppard||Democratic||November 15, 1902 –
March 3, 1903
|Redistricted to the 1st district|
|Choice B. Randell||Democratic||March 4, 1903 –
March 3, 1913
|Redistricted from the 5th district|
|Sam Rayburn||Democratic||March 4, 1913 –
November 16, 1961
|Vacant||November 16, 1961 –
January 30, 1962
|Ray Roberts||Democratic||January 30, 1962 –
January 3, 1981
|Ralph Hall||Democratic||January 3, 1981 –
January 5, 2004
|First elected in 1980
Changed party in 2004
|Republican||January 5, 2004 –
|US House election, 2004: Texas District 4|
|Libertarian||Kevin D. Anderson||3,491||1.3%|
|US House election, 2006: Texas District 4|
|Libertarian||Kurt G. Helm||3,496||2.11%|
|US House election, 2008: Texas District 4|
|US House election, 2010: Texas District 4|
|Libertarian||Jim D. Prindle||4,729||2.53%|
Historical district boundaries
- Office of the Secretary of State (November 2, 2004). "Race Summary Report". 1992 - Current Election History. Texas Secretary of State. Retrieved March 26, 2012.
- Office of the Secretary of State (November 7, 2006). "Race Summary Report". 1992 - Current Election History. Texas Secretary of State. Retrieved March 26, 2012.
- Office of the Secretary of State (November 4, 2008). "Race Summary Report". 1992 - Current Election History. Texas Secretary of State. Retrieved March 26, 2012.
- Office of the Secretary of State (November 2, 2010). "Race Summary Report". 1992 - Current Election History. Texas Secretary of State. Retrieved March 26, 2012.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
- Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present