|Regions with significant populations|
|Vietnam: Nghệ An province|
|Tho, Vietic languages, Vietnamese|
The Thổ ethnic group (also Keo, Mon, Cuoi, Ho, Tay Poong) inhabits the mountainous regions of northern Vietnam, mainly Nghệ An province southwest of Hanoi. Many Thổ speak the Tho language, which is closely related to Vietnamese. The Thổ population numbered 68,394 in 1999.
The Tày ethnic group is also sometimes referred to as the Thổ.
Thổ consists of various different ethnolinguistic groups. Quán Vi Miên (2013:12) lists the following branches.
- Họ (Lao/Thai exonym for the Han Chinese)
- Kẹo (Keo) (Lao/Thai exonym for ethnic Kinh or Vietnamese)
- Mọn (Mol) (Mường autonym)
- Đan Lai
- Ly Hà
- Tày Poọng (Phoọng, Poọng, Phống) (Lao exonym for the "Khạ", or Mon-Khmer hill tribes)
Quán Vi Miên (2013:12-13) lists ethnic Thổ populations and branches (ethnic subdivisions) for the following districts of Nghệ An province.
- Quỳ Hợp district: 18,394 people; Họ, Kẹo, Mọn branches, in the following communes:
- Tam Hợp (5,515 ethnic Thổ)
- Nghĩa Xuân (3,855 ethnic Thổ)
- Minh Hợp (1,983 ethnic Thổ)
- Hạ Sơn (2,652 ethnic Thổ)
- Văn Lợi (2,403 ethnic Thổ)
- Thọ Hợp (1,730 ethnic Thổ)
- Quỳ Hợp city (265 ethnic Thổ)
- Nghĩa Đàn district: 28,487 people; Họ, Kẹo, Mọn branches
- Tân Kỳ district: 15,695 people; Họ, Kẹo, Mọn, Cuối branches
- Con Cuông district: 3,220 people; Đan Lai, Ly Hà branches
- Tương Dương district: 436 people; Tày Poọng branch
- "The 2009 Vietnam Population and Housing Census: Completed Results". General Statistics Office of Vietnam: Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee. June 2010. p. 134. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Quán Vi Miên. 2013. Văn hóa dân gian: dân tộc Thổ. Hà Nội: Nhà xuất bản văn hóa thông tin.
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