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Many modern washing machines have a dispenser which can add liquid fabric softener to the load of laundry automatically on the final rinse; in launderettes it may need to be added manually. Some brands of washing powder have fabric conditioning mixed in which is claimed to save money when compared to buying ordinary washing powder and fabric softener separately. Some manufacturers claim their products make ironing easier and/or make clothes dry faster. All liquid fabric softeners are designed to be added to water - either by adding the product directly to the final rinse water or by 2:1 (water:softener) dilution in an automatic dispenser. Even diluted fabric softener will cause spotting when poured directly onto clothes and can ruin them.
Dry fabric softeners typically come in the form of dryer sheets, which are added to clothing in the tumble dryer to soften the fabric and prevent buildup of static electricity in susceptible fabrics. Many alternative uses of dryer sheets have been suggested by users such as dusting, and removing hair from clothes.
How it works
Fabric softeners work by coating the surface of the cloth fibers with a thin layer of chemicals; these chemicals have lubricant properties and are electrically conductive, thus making the fibers feel smoother and preventing buildup of static electricity. Other functions are improvements of iron glide during ironing, increased resistance to stains, and reduction of wrinkling and pilling.
Cationic softeners bind by electrostatic attraction to the negatively charged groups on the surface of the fibers and neutralize their charge; the long aliphatic chains are then oriented towards the outside of the fiber, imparting lubricity. Vinegar works on some materials in a similar way, as the hydrogen ions bind to the anionic groups on the fibers. Most good quality all-cotton towels do not need to be treated with fabric softener and with repeated washings and dryings, they become softer naturally.
The earliest fabric softeners were developed during early 20th century to counteract the harsh feel which the drying methods imparted to cotton. The cotton softeners were typically based on water emulsion of soap and olive oil, corn oil, or tallow oil.
Contemporary fabric softeners tend to be based on quaternary ammonium salts with one or two long alkyl chains, a typical compound being dipalmitoylethyl hydroxyethylmonium methosulfate. Other cationic compounds can be derived from imidazolium, substituted amine salts, or quaternary alkoxy ammonium salts. One of the most common compounds of the early formulations was dihydrogenated tallow dimethyl ammonium chloride (DHTDMAC).
Anionic softeners and antistatic agents can be, for example, salts of monoesters and diesters of phosphoric acid and the fatty alcohols. These are often used together with the conventional cationic softeners. Cationic softeners are incompatible with anionic surfactants used in detergents because they combine with them to form a solid precipitate. So, they must instead be added during the rinse cycle. Anionic softeners can be combined with anionic surfactants directly. Other anionic softeners can be based on smectite clays. Some compounds, such as ethoxylated phosphate esters, have softening, anti-static, and surfactant properties.
The softening compounds differ in affinity to different materials. Some are better for cellulose-based fibers, others have higher affinity to hydrophobic materials like nylon, polyethylene terephthalate, polyacrylonitrile, etc. Silicone-based compounds such as polydimethylsiloxane comprise the new softeners which work by lubricating the fibers. Derivatives with amine- or amide-containing functional groups are used as well. These groups help the softeners bind better to fabrics.
As the softeners themselves are often of hydrophobic nature, they are commonly occurring in the form of an emulsion. In the early formulations, soaps were used as emulsifiers. The emulsions are usually opaque, milky fluids. However there are also microemulsions where the droplets of the hydrophobic phase are substantially smaller[not specific enough to verify]. The advantage of microemulsions is in the increased ability of the smaller particles to penetrate into the fibers. A mixture of cationic and non-ionic surfactants is often used as an emulsifier. Another approach is using a polymeric network, an emulsion polymer.
Other compounds are included to provide additional functions; acids or bases for maintaining the optimal pH for adsorption to the fabric, electrolytes, carriers (usually water, sometimes water-alcohol mixture), and others, e.g. silicone-based anti-foaming agents, emulsion stabilizers, fragrances, and colors. A relatively recent form on the market are the ultra-concentrates, where the amount of carriers and some other chemicals is substantially lower and much smaller volumes are used.
Health and environmental Issues
Fabric softeners contain chemicals that impregnate fabric and are released over time. These chemicals may come in direct contact with the skin and may be absorbed or inhaled. Certain ingredients release formaldehyde, which has been linked to cancer. Among other softener components are benzyl acetate (linked to pancreatic cancer), benzyl alcohol (an upper respiratory tract irritant), and chloroform (a neurotoxin and carcinogen). Some chemicals are neurostimulants or irritators and may be linked to central nervous system toxin exposure symptoms like headaches, disorientation, mood swings, numbness in face or extremities, memory loss, or irritability.
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