|Born||27 June 1830
|Died||4 December 1898 (aged 68)
He was born in Chandernagor, a French colonial enclave north of Calcutta, where his father served as a French official. At the age of 15, he moved with his family to Florence, where soon afterwards, he developed an interest in natural sciences, in particular, flora native to Tuscany. In 1858 he began work as an assistant to Filippo Parlatore, and within a few years was given the title of coadjutor. With Parlatore, he conducted research at the Orto Botanico di Firenze (botanic museum of Florence) and worked on the development of the Florence herbarium.
In 1862 he was named an associate professor at the scientific academy in Milan, returning to Florence one year later as a professor of botany at the medical college. In 1871 he transferred to Pisa, where he taught classes in botany at the Athenaeum, and in 1880, again returned to Florence, this time serving as director of its botanical institute. After his death, his herbarium was donated to the botanical institute at the University of Pisa.
As a taxonomist, he circumscribed the plant families Sarcolaenaceae, Stemonaceae and Welwitschiaceae, and was the botanical authority of several genera and numerous species. The genus Caruelina (family Rubiaceae) was named in his honor by Otto Kuntze.
He is credited with the continuation of Parlatore's massive "Flora Italiana" project (first volume 1848), of which he contributed several new volumes from 1884 onward. Other noted written efforts by Caruel include:
- "Illustratio in hortum siccum Andreae Caesalpini ..." (1858); On the herbarium of Andrea Caesalpino.
- "Correspondence : Caruel (Teodoro) and Engelmann (George), 1864–1880". On correspondence with American botanist George Engelmann, published in English.
- Statistica botanica della Toscana, ossia, Saggio di studi sulla distribuzione geografica delle piante toscane, (1871).
- Prodromo della flora toscana, ossia, (1880).
- Google Books Journal of Botany: British and Foreign, Volume 37 edited by Berthold Seemann
- JSTOR Global Plants biography
- IPNI List of plants described and co-described by Caruel.
- Google Books Revis. gen. pl by Otto Kuntze
- Biodiversity Heritage Library Flora italiana
- WorldCat Search published works
- "Author Query for 'Caruel'". International Plant Names Index.