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Sunset at Ganesh Ghat near The Brahmaputra, Tezpur
|Nickname(s): City of Eternal Romance|
|• Body||Tezpur Municipality Board|
|Elevation||48 m (157 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Tezpur (Pron: tezˈpʊə) (Assamese: তেজপুৰ) is a city and the administrative headquarters and municipal board of Sonitpur district in the state of Assam in northeastern India. Tezpur is an ancient city on the banks of the river Brahmaputra and is the largest of the north bank towns with a population exceeding 100,000 . It is situated 175 kilometres (109 mi) north east of Guwahati, considered to be the "Cultural Capital of Assam".
- 1 Geography
- 2 Government
- 3 Etymology
- 4 History
- 5 Cultural Heritage
- 6 Economy
- 7 Education and Research
- 8 Media and communications
- 9 Tourist Attractions
- 10 Transport
- 11 References
- 12 External links
The town is situated on the north bank of the Brahmaputra River.
The rivers in and around Tezpur are fast flowing, especially from the Himalayas foothills. [clarification needed] Tezpur has a number of small hillocks, so that flooding doesn't occur during the monsoons.[clarification needed]
The average temperature in summer is around 21 °C (70 °F) while the average winter temperature is around 10 °C (50 °F). The humidity is high during the summer.[clarification needed] Rainfall is high.[clarification needed]
The name Tezpur is derived from the Sanskrit words 'Teza' (meaning blood) and 'Pura' (meaning town or city). Legend has it that the original name of this place was 'Sonitpur' ("sonit" in Sanskrit also means blood!) but when the battle ( HARA - HARI ) between Krishna's army and Lord Shiva, his disciple Banasura's army fought for the rescue of Aniruddha (who was the grandson of Lord Krishna, according to legend) there was so much bloodshed that the whole place was stained in red. This led to the name of the place becoming Tezpur. The Shiva temples in and around Tezpur shows the love and devotions of King Baanasur for Lord Shiva.
Banasura was the eldest of the hundred sons of Bali, who in turn was the son of Virochana and grandson of Prahlad (son of Hiranyakasipu and devotee of Narasimha). Banas mother was Vindhyavali. Bana, the king of demons (asuras) ruled over Sonita-pura. The word 'bana' also means an arrow. He went to the Himalayan regions, and performed a penance invoking Siva's favour. When Siva appeared in answer to his austerities, Bana begged the god to bestow himself a thousand arms carrying a multitude of weapons to destroy all his enemies and opponents. He also desired that Parvati should consider him as her son. Bana was a great devotee of Shiva and there are several famous self manifest bana-lingas being worshipped in India. Banasura was a powerful and terrible asura. All people even the king of earth and Devas of heaven were afraid of him. Bana was a follower of Siva. Banasura ruled in present day central Assam with his capital at Sonitpur (Present day Tezpur, Assam). Banasura's wife's name was Kandala. Banasura had a beautiful daughter named Usha. Usha one day saw a young man in her dream and fell in love with him.He was Aniruddha, the grandson of Lord Krishna. There was a war between Banasura and Krishna in which Banasura was defeated. Krishna married Usha with Aniruddha and brought them to dwaraka. Banasura moved to Himalayas and devoted his life in worship of Shiva
Historical ruins from the 8th and 9th centuries dot the surrounding areas of the city. The ruins of Bamuni Hills are the most famous. They bear resemblance to the Gupta period art. Accordingly there are plenty of myths as well. The ruins of Da Parbatia are an example of the architecture around the 4th Century AD.
Modern Tezpur was founded by the British colonial administration in 1835 as the headquarters of Darrang district. During World War II, Tezpur received large numbers of refugees fleeing from Burma, particularly the corps of Anglo-Burmese and Anglo-Indian nurses. After independence of India in 1947, it remained the headquarters of Darrang district. During the Sino-Indian War of 1962 the Chinese army advanced to the Tawang city, Arunachal Pradesh. The town was evacuated. The jails were opened and the prisoners released.
In 1983 a part of the district was carved out to form a separate district, Darrang. Tezpur was made the headquarters of the new district of Sonitpur.
Tezpur Balipara Light Railway: The existing MG (1,000 millimetres (39 in)) rail line is the oldest on the North Bank, descending from the Tezpur Balipara Light Railway built in 1885 to carry tea from upcountry estates to the then riverport of Tezpur.
Rock inscriptions: In 1897, Sir Edward Albert Gait discovered a copper inscription in Tezpur the deciphering of which provided information regarding the Ahom rulers. He referenced the nine line inscription of Harjjar Varma in his ‘’A History of Assam’’. The inscription, dating to 829 A.D., is the first historical record of Assam. The inscription was found engraved on a massive stone some 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) away from Tezpur town situated near Rudrapad Temple.
Hazara Pukhuri: A king of the dynasty Harjjar Varma excavated a large pond in 70 acres (280,000 m2) of land, later came to be known as Hajara Pukhuri (Harjjara Pukhuri).
Christian cemetery: The cemetery dates to the 17th century. It contains the graveyard of Alexander Bruce, founder of the Tea Industry in India and also of various Europeans who died here before independence.
Power station: The Electric first power station in this part of India was established at Tezpur by the Britishers at 1913.
Jonaki :The First Cinema Hall of North East India established by Jyoti Prasad Agarwala in 1935.
Chitraban :The First film studio of North East India established by Jyoti Prasad Agarwala in 1934.
The Twin lakes Bor Pukhuri and the Padum Pukhuri in the heart of the city memorialize King Bana and his daughter Usha.
Tezpur is considered to be the cultural capital of Assamese culture. Being from the core Assamese cultural region, several notables including Dr. Bhupen Hazarika, Jyoti Prasad Agarwala (1903–51), Kalaguru Bishnu Prasad Rabha (1909–69), and Phani Sarma (1909–70), were from Tezpur. Baan Stage, the theater which was the grooming ground for the famous trio . Also the NIKAMAL SATRA at Mazgaon, a center of Vaishnavaite culture is worth visiting.
- Bihu dance is a group dance of both males and females.
- Jhumur dance is performed by the Adivasis to the rhythm of drums and flutes.
- Bagurumba is a Bodo folk dance.
- Sattriya is one of the famous dances among the eight principal classical dance traditions of India. It was created 500 years ago by the great Assamese saint Srimanta Sankardeva.
The economy of Tezpur is dependent on its Tea Gardens. There are many tea gardens surrounding the town of Tezpur. The surrounding tea gardens and agriculture contribute to the local economy. Presently Tezpur is a commercial, administrative and educational centre. It also houses a major base of the Indian Army and Airforce (Salonibari). The population is largely heterogeneous. Assamese, Bengali, Nepali, Bihari, Marwari communities form the majority. People from various tribes such as the tea-tribes (brought in by the colonial planters as indentured labourers from the Chhotanagpur plateau region), Bodos, Mishings etc. have also made it their home. Like other places in Assam, the issue of illegal migration from Bangladesh adds religious spice to the regular political debates and name-calling.[original research?] Passing through Tezpur, at Dadhara the Jyoti-Bishnu khelpathar is an important attraction. The fields are used for various cultural events.
Education and Research
Tezpur University is a Central university offering courses in mathematics, humanities, sciences, nano technology, food technology, bioelectronics, information technology, engineering, business and tourism. Tezpur also has a centre of the Indian Statistical Institute.
Universities and colleges
- Tezpur University
- KKH State Open University (Study Centre)
- Indira Gandhi National Open University (Study Centre)
- Darrang College
- Law College, Tezpur
- Tezpur College
- Asom Jatiya Vidyalaya
- Assam Valley school
- Bengali Boys' High School
- Bengali Girls' High School
- Carmel Residential School
- Government Boys Higher Secondary School
- Maharishi high School
- Tezpur Academy
- Tezpur Government Girls' Multipurpose Higher Secondary School
- Tezpur Government Higher Secondary School (one of the oldest in the state)
- Tezpur Gurukul
- Kendriya Vidyalaya No.2, Air Force Stn, Tezpur
- Kendriya Vidyalaya No.1, Solmara, Tezpur
- Kendriya Vidyalaya Central University, Tezpur
- Army Public School, Tezpur
- St. Joseph's Convent High School, Tezpur
- Don Bosco High School, Tezpur
- Guru Nanak English School, Tezpur
- Sacred Heart School, Tezpur
- Children's Paradise School, Tezpur
- LGBRIMH (Lokopriya Gopinath Bordoloi Regional Institute of Mental Health)
- Tezpur Medical College and Hospital
- NERIWALM (North Eastern Regional Institute of Water and Land Management)
- DOEACC Centre (Formerly CEDTI)
- DRL (Defence Research Laboratory)
- ISI (Indian Statistical Institute) North East Centre
Media and communications
All India Radio has a local station in Tezpur which transmits various programs of mass interest.
Local areas/sites of interest
- Agnigarh - Also Usha-Aniruddha Udyan
- Bhairabi Temple - Durga shrine also known as Maithan or Bhairabi Devalaya
- Hanuman Mandir - temple of hanuman near the Bhairabi Temple
- Cole Park - Also known as Chitralekha Udyan
- Kolia Bhomora Setu - The 3.015 km long road bridge across the Brahmaputra
- Ketakeshwar Dewal - Shiva shrine
- Mahabhairav Temple - Shiva shrine
- Padum Pukhuri - Central lake with an island in the middle
- Rudrapath - Shiva shrine
- Bamuni Pahar
- Da Parbatia Gate of Gupta period
- Hazara pukhuri- Pond of gupta period
- Nag Shankar- Temple of lord Shiva
- Kanaklata Udyan
- Ganesh Ghat temple( For the temple as well the beautiful sunset of the Brahmaputra)
- Garh Doul - An archaeological site situated at Tarajan Kumargaon, Tezpur.
Tezpur is connected to the rest of the country by road, rail and air transport. There are direct flights from Kolkata three times a week to Tezpur Airport, 8 kilometres (5 mi) from the city centre, and there is a daily bus service from Guwahati, 180 kilometres (110 mi) away, operated by both government and tourist buses. From Tezpur, tourist vehicles are available for hire for the nearby destinations of Bhalukpong and the Kaziranga National Park.
In 1987 the Kolia Bhomora Setu, over the Brahmaputra, was inaugurated connecting Tezpur to the southern district of Nagaon. The bridge is the longest over the river, spans a total length of 3,015 metres (3,297 yd), and has become a tourist attraction. The nearest railway station of Tezpur is the Dekargaon railway station.
- "Tezpur, India Weather Averages - Monthly Average High and Low Temperature - Average Precipitation and Rainfall days - World Weather Online". Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- "List of Parliamentary & Assembly Constituencies" (PDF). Assam. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
- "LGBRIMH TEZPUR". http://www.lgbrimh.org/.
- "Kolia Bhomora". Akash Pratim Baruah's website. Archived from the original on 2009-10-25. Retrieved 5 May 2007.
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