Thai people

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This article is about Thailand's ethnic majority. For other Tai ethnic groups, see Tai peoples. For the population of Thailand in general, see Demographics of Thailand.
Thai
ไทย
Khon
Thai people at cremation ceremony
Regions with significant populations
 Thailand approx. 50,600,000[1]
 United States 237,583[2] (2010)
 Laos 180,000[3]
 Taiwan 74,770[4] (2011)
 Malaysia 70,000[5] (2014)
 Australia 53,403[6] (2011)
 Japan 41,279[7] (2010)
 South Korea 30,760[8] (2009)
 Hong Kong 30,000[9]
 Saudi Arabia 23,000[10]
 Canada 10,500[11] (2006)
 Denmark 8 580[12] (2012)
Languages
Thai (Central, Southern, Northern, Isan)
Religion
Predominantly Dharma Wheel.svg Theravada Buddhism Minorites other religion
Related ethnic groups
Lao, Shan, Zhuang people, Ahom, other Tai peoples, Thai Chinese

The Thai people, formerly known as Siamese are the main ethnic group of Thailand and are part of the larger Tai ethnolinguistic peoples found in Thailand and adjacent countries in Southeast Asia as well as southern China. Their language is the Thai language, which exists in different regional variants,[13] and is classified as part of the Tai–Kadai family of languages, and the majority of Thai are followers of Theravada Buddhism.

"Thai people" usually includes Central and Southern Thai (Siamese proper, or Tai Siam[14][15][16][17][18]), Northern Thai (Lanna) and Isan people.[19][20]

The term Thai people has a loose meaning and sometimes also refers to the population of Thailand in general, and not only to ethnic Thais.

History[edit]

There have been many theories proposing the origin of the Tai people, of which the Thai are a subgroup. Especially the association of the Tai people with the Kingdom of Nanzhao that has been proved to be invalid. Linguistic studies suggested[21] that the origin of the Tai people lies around the Chinese Province of Guangxi, where the Zhuang people are still a majority. The ancient Tai people should be the part of Chinese Nanyue, referred to by Han leaders as "foreign servant" (Chinese: ), synecdoche for a vassal state. The Qin dynasty founded Guangdong in 214 BC, initiating the successive waves of Chinese migrations from the north for hundred years to come.

With the political and cultural pressures from the north, some Tai people migrated south[22] where they met the classical Indianized civilizations of Southeast Asia.

The Tais from the north gradually settled in the Chao Phraya valley from the tenth century onwards, in lands of the Dvaravati culture, assimilating the earlier Austroasiatic Mon and Khmer people, as well as coming into contact with the Khmer Empire. The Tais who came to the area of present-day Thailand were engulfed into the Theravada Buddhism of the Mon and the Hindu-Khmer culture and statecraft. Therefore, the Thai culture is a mixture of Tai traditions with Indic, Mon and Khmer influcences.[23]

Early Thai chiefdoms included the Sukhothai Kingdom and Suphanburi. The Lavo Kingdom, which was the center of Khmer culture in Chao Phraya valley, was also the rallying point for the Thais. The Thai were called “Siam” by the Angkorians and they appeared on the bas relief at Angkor Wat as a part of the army of Lavo kingdom. Sometimes the Thai chiefdoms in the Chao Phraya valley were put under the Angkorian control under strong monarchs (including Suryavarman II and Jayavarman VII) but they were mostly independent.

A new city-state known as Ayutthaya, named after the Indian city of Ayodhya, was founded by Ramathibodi and emerged as the center of the growing Thai Empire starting in 1350. Inspired by the then Hindu-based Khmer Empire (Cambodia), the Ayutthaya Empire's continued conquests led to more Thai settlements as the Khmer Empire weakened after their defeat at Angkor in 1431. During this period, the Thai developed a feudal system as various vassal states paid homage to the Thai kings. Even as Thai power expanded at the expense of the Mon and Khmer, the Thai Ayutthaya faced setbacks at the hands of the Malays at Malacca and were checked by the Toungoo of Burma.

Other peoples living under Thai rule, mainly Mon, Khmer and Lao, as well as Chinese, Indian or Muslim immigrants continued to be assimilated by Thais, but at the same time they influenced Thai culture, philosophy, economy and politics. Most of today's Thais are of mixed descent. Therefore, Thai ethnicity is rather a question of cultural identity than of genetic origin.[24] The biggest and most influential group are Thais of Chinese origin. The share of Thais who are of full or partly Chinese descent is at about 40 percent.[25]

Though sporadic wars continued with the Burmese and other neighbors, Chinese wars with Burma and European intervention elsewhere in Southeast Asia allowed the Thai to develop an independent course by trading with the Europeans as well as playing the major powers against each other in order to remain independent. The Chakkri dynasty under Rama I held the Burmese at bay, while Rama II and Rama III helped to shape much of Thai society, but also led to Thai setbacks as the Europeans moved into areas surrounding modern Thailand and curtailed any claims the Thai had over Cambodia, in dispute with Burma and Vietnam. The Thai learned from European traders and diplomats, while maintaining an independent course. Chinese, Malay, and British influences helped to further shape the Thai people who often assimilated foreign ideas, but managed to preserve much of their culture and resisted the European colonization that engulfed their neighbors. Thailand is also the only country in Southeast Asia that was not colonized by European powers in modern history.

The concept of a Thai nation was not developed until the beginning 20th century under King Rama VI (Vajiravudh). Before this era, Thai did not even have a word for 'nation'. He also imposed the idea of "Thai-ness" (khwam-pen-thai) on his subjects and strictly defined what was "Thai" and "un-Thai". Authors of this period re-wrote the Thai history from an ethno-nationalist viewpoint, disregarding the fact that the concept of ethnicity had not played an important role in South East Asia until the 19th century.[26][27] This newly developed nationalism was the base of the policy of "Thaification" of Thailand which was intensified after the end of absolute monarchy in 1932 and especially under the rule of Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram (1938–1944). Minorities were forced to assimilate and regional peculiarities of Northern, Northeastern and Southern Thailand were repressed in favour of one homogenous "Thai" culture.[28] As a result, many citizens of Thailand do not distinguish between their nationality (san-chat) and ethnic origin (chuea-chat).[24]

Geography and demographics[edit]

Thai People Abroad.

The vast majority of the Thai people live in Thailand, although some Thais can also be found in other parts of Southeast Asia. About 60 million live in Thailand alone,[1] while thousands can also be found in the United States, Laos, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Cambodia, Burma, the United Kingdom, Australia, Sweden, Norway, Libya and the United Arab Emirates.

Culture and society[edit]

Main article: Culture of Thailand

The Thais can be broken down into various regional groups with their own regional varieties of Thai. These groups include Central Thai (also the standard variety of the language), the Isan (more closely related to the Standard Lao of Laos than to Standard Thai), Lanna Thai and Southern Thai. Modern Central Thai has become more dominant due to official government policy, which was designed to assimilate and unify the disparate Thai in spite of ethnolinguistic and cultural ties between the northeastern Thai people and the people from Laos for example.

The modern Thai are predominantly Theravada Buddhist and strongly identify their ethnic identity with their religious practices that include aspects of ancestor worship, among other beliefs of the ancient folklore of Thailand. Indigenous arts include muay Thai (kick boxing), Thai dance, makruk (Thai Chess), and nang yai (shadow play).

Religion[edit]

Thais predominantly (more than 90%) avow themselves Buddhists. The variant of Buddhism practised in Thailand is part of the Theravada branch. Since the rule of King Ramkhamhaeng of Sukhothai and again since the "orthodox reformation" of King Mongkut in 19th century, it is modeled on the "original" Sri Lankan Theravada Buddhism. The Thais' folk belief however is a syncretic blend of the official Buddhist teachings, animistic elements that trace back to the original beliefs of Tai peoples, and Brahmin-Hindu elements[29] from India, partly inherited from the Hindu Khmer Empire of Angkor.[30]

The belief in local, nature and household spirits, that influence secular issues like health or prosperity, as well as ghosts (Thai: phi, ผี) is widespread. It is visible e.g. in so-called spirit houses (san phra phum) that may be found near many homes. Phi play an important role in local folklore, but also in modern popular culture, like television series and films. "Ghost films" (nang phi) are a distinct, important genre of Thai cinema.[31]

Hinduism has left substantial and present marks on Thai culture. Some Thais worship Hindu gods like Ganesha, Shiva, Vishnu or Brahma (e.g. at Bangok's well-known Erawan Shrine). They do not see a contradiction between this practice and their primarily Buddhist faith.[32] The Thai national epic Ramakien is an adaption of the Hindu Ramayana. Hindu mythological figures like Devas, Yakshas, Nagas, gods and their mounts (vahana) characterise the mythology of Thais and are often depicted in Thai art, even as decoration of Buddhist temples.[33] Thailand's national symbol Garuda is taken from Hindu mythology as well.[34]

A characteristic feature of Thai Buddhism is the practice of tham bun ("merit-making"). This can be done mainly by food and in-kind donations to monks, contributions to the renovation and adornment of temples, releasing captive creatures (fish, birds) etc. Moreover, many Thais idolise famous and charismatic monks,[35] who may be credited with thaumaturgy or with the status of a perfected Buddhist saint (Arahant). Other significant features of Thai popular belief are astrology, numerology, talismans and amulets[36] (often images of the revered monks)[37]

Besides Thailand's 2 million Muslim Malays, there are an additional 2 million ethnic Thais who profess Islam, especially in the South, but also in Greater Bangkok. As a result of missionary work, there is also a minority of approximately 500.000 Christian Thais: Catholics and various Protestant denominations.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "CIA - The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-29. "75% of 67,497,151 (July 2013 est.)" 
  2. ^ Elizabeth M. Hoeffel, Sonya Rastogi, Myoung Ouk Kim, and Hasan Shahid, "The Asian Population: 2010", 2010 Census Briefs, United States Census Bureau, March 2012, p. 14.
  3. ^ http://www.crc.nsw.gov.au/statistics/Sect1/Table1p08Aust.pdf
  4. ^ 內政部入出國及移民署全球資訊網 ─ 100年12月
  5. ^ Nop Nai Samrong (8 January 2014). "SIAMESE MALAYSIANS: They are part of our society". New Straits Times. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  6. ^ [1]. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2011. Last accessed 9 October 2011.
  7. ^ http://www.e-stat.go.jp/SG1/estat/List.do?lid=000001074828
  8. ^ [2] 財団法人自治体国際化協会
  9. ^ http://www.cityu.edu.hk/searc/WP44_03_Hewison.pdf
  10. ^ http://eng.mol.go.th/inform_dec1107_5.html
  11. ^ http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/hlt/97-562/pages/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo=PR&Code=01&Data=Count&Table=2&StartRec=1&Sort=3&Display=All&CSDFilter=5000
  12. ^ http://www.statistikbanken.dk/statbank5a/default.asp?w=1024
  13. ^ Antonio L. Rappa; Lionel Wee (2006), Language Policy and Modernity in Southeast Asia: Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, Springer, pp. 114–115 
  14. ^ Cheesman, P. (1988). Lao textiles: ancient symbols-living art. Bangkok, Thailand: White Lotus Co., Thailand.
  15. ^ Fox, M. (1997). A history of Laos. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
  16. ^ Fox, M. (2008). Historical Dictionary of Laos (3rd ed.). Lanham: Scarecrow Press.
  17. ^ Goodden, C. (1999). Around Lan-na: a guide to Thailand's northern border region from Chiang Mai to Nan. Halesworth, Suffolk: Jungle Books.
  18. ^ Wijeyewardene, G. (1990). Ethnic groups across national boundaries in mainland Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
  19. ^ David Levinson (1998), Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook, Oryx Pres, p. 287, ISBN 1573560197 
  20. ^ Barbara A. West (2009), Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, Facts on File, p. 794, ISBN 1438119135 
  21. ^ Luo, Wei; Hartmann, John; Li, Jinfang; Sysamouth, Vinya (December 2000). "GIS Mapping and Analysis of Tai Linguistic and Settlement Patterns in Southern China". Geographic Information Sciences (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University) 6 (2): 129–136. Retrieved May 28, 2013. "Abstract. By integrating linguistic information and physical geographic features in a GIS environment, this paper maps the spatial variation of terms connected with wet-rice farming of Tai minority groups in southern China and shows that the primary candidate of origin for proto-Tai is in the region of Guangxi-Guizhou, not Yunnan or the middle Yangtze River region as others have proposed...." 
  22. ^ Du Yuting; Chen Lufan (1989). "Did Kublai Khan's Conquest of the Dali Kingdom Give Rise to the Mass Migration of the Thai People to the South?" (PDF). Journal of the Siam Society (Siam Heritage Trust). JSS Vol. 77.1c (digital). image 7 of p. 39. Retrieved March 17, 2013. "The Thai people in the north as well as in the south did not in any sense "migrate en masse to the south" after Kublai Khan's conquest of the Dali Kingdom." 
  23. ^ Charles F. Keyes (1997), "Cultural Diversity and National Identity in Thailand", Government policies and ethnic relations in Asia and the Pacific (MIT Press): 203 
  24. ^ a b Thak Chaloemtiarana (2007), Thailand: The Politics of Despotic Paternalism, Ithaca, NY: Cornell Southeast Asia Program, pp. 245–246, ISBN 978-0-8772-7742-2 
  25. ^ Theraphan Luangthomkun (2007), "The Position of Non-Thai Languages in Thailand", Language, Nation and Development in Southeast Asia (ISEAS Publishing): 191 
  26. ^ Tejapira, Kasian (2003), "De-Othering Jek Communists: Rewriting Thai History from the Viewpoint of the Ethno-Ideological Order", Southeast Asia Over Three Generations: Essays Presented to Benedict R. O'G. Anderson (Ithaca, NY: Cornell Southeast Asia Program): 247 
  27. ^ Thanet Aphornsuvan (1998), "Slavery and Modernity: Freedom in the Making of Modern Siam", Asian Freedoms: The Idea of Freedom in East and Southeast Asia (Cambridge University Press): 181 
  28. ^ Chris Baker; Pasuk Phongpaichit (2009), A History of Thailand (Second ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 172–175 
  29. ^ Patit Paban Mishra (2010), The History of Thailand, Greenwood, p. 11 
  30. ^ S.N. Desai (1980), Hinduism in Thai Life, Bombay: Popular Prakashan Private 
  31. ^ Pattana Kitiarsa (2011), "The Horror of the Modern: Violation, Violence and Rampaging Urban Youths in Contemporary Thai Ghost Films", Engaging the Spirit World: Popular Beliefs and Practices in Modern Southeast Asia (Berghahn Books): 200–220 
  32. ^ Patit Paban Mishra (2010), The History of Thailand, Greenwood, p. 11–12 
  33. ^ Desai (1980), Hinduism in Thai Life, p. 63 
  34. ^ Desai (1980), Hinduism in Thai Life, p. 26 
  35. ^ Kate Crosby (2014), Theravada Buddhism: Continuity, Diversity, and Identity, Chichester (West Sussex): Wiley Blackwell, p. 277 
  36. ^ Timothy D. Hoare (2004), Thailand: A Global Studies Handbook, Santa Barbara CA: ABC-CLIO, p. 144 
  37. ^ Justin Thomas McDaniel (2011), The Lovelorn Ghost and the Magical Monk: Practicing Buddhism in Modern Thailand, New York: Columbia University Press 
  • Girsling, John L.S., Thailand: Society and Politics (Cornell University Press, 1981).
  • Terwiel, B.J., A History of Modern Thailand (Univ. of Queensland Press, 1984).
  • Wyatt, D.K., Thailand: A Short History (Yale University Press, 1986).

External links[edit]