Thai general election, 2011
■ – Pheu Thai ■ – Democrat ■ – BhumjaiThai ■ – Chartthai ■ – Palung Chon ■ – no majority
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
A general election for 24th House of Representatives took place throughout Thailand on Sunday, 3 July 2011, by virtue of the Royal Decree Dissolving the House of Representatives, 2554 BE (2011), which caused the House of Representatives to be dissolved on 10 May 2011.
The protestors of the United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship (UDD) or "Red Shirts" who occupied downtown Bangkok in April and May 2010 had demanded new elections. The government's counter-proposal to hold elections on 14 November 2010 was rejected by them and was followed by a violent crackdown when the protestors refused to disperse. Elections were finally announced in May 2011.
With a turnout of 75.03%, populist Pheu Thai Party won a majority with 265 seats. Its leader Yingluck Shinawatra became the first female prime minister in the history of Thailand. The Democrat Party therefore became the main opposition party with a total of 159 seats.
The election results were acknowledged on 27 July, after the Election Commission dealt with a great number of objections over alleged irregularities. Reelections and recount were ordered to be held in several provinces, due to electoral fraud discovered by the Commission. The first session of the National Assembly was convoked on Monday, 1 August at Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall and its state opening was held at the same time.
- 1 Background
- 2 Election date
- 3 Candidates
- 4 Election violence
- 5 Issues
- 6 Opinion polling
- 7 Abroad voting and early voting
- 8 Election result
- 9 Following process
- 10 Reactions
- 11 Further reading
- 12 References
- 13 External links
After the Thai general election, 2007, the People’s Power Party won a majority of seats in the parliament and became the leading party to set up the new government. Samak Sundaravej, party leader, became the 25th Prime Minister of Thailand. This election victory led to a series of political demonstrations by the royalist Peoples Alliance for Democracy ("Yellow Shirts").
On 2 December 2008, the People’s Power Party had been dissolved by the Constitutional Court over vote buying. The PPP's executive team was banned from politics for 5 years. After the party's dissolution, all of the party's members of parliament had to join another party if they wished to retain their seat. The majority of them transferred to the newly founded Pheu Thai Party. Some representatives defected to the Democrats, which enabled the Democrat Party leader Abhisit Vejjajiva to be elected by parliament as prime minister.
The National United Front of Democracy Against Dictatorship ("Red Shirts") was a pressure group that opposed the Thai military's alleged influence in the formation of Abhisit's government. It promptly organised several rounds of protests and calls for general elections. Abhisit government finally ordered the military to crack down on the Red Shirts in 2009, resulting in several deaths and hundreds of injuries on both sides.
The Red Shirts launched a new round of protests in mid-2010, again demanding new elections. The 14 March protest, centered around Phan Fah bridge, were the largest in Thai history and were mostly peaceful. In April and May 2010 heavy Red Shirt protests led to violent clashes and the military cracked down on the protest camp in the heart of Bangkok from 13 to 19 May 2010.
Abhisit government's had passed several major amendments on electoral laws on 11 February 2011, transforming the constituency vote from multiple-seats-per-constituency to single-seat-per-constituency, reducing the number of constituency MPs, and increasing the proportional party list MPs. In the previous general elections in 2007, the Democrat Party had lost the constituency vote but won the proportional party list vote.
On 17 February 2011 Prime Minister Abhisit announced that parliament would be dissolved by June. On 11 March 2011, it was further announced that parliament would be dissolved by the first week of May 2011.
Previously a proposal had made to hold the election on 14 November 2010, however, this was pushed back following a failure to come to agreement during the crisis.
On 9 May, Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva announced that he would dissolve the lower house of parliament to hold an election on 3 July. King Bhumibol Adulyadej signed his approval the dissolution decree the same day. This motion followed a court ruling the same day that the recently approved electoral laws (to 2007 Constitution §§93–98 involving method of electing members of parliament) are constitutional. Had parliament been dissolved without the ruling, there would have been a possibility of challenging the election date.
This election covered 375 single-member constituencies, and 125 under proportional party lists. After registration closed, party leaders participated in a random drawing of the number determining the order in which their parties appear on ballots, numbers which are also used in nationwide campaigning. Yingluck Shinawatra received a major psychological boost when her Pheu Thai party drew the number one; sitting Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva's Democrat Party drew number ten.
* Sent 125 candidates for all party-list seats
Pracha Prasopdee, ex-MP for Samut Prakan Province who had won all five of the previous elections, was shot in the back on the night of 10 May. Pracha had been a member of the Thai Rak Thai, Peoples Power, and Pheu Thai parties.
After the drawing, the Election Commission of Thailand distributed handouts nation-wide, listing all registered parties by number, name and logo; each party's list of candidates and party platform; modified for each district with campaign portraits of their candidates, again in numerical order. Local campaigners add party numbers to pre-printed campaign posters, or print new ones. In most cases, the numbers are in Red, but in the latter part of the campaign, the Democrat Party (10) changed theirs to Green.
Thaksin and the monarchy
The Democrat Party promised that with their rule all Thais would live "under the same sky" with all groups being served fairly, whereas a Pheu Thai victory would result in "mob rule" in which social division and violence would spread and some groups could stand above the law. Abhisit referred to former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra as a poison that had to be detoxified. The Democrats have repeatedly accused Thaksin and the Pheu Thai Party of disloyalty to King Bhumibol.
The parties Bhumjaithai and Chartthaipattana formed a pre-campaign electoral alliance pledging to support whichever party won. The parties were members of Abhisit's coalition.
Jailing of opposition leaders
Red Shirt leaders Jatuporn Prompan and Nisit Sinthuprai had been jailed for months on charges of violating national security and insulting King Bhumibol following the 2010 crackdown on the Red Shirts. They had been released on bail, but the bail was revoked immediately after Abhisit announced the 2011 elections. They were not allowed to vote in the elections.
Celebrities and political heirs
Abhisit unveiled a slate of candidates highlighted by 30 celebrities and heirs of political families, including Chitpas Bhirombhakdi, heiress of the Singha Beer fortune and former staff member of Abhisit's secretariat office. She had earlier resigned after she was caught handing out nude calendars to secretariat office staff.
The Chartthaipattana fielded four sports celebrities as candidates: former national team football player Piyapong Pue-on, tennis player Paradorn Srichapan, Olympic taekwondo bronze medallist Yaowapa Boorapolchai, and former rugby player Apirak Areemitr.
The Pheu Thai Party promised to increase the minimum wage to 300 baht per day. Abhisit had promised to raise the minimum wage to 300 baht prior to the elections, but changed his mind after pressure from employers.
For Heaven and Earth Party (political arm of the Santi Asoke Buddhist sect) supported the NO campaign of some PAD supporters, which featured proverbal animals in color-coded suits as non-human electoral candidates, most bearing the slogan: Don’t let animals enter parliament (อย่าปล่อยสัตว์เข้าสภา). Also prominent: Flee (หนี...) (blue-suited tiger) For (ปะ...) (red-suited crocodile). Chamlong Srimuang, a key supporter of the “vote-no” movement, did not vote “no” after all. In fact, he did not vote at all; his and his wife’s names were not on the list of eligible voters as they had voted in advance in the previous election but did not realise that they had to inform election officials that they did not want to do so in this one.
Results of a Suan Dusit Rajabhat University poll (4–18 June): Pheu Thai 51.55%; Democrat 34.04%; Bhum Jai Thai 3.43%; Rak Prathet Thai 2.48%; Chart Thai Pattana 1.60%; against all 1.41%; undecided 2.38%
23–28 May: Pheu Thai 43.16%; Democrat 37.45%; Bhum Jai Thai 2.64%; Chart Thai Pattana 2.46%; Rak Prathet Thai 1.43%; others 4.42%; undecided 7.08; rest would not vote – Democrats strongest in Southern Region (65.89%), Pheu Thai in Northern (73.17%)
19–22 May: Pheu Thai 41.22%; Democrat 36.88%; Bhum Jai Thai 3.88%; Chart Thai Pattana 3.20%; Rak Prathet Thai 1.59 %
Abroad voting and early voting
In this election more eligible voters turned up to vote. The number of Thais registered to vote from abroad is 147,330, the equivalent of just over half the population of Mae Hong Son Province and soared from 90,205 in 2008 – in Singapore the figure has surpassed 10,000 while in the United Kingdom the number has doubled from 2,296 to 4,775. Early voting arranged on Sunday (26 June 2011) only while prior elections arranged on Saturday and Sunday. Around 2.6 million people, including 1.07 million in Bangkok turned up to vote; however, many potential voters were unable to vote due to large crowds.
According to preliminary results Pheu Thai won 265 seats (204 constituency-based + 61 party-list), Democrats 159 (115 + 44), Bhumjai Thai 34 (29 + 5), Chartthaipattana 19 (15 + 4), Palung Chon 7 (6 + 1), Chart Pattana Puea Pandin 7 (5 + 2), Love Thailand 4 (all party-list), Matubhum 2 (1 + 1), New Democrat 1 (party-list) and Mahachon one party-list seat. Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva has already conceded the victory of Puea Thai Party and congratulated Ms. Shinawatra as the designated Prime Minister.
According to preliminary figures from the Electoral Commission the voter turnout was at 65.99%.
Following the provisional results, Ms. Shinawatra said that "Puea Thai had already reached an agreement with one smaller party, Chart Thai Pattana, about joining a coalition, and was in negotiations with others."
|Chart Pattana Puea Pandin||1,098,159||4.0||5||494,894||1.52||2||7||1.4%|
|None of the Above||1,419,088||4.03%||958,052||2.72%|
|Source: Election of Members of House of Representatives B.E.2554|
Constituency Preliminary Results Source: Bangkok Post live counting on day of election (links now inactive)
|Party Name||Number Votes||Percentage Votes|
|No.1 Pheu Thai||12,211,604||44.3|
|No.11 Thai Por Pieng||919||0.0|
|No.12 Rak Santi||122,968||0.4|
|No.13 Thai Pen Suk||979||0.0|
|No.14 Social Action||101,787||0.4|
|No.15 Thais Is Thai||2,317||0.0|
|No.17 Thaen Khun Phaendin||1,814||0.0|
|No.18 Heaven and Earth||12,765||0.0|
|No.19 The Farmer Network of Thailand||17,627||0.1|
|No.2 Chart Pattana Puea Pandin||1,098,159||4.0|
|No.20 New Politics||2,069||0.0|
|No.21 Chartthai pattana||1,259,595||4.6|
|No.23 Chart Samuccee||541||0.0|
|No.28 Palung Sungkom Thai||75||0.0|
|No.29 Thai party for Thai People||412||0.0|
|No.3 New Democrat||1,168||0.0|
|No.33 Civil Peace||16,650||0.1|
|No.34 New Aspiration||27,665||0.1|
|No.36 Sport party of Thailand||11,366||0.0|
|No.37 Parung ChownaThai||73||0.0|
|No.38 Thai Sangsun||31||0.0|
|No.39 Puen Kaset Thai||11,085||0.0|
|No.4 Thai Citizen||3,248||0.0|
|No.6 Palung Chon||246,031||0.9|
|No.9 Mass Power||4,582||0.0|
Acknowledgement of election result
After the election was held on 3 July, the next procedure is that the Election Commission acknowledges the election result within thirty days from the election date in order that Abhisit Vejjajaiva, Caretaker Prime Minister, would enact a royal decree convoking the House of Representatives to have the new President of the House, Vice President of the House and Prime Minister selected respectively, and the President of the House would then advice and consent the King to appoint a new Prime Minister according to the resolution of the House.
The Election Commission met to consider the election result in the afternoon of 12 July. The meeting was held until nightfall. More than fifty Red-Shirt members gathered in front of the Election Commission Office awaiting the outcome, with strict control of the police officers. That night, three hundred and fifty candidates were acknowledged by the Election Commission as the members of the House, but not including Yingluck Shinawatra, Abhisit Vejjajiva and Nattawut Saikua by cause of a great number of objections pending consideration. The remainders, that is, one hundred and forty two elected candidates, are to be acknowledged by 20 July, said the Election Commission. Yingluck described the postponement as part of a "normal process" for the Commission.
On 19 July, both Yingluck and Abhisit were acknowledged as the members of the House. On 27 July, the acknowledgement extended to further ninety four elected candidates. Now and eventually, the number acknowledged sufficed to constitute the House. This, however, did not include Jatuporn Prompan whom the Election Commission declared to have lost the suffrage due to failure to vote in both the previous and the present elections. The Constitution requires that a member of the House must possess the suffrage, and also prescribes that a person failing to vote in an election loses the suffrage but regains it once he votes in the next election.
The Election Commission's announcements of the acknowledgement were published in the Government Gazette as follows:
|#||Announcements||Number of candidates acknowledged||Date of acknowledgement||Published in|
|1||Announcement of the Election Commission,
Re: Results of election of members of the House of Representatives on proportional basis, dated 12 July 2011
|109||12 July 2011||Government Gazette:
volume 128/part 58 A/page 6/21 July 2011
|2||Announcement of the Election Commission,
Re: Results of election of members of the House of Representatives on proportional basis (2nd group), dated 19 July 2011
|2||19 July 2011||Government Gazette:
volume 128/part 59 A/page 6/27 July 2011
|3||Announcement of the Election Commission,
Re: Results of election of members of the House of Representatives on proportional basis (3rd group), dated 21 July 2011
|6||21 July 2011||Government Gazette:
volume 128/part 59 A/page 11/27 July 2011
|4||Announcement of the Election Commission,
Re: Results of election of members of the House of Representatives on proportional basis (4th group), dated 27 July 2011
|7||27 July 2011||Government Gazette:
volume 128/part 60 A/page 10/28 July 2011
|5||Announcement of the Election Commission,
Re: Results of election of members of the House of Representatives on constituency basis, dated 12 July 2011
|249||12 July 2011||Government Gazette:
volume 128/part 58 A/page 11/21 July 2011
|6||Announcement of the Election Commission,
Re: Results of election of members of the House of Representatives on constituency basis (2nd group), dated 19 July 2011
|10||19 July 2011||Government Gazette:
volume 128/part 59 A/page 4/27 July 2011
|7||Announcement of the Election Commission,
Re: Results of election of members of the House of Representatives on constituency basis (3rd group), dated 21 July 2011
|26||21 July 2011||Government Gazette:
volume 128/part 59 A/page 7/27 July 2011
|8||Announcement of the Election Commission,
Re: Results of election of members of the House of Representatives on constituency basis (4th group), dated 27 July 2011
|87||27 July 2011||Government Gazette:
volume 128/part 60 A/page 11/28 July 2011
Five red cards were expected during balloting in Sukhothai Province, Chaiyaphum Province, Maha Sarakham Province, Sisaket Province and Buriram Province in reference to campaign fraud. There have been allegations of massive electoral fraud against third-place finisher Bhumjaithai Party that could potentially lead to the party dissolution by the Constitutional Court
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
Abhisit enacted on 29 July the Royal Decree Convoking the National Assembly, BE 2554 (2011), by which the National Assembly, both the House of Representatives and the Senate, convened on Monday, 1 August 2011 at Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall. The state ceremony of opening the National Assembly was presided over by Crown Prince Vajiralongkorn instead of his aged father who has been confined in hospital for so long. In this first joint session of the National Assembly, Somsak Kiatsuranont has been elected as the President of the House of Representatives (ex officio President of the National Assembly of Thailand); several other members have been selected as the Vice Presidents of the House. The first separate session of the House of Representatives was held in the morning of 5 August to select a new Prime Minister. In which 296 of the 500 members of parliament voted to approve the premiership of Yingluck Shinawatra, three disapproved, and 197 abstained. Four Democrat lawmakers were absent. Somsak Kiatsuranont, President of the National Assembly, advised and consented King Bhumibol Adulyadej to appoint Yingluck Prime Minister on 8 August. The Proclamation on her appointment has taken retroactive effect from 5 August.
Yingluck has set up her Council of Ministers on 9 August. She and her Ministers were sworn in on 10 August. They must then complete addressing their administrative policy to the National Assembly. According to the Constitution, the address must be made within fifteen days from the effective date of the Proclamation on Yingluck's appointment.
|Thai Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
On 4 July, Abhisit Vejjajiva stepped down as the leader of the Democrat Party, as he had promised in the case of a defeat of his party. The Chartthaipattana Party, Chart Pattana Puea Pandin Party, Phalang Chon Party and Mahachon Party agreed to join a coalition government led by the Pheu Thai Party which would have 299 seats in the new House of Representatives. Acting defense minister General Prawit Wongsuwan declared that the armed forces would accept the results and "allow politicians to work it out" without any interference, while the Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Thai Army, General Prayuth Chan-ocha, pledged not to make any comments during the process of government formation.
The Cambodian foreign minister Hor Namhong congratulated the winners of the election, stating "We cannot hide that we are happy with the Pheu Thai Party's victory" and expressed confidence that, under the new government, the Cambodian–Thai border dispute would be settled. Thai stock markets reacted positively at the news of the Pheu Thai victory, rising by 5% on the first trading day after the election. The markets viewed the Pheu Thai's strong mandate as an opportunity for short-term political stability.
On July 10, Lamian Yusuk, an 80-year-old Rayong inhabitant and supporter of the Democrat Party, committed suicide by consuming herbicide after the party's poor performance. Many Democrat members of the House of Representatives attended her funeral. Abhisit, who did not attend, later offered condolences to Yusuk's relatives by phone. Yusuk's death attracted both positive and negative criticism of the deceased.
The Election Commission's eventual acknowledgment of election results caused the Thai stock market to be rise by 3.67 on July 28. Stock market assistant director Thirada Chaiyuenyong said that the shares index for that day was quite strong, comparing to regional indexes. Many States, including Germany and Japan, also lifted the ban on entry which has been imposed on Thaksin Shinawatra during the regime of Abhisit.
- Michael H. Nelson (2012), Thailand's Election of July 3, 2011: An Overview, Bangkok: King Prajadhipok's Institute
- Michael H. Nelson (2013), The Democrat and Phuea Thai Parties in Thailand’s 2011 Elections. Thaksin Shinawatra Returns to Power, City University of Hongkong
- Aim Sinpeng; Erik Martinez Kuhonta (December 2012). "From the Street to the Ballot Box: The July 2011 Elections and the Rise of Social Movements in Thailand". Contemporary Southeast Asia 34 (3): 389–415. doi:10.1353/csa.2012.0027.
- Laotharanarit, Surapan (14 July 2011). "219 MP-elects claim endorsement papers on 1st day". National News Bureau of Thailand.
- "Thai elections likely to be held on July 3". News.asiaone.com. 7 May 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2011.
- "Asia-Pacific – Thai red shirts accept peace offer". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- Thanyarat Doksone (AP) – one day ago. "Thai protesters welcome PM's offer, want details". Google. The Associated Press. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- "Unofficial voter turnout 65.99%". Bangkok Post. 3 July 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
- "General Election 2011". Bangkok Post. 3 July 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
- "Yingluck Shinawatra set to be Thailand's first female premier". CNN. 3 July 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
- "Jatuporn excluded due to failure to vote; further 94 candidates becoming new MPs". Thairath. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
- "คำสั่งคณะกรรมการการเลือกตั้งที่ ๒๒๑/๒๕๕๔ เรื่อง สั่งให้มีการเลือกตั้งสมาชิกสภาผู้แทนราษฎรจังหวัดสุโขทัย เขตเลือกตั้งที่ ๓ ใหม่" [Order of the Election Commission No.221/2554 Re: Re-election of member of the House of Representatives in Sukhothai Province 3rd constituency] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) 128 (part 59 A): 22. 27 July 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
- "คำสั่งคณะกรรมการการเลือกตั้งที่ ๒๒๐/๒๕๕๔ เรื่อง สั่งให้มีการเลือกตั้งสมาชิกสภาผู้แทนราษฎรจังหวัดหนองคาย เขตเลือกตั้งที่ ๒ ใหม่" [Order of the Election Commission No.220/2554 Re: Reelection of member of the House of Representatives in Nong Khai Province 2nd constituency] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) 128 (part 59 A): 21. 27 July 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
- "คำสั่งคณะกรรมการการเลือกตั้งที่ ๒๒๖/๒๕๕๔ เรื่อง ให้มีการนับคะแนนเลือกตั้งสมาชิกสภาผู้แทนราษฎรจังหวัดยะลา เขตเลือกตั้งที่ ๒ ใหม่" [Order of the Election Commission No.226/2554 Re: Recount of the votes cast in the election of member of the House of Representatives with respect to Yala Province 2nd constituency] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) 128 (part 60 A): 20. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- "Assembly to be convoked on 1 August". INN. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
- "Germany allowing Thaksin's entry". Manager Online. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
- "Japan allowing Thaksin in to give lectures". Thairath. 3 August 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Deadly clashes as police besiege Bangkok protesters". BBC News. 14 May 2010. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- "Approved charter amendments pave way for Thai new election". – People's Daily. 11 February 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2011.
- "Thai PM likely to dissolve parliament before June: deputy PM". – People's Daily. 17 February 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2011.
- "Thai PM says parliament to be dissolved by first week of May". – People's Daily. 11 March 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2011.
- "Scrutiny of Proposed Amendments to the Constitution". Inside Thailand. The Government Public Relations Department. 10 December 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2011. "The joint parliamentary vetting committee is scrutinizing two constitutional amendment drafts, which were passed by the National Assembly in the first reading."
- "Thai PM announces date for general election – Asia-Pacific". Al Jazeera English. 9 May 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2011.
- Jindalert-Udomdee, Praphan (29 April 2011). "Pheu Thai will win 270 seats: Thaksin". The Nation (Thailand).
- "ประกาศนายทะเบียนพรรคการเมือง เรื่อง รับจดแจ้งการจัดตั้งพรรคเพื่อไทย" [Political parties registrar announcement Re: Pheu Thai Party establishment register accepted] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) 124 (special part 174 D): 23. 9 November 2007. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "ประกาศนายทะเบียนพรรคการเมือง เรื่อง ตอบรับการเปลี่ยนแปลงชื่อ ชื่อย่อ นโยบาย และข้อบังคับของพรรครวมชาติพัฒนา" [Political parties registrar announcement Re: Response for changing name, abbreviations, policies and regulations of Ruam Chart Pattana Party] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) 128 (part 117 D): 51. 11 August 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "ประกาศนายทะเบียนพรรคการเมือง เรื่อง รับจดแจ้งการจัดตั้งพรรคประชาธิปไตยใหม่" [Political parties registrar announcement Re: New Democracy Party establishment register accepted] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) 128 (special part 62 D): 72. 3 June 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "ประกาศนายทะเบียนพรรคการเมือง เรื่อง รับจดแจ้งการจัดตั้งพรรคประชาธรรม" [Political parties registrar announcement Re: Prachatham Party establishment register accepted] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) 126 (special part 57 D): 174. 28 May 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "ประกาศนายทะเบียนพรรคการเมือง เรื่อง รับจดแจ้งการจัดตั้งพรรคไทยพอเพียง" [Political parties registrar announcement Re: Thai Por-Pieng Party establishment register accepted] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) 127 (special part 80 D): 19. 27 May 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "ประกาศนายทะเบียนพรรคการเมือง เรื่อง รับจดแจ้งการจัดตั้งพรรคไทยเป็นสุข" [Political parties registrar announcement Re: Thaipensuk Party establishment register accepted] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) 127 (special part 190 D): 17. 16 December 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "ประกาศนายทะเบียนพรรคการเมือง เรื่อง รับจดแจ้งการจัดตั้งพรรคแทนคุณแผ่นดิน" [Political parties registrar announcement Re: Thaen Khun Phaendin Party establishment register accepted] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) 125 (special part 32 D): 100. 13 February 2008. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "ประกาศนายทะเบียนพรรคการเมือง เรื่อง รับจดแจ้งการจัดตั้งพรรคเพื่อฟ้าดิน" [Political parties registrar announcement Re: For Heaven and Earth Party establishment register accepted] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) 128 (special part 12 D): 71. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "ประกาศนายทะเบียนพรรคการเมือง เรื่อง ตอบรับการเปลี่ยนแปลงนโยบายพรรค ข้อบังคับพรรคและคณะกรรมการบริหารพรรคชาติไทยพัฒนา" [Political parties registrar announcement Re: Response for changing party policies, party regulations and executive committee of Chartthaipattana Party] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) 126 (part 65 D): 67. 18 June 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- Election Commission (Thailand). "The 2011 general election". Bangkok. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- "ประกาศนายทะเบียนพรรคการเมือง เรื่อง ตอบรับการเปลี่ยนแปลงข้อบังคับพรรคมหาชน" [Political parties registrar announcement Re: Response for changing Mahachon party regulations] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) 125 (part 85 D): 41. 24 July 2008. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "ประกาศนายทะเบียนพรรคการเมือง เรื่อง รับจดแจ้งการจัดตั้งพรรคมหารัฐพัฒนา" [Political parties registrar announcement Re: Maharatpattana Party establishment register accepted] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) 127 (special part 142 D): 53. 16 September 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "Shooting of ex-MP may signal start of poll violence". Bangkok Post. 11 May 2011.
- The Nation, Abhisit: It's us or chaos., 2 July 2011
- The Nation, , 26 August 2011
- "Bhum Jai Thai and Chart Thai Pattana unveil alliance". The Nation. 15 March 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2011.
- "Bail revoked for two reds". The Nation (Thailand) (Bangkok). 12 May 2011.
- The Nation, Democrat to unveil 30 celebrities as electoral candidates, 11 May 2011
- SMH, 'Cloned' sister of former leader polls strongly in Thailand, 14 June 2011
- "Chuvit’s Angry Man Campaign Posters Translated". Women learning Thai. 16 June 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2011. "Chuvit is colourful, dramatic, and evocative. In your face even."
- "Vote NO! Animal Campaign: Political Posters Translated". Women Learning Thai. 20 June 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2011. "Tiger, lion, bull, rino… politicians are WILD BEASTS!"
- "'Vote No' campaign launched in Korat". Bangkok Post. 11 June 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2011. "More than 500 yellow-shirt supporters of the People’s Alliance for Democracy (PAD) on Saturday campaigned for 'Vote No' in Nakhon Ratchasima"
- Apichart Jinakul (4 July 2011). "No "no-vote" for Chamlong". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
- "การเมืองใหม่ พรรค". Facebook. 25 มิถุนายน 2552. Retrieved 14 July 2011. Check date values in:
- Ussavasodhi, Santibhap (20 June 2011), Suan Dusit Poll : Pheu Thai Party still leading, Siam Daily News, retrieved 2 July 2011
- "Umfrage Suan Dusit Rajabhat Universität (in German)". thailand-webnews.de. 30 May 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2011.
- "Suan Dusit Poll: Pheu Thai more popular". NNT National News Bureau of Thailand. 23 May 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2011.
- Chovichien, Vowpailin (29 June 2011). "Voting from abroad: Thai voices from a distance". The Nation (Thailand) (Bangkok).
- "Large crowds for advance voting". The Nation (Thailand). 27 June 2011.
- "Thai opposition appears set for victory". CBC News. 3 July 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
- "Landslide victory for allies of ousted Thai leader in exit polls". The Daily Telegraph. 3 July 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
- "เผย กกต. ยังไม่กล้ารับรอง ปู-มาร์ค-ตู่ ให้มีฐานะเป็น สส." [Election Commission not yet acknowledging Yingluck, Abhisit and Nattawut.]. Thairath. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- "Leading names in limbo". Bangkok Post. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011. "Yingluck Shinawatra, Abhisit Vejjajiva and a number of red-shirt politicians were missing from the 358 MPs endorsed by the Election Commission yesterday."
- "Thailand's Yingluck plays down endorsement delay". AP. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- "Five red cards expected". The Nation. 3 July 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
- Sattaburuth, Aekarach (5 July 2011). "Pheu Thai gears toward amnesty". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 4 July 2011.
- "Assembly convoked to select PM this 5 August". Thairath. 3 August 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Assembly convoked to select PM this 5 August" (in Thai). Thairath. 3 August 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- Yingluck elected prime minister, Bangkok Post, 5 August 2011, retrieved 5 August 2011
- "296 favoured Yingluck's premiership, 197 abstained.". Nation Channel. 5 August 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- Santibhap Ussavasodhi (8 August 2011). "Yingluck royally endorsed 28th PM of Thailand". Public Relations Department. National News Bureau of Thailand (NNT). 255408080021. Retrieved 9 August 2011. "Pheu Thai party-listed MP Yingluck Shinawatra has been royally endorsed the 28th prime minister of Thailand."
- See Proclamation on Appointment of Prime Minister (Yingluck Shinawatra) dated 5 August 2011.
- New cabinet set up., Thairath, 9 August 2011, retrieved 9 August 2011
- "Chaloem to be Deputy PM." (in Thai). Thairath. 8 August 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- Thip-Osod, Manop (5 July 2011), Abhisit steps down as Democrat leader, Bangkok Post, retrieved 4 July 2011
- Army 'accepts' election result, Bangkok Post, 4 July 2011, retrieved 4 July 2011
- Cambodia congratulates Thailand on poll result, Bangkok Post, 5 July 2011, retrieved 4 July 2011
- Chudasri, Darana (5 July 2011), Stock market booms as poll spurs investor confidence, Bangkok Post, retrieved 4 July 2011
- ""อภิสิทธิ์" โฟนอิน เสียใจ ยายวัย 80 แฟน ปชป. ฆ่าตัวตาย" [Abhisit's phone call: Sorry with suicide of 80-year-old Democrat fan granny.]. Thairath (in Thai). 10 July 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- "อานิสงส์ กกต.รับรองส.ส.475 คน ทำหุ้นไทยพุ่ง 3.67 จุด" [Election Commission's acknowledgment of 475 legislators causing national stock market 3.67-point higher]. Thairath (in Thai). 28 July 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
- Thailand's July Election: Understanding the Outcome, Q&A with Catharin Dalpino (July 2011)
- Thai election 2011 collected coverage at Aljazeera
- General Election 2011 collected coverage at the Bangkok Post