Thai numerals

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Thai numerals (Thai: เลขไทย, IPA: lêːk̚ tʰaj) constitute a numeral system of Thai number names for the Khmer numerals traditionally used in Thailand, also used for the more common Arabic numerals, and which follow the Hindu-Arabic numeral system.

Usage[edit]

The Thai language lacks grammatical number. A count is usually expressed in the form of an uninflected noun followed by a number and a classifier. "Five teachers" is expressed as "teacher five person" khru ha khon (Thai: ครูห้าคน ครู-ห้า-คน or with the numeral included Thai: ครู ๕ คน.) Khon "person" is a type of referent noun that is also used as the Thai part of speech called in English a linguistic classifier, or measure word. In Thai, counting is kannap (การนับ, lit. 'occasion of respect'); the classifier, laksananam (ลักษณนาม /ลัก-สะ-หฺนะ-นาม/ from laksana characteristic, form, attribute, quality, pattern, style; and nam name, designation, appellation.[1]) Variations to this pattern do occur, and there really is no hierarchy among Thai classifiers.[2] A partial list of Thai words that also classify nouns can be found in Wiktionary category: Thai classifiers.

Main numbers[edit]

Zero to nine[edit]

Thai sūn is written as oval 0 (number) when using Arabic numerals, but a small circle when using traditional numerals, and also means centre in other contexts.[3] It is from Sanskrit śūnya, as are the (context-driven) alternate names for numbers one to four given below; but not the counting 1 (number). Thai names for N +1 and the regular digits 2-9 as shown in the table, below, resemble those in Cantonese as spoken in Southern China, putative homeland of the Tai. That they are even closer to Minnan (Teochew/Hokkien), may be because most Thai Chinese are Teochew.[citation needed] Numerical digit characters, however, are almost identical to Khmer numerals. Thai and Lao words for numerals are almost identical, however, the numerical digits vary somewhat in shape. Shown below is a comparison between three languages using Cantonese and Minnan characters and pronunciations. The Thai transliteration uses the Royal Thai General System of Transcription (RTGS).

Number Thai Khmer Lao Cantonese Minnan Hakka
Numeral Written RTGS IPA Archaic Numeral Written IPA
0 ศูนย์ sun sǔːn (Sanskrit śūnya) ສູນ sǔːn 零 (ling4) 空 (khong3) 零 (lang2)
1 หนึ่ง nueng nɯ̀ŋ อ้าย (âai) ນຶ່ງ nɯ̌ŋ 一 (yat1) 一 (it4) 一 (yit5)
2 สอง song sɔ̌ːŋ ยี่ (yîi) ສອງ sǒːŋ 二 (yi2) [雙 (seung1) = pair] 二 (ji7) [雙 (song1, lit.)] 二 (ngi47) [雙 (sung1)]
3 สาม sam sǎːm สาม (sǎam) ສາມ sǎːm 三 (saam1) 三 (sam1, lit.) 三 (sam1)
4 สี่ si sìː ไส (sǎi) ສີ່ sìː 四 (sei3) 四 (si3) 四 (si4)
5 ห้า ha hâː งั่ว (ngûa) ຫ້າ hâː 五 (ng5) 五 (go.7; ngo. lit.) 五 (ng3)
6 หก hok hòk ลก (lók) ຫົກ hók 六 (luk6) 六 (liok8, lit.) 六 (luk5)
7 เจ็ด chet t͡ɕèt เจ็ด (jèd) ເຈັດ t͡ɕét 七 (chat1) 七 (chit4) 七 (cit5)
8 แปด paet pɛ̀ːt แปด (pàed) ແປດ pɛ́t 八 (baat3) 八 (pat4, lit.) 八 (bat5)
9 เก้า kao kâːw เจา (jao) ເກົ້າ kâw 九 (gau2) 九 (kau2) 九 (giu3)
10 ๑๐ สิบ sip sìp จ๋ง (jǒng) ១០ ໑໐ ສິບ síp 十 (sap6) 十 (tzhap8; sip8 lit.) 十 (sip6)

[lit. = literary pronunciation]

Ten to a million[edit]

Sanskrit lakh designates the place value of a digit (tam naeng khong thua lek, ตําแหน่งของตัวเลข), which are named for the powers of ten: the unit's place is lakh nuay (หลักหน่วย); ten's place, lakh sip (หลักสิบ); hundred's place, lakh roi (หลักร้อย), and so forth.[4] The number one following any multiple of sip becomes et (Cantonese: 一, yat1; Minnan: 一, it4). The number ten (sip) is the same as Minnan 十 (sip8, lit.). Numbers from twenty to twenty nine begin with yi sip (Cantonese: 二十, yi6sap6; Minnan: 二十, lit. ji7sip8). Names of the lakh sip for 30 to 90, and for the lakh of 100, 1000, 10,000, 100,000 and million, are almost identical to those of the like Khmer numerals.

Number Thai RTGS IPA
10 ๑๐ สิบ sip sìp
11 ๑๑ สิบเอ็ด sip et sìp èt
12 ๑๒ สิบสอง sip song sìp sɔ̌ːŋ
20 ๒๐ ยี่สิบ yi sip jîː sìp
21 ๒๑ ยี่สิบเอ็ด yi sip et jîː sìp èt
22 ๒๒ ยี่สิบสอง yi sip song jîː sìp sɔ̌ːŋ
100 ๑๐๐ ร้อย roi rɔ́ːj
1 000 ๑๐๐๐ พัน phan pʰan
10 000 ๑๐๐๐๐ หมื่น muen mɯ̀ːn
100 000 ๑๐๐๐๐๐ แสน saen sɛ̌ːn
1 000 000 ๑๐๐๐๐๐๐ ล้าน lan láːn

For the numbers twenty-one through twenty-nine, the part signifying twenty: yi sip (ยี่สิบ), may be colloquially shortened to yip (ยีบ, ยิบ). See the alternate numbers section below.

The hundreds are formed by combining roi with the tens and ones values. For example, two hundred and thirty-two is song roi sam sip song. The words roi, phan, muen, and saen should occur with a preceding numeral (nueng is optional), so two hundred ten, for example, is song roi sip, and one hundred is either roi or nueng roi. Nueng never precedes sip, so song roi nueng sip is incorrect. Native speakers will sometimes use roi nueng (or phan nueng, etc.) with different tones on nueng to distinguish one hundred from one hundred and one. However, such distinction is often not made, and ambiguity may follow. To resolve this problem, if the number 101 (or 1001, 10001, etc.) is intended, one should say roi et (or phan et, muen et, etc.).

Numbers above a million[edit]

Numbers above a million are constructed by prefixing lan with a multiplier. For example, ten million is sip lan, and a trillion (1012, a long scale billion) is lan lan.

Decimal and fractional numbers[edit]

Colloquially, decimal numbers are formed by saying chut (จุด, dot) where the decimal separator is located. For example, 1.01 is nueng chut sun nueng (หนึ่งจุดศูนย์หนึ่ง).

Fractional numbers are formed by placing nai (ใน, in, of) between the numerator and denominator or using [set] x suan y ([เศษ] x ส่วน y, x parts of the whole y) to clearly indicate. For example, ⅓ is nueng nai sam (หนึ่งในสาม) or [set] nueng suan sam ([เศษ]หนึ่งส่วนสาม). The word set (เศษ) can be omitted.

The word khrueng (ครึ่ง) is used for "half". It precedes the measure word if used alone, but it follows the measure word when used with another number. For example, kradat krueng phaen (กระดาษครึ่งแผ่น) means "half sheet of paper", but kradat nueng phaen krueng (กระดาษหนึ่งแผ่นครึ่ง) means "one and a half sheets of paper".

Negative numbers[edit]

Negative numbers are formed by placing lop (ลบ, minus) in front of the number. For example, −11 is lop sip et (ลบสิบเอ็ด).

Ordinal numbers[edit]

Ordinal numbers are formed by placing thi (ที่, place) in front of the number. They are not considered a special class of numbers, since the numeral still follows a modified noun, which is thi in this case.

Thai RTGS IPA meaning
ที่หนึ่ง thi nueng tʰîː nɯ̀ŋ first
ที่สอง thi song tʰîː sɔ̌ːŋ second
ที่สาม thi sam tʰîː sǎːm third
ที่สี่ thi si tʰîː sìː fourth
ที่# thi # tʰîː #st, #nd, #rd, #th

Alternate numbers[edit]

Ai[edit]

Ai (Thai: อ้าย) is used for "first born (son)" or for the first month, duean ai (เดือนอ้าย), of the Thai lunar calendar.[5]

Ek[edit]

Ek (Thai: เอก) is from Pali ḗka, "one" [6] Ek is used for one (quantity); first (rank), greater than tho โท second, in education degrees and military ranks; and for the lead actor in a role. In antiquity, a seventh daughter was called luk ek (ลูกเอก), though a seventh son was luk chet (ลูกเจ็ด).[7]

Et[edit]

Et (Thai: เอ็ด, Cantonese: 一, yat1; Minnan: 一, it4), meaning "one", is used as last member in a compound number (see the main numbers section above).

Tho[edit]

Tho (Thai: โท) is from Pali dūā, "two".[8] Tho is used for two and for the second-level rank in education degrees and military ranks.[9]

Yi[edit]

Yi (Thai: ยี่, Cantonese: 二, yi6; Minnan: 二, ji7) is still used in several places in Thai language for the number two, apart from song (สอง): to construct twenty (two tens) and its combinations twenty-one through twenty-nine; to name the second month, duean yi (เดือนยี่), of the traditional Thai lunar calendar; and in the Thai northern dialect thin pha yip (ถิ่น–พายัพ), which refers to the Year of the Tiger.[10]

Tri & Trai[edit]

Tri (ตรี) and trai (ไตร) are from Sanskrit trāyaḥ, "three".[11] These alternatives are used for three; third rank in education degrees and military ranks; and as a prefix meaning three(fold).[12]

Chattawa[edit]

Chattawa (จัตวา) is the Pali numeral four; usually used as a prefix meaning fourth in order or quadruple in number.

Lo[edit]

Lo (Thai: โหล) means a dozen or twelve. It is usually used for trade. It may also mean jar or bottle.[13]

Yip[edit]

Yip (Thai: ยีบ or ยิบ) in colloquial Thai is an elision or contraction of yi sip (ยี่สิบ) at the beginning of numbers twenty-one through twenty-nine. Therefore, one may hear yip et (ยีบเอ็ด, ยิบเอ็ด), yip song (ยีบสอง, ยิบสอง), up to yip kao (ยีบเก้า, ยิบเก้า). Yip may have a long vowel (ยีบ) or be elided further into a short vowel (ยิบ).

Sao[edit]

Sao (Thai: ซาว) is twenty in the Thai northern dialect;[14] it is also frequently heard in Isan, as in the expression sao baht, for 20 baht. Xao (ຊາວ) is also the word for twenty in the Lao language.

Kurut[edit]

Kurut (Thai: กุรุส) means a dozen dozen or 144. It is usually used for trade. It is a loanword from gross.[15]

Kot[edit]

Kot (Thai: โกฏิ) is ten million used in religious context. It comes from Pali/Sanskrit kōṭi.[16] See also crore.

Tone marks, education degrees and military ranks[edit]

The alternate set of numerals used to name tonal marks (ไม้, mai), educational degrees (ปริญญา, parinya), and military rankings derive from names of Sanskrit numerals.

Number Tonal Mark Educational Degree Military Ranking in the Royal Thai Army
Thai RTGS Value Mark Thai RTGS Tone Thai RTGS Degree Thai RTGS Meaning
เอก ek first -่ ไม้เอก mai ek first tone ปริญญาเอก parinya ek doctor's พลเอก phon ek General
พันเอก phan ek Colonel
ร้อยเอก roi ek Captain
จ่าสิบเอก cha sip ek Master Sgt. 1st Class
สิบเอก sip ek Sergeant (Sgt.)
โท tho second -้ ไม้โท mai tho second tone ปริญญาโท parinya tho master's พลโท phon tho Lieutenant General
พันโท phan tho Lieutenant Colonel
ร้อยโท roi tho Lieutenant
จ่าสิบโท cha sip tho Master Sgt. 2nd Class
สิบโท sip tho Corporal
ตรี tri third -๊ ไม้ตรี mai tri third tone ปริญญาตรี parinya tri bachelor's พลตรี phon tri Major general
พันตรี phan tri Major
ร้อยตรี roi tri Sub Lieutenant
จ่าสิบตรี cha sip tri Master Sgt. 3rd Class
สิบตรี sip tri Lance Corporal
จัตวา chattawa fourth -๋ ไม้จัตวา mai chattawa fourth tone พลจัตวา phon chattawa Brigadier General (Honorary)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Glenn S., ed. (May 21, 2013). "ลักษณนาม" (Dictionary). Royal Institute Dictionary - 1982. Thai-language.com. Retrieved May 21, 2013. "[grammar] a classifier, a numerative noun" 
  2. ^ Constructing Taxonomy of Numerative Classifiers for Asian Languages
  3. ^ English-Thai reverse lookup and synonyms
  4. ^ Online Royal Institute Dictionary, 1999 edition: select "ห" and enter หลัก
  5. ^ ORID (Online Royal Institute Dictionary (1999); select อ enter อ้าย
  6. ^ Digital Dictionaries of South Asia Sir Ralph Lilley Turner (1888-1983) A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages entry 2462
  7. ^ ORID (Online Royal Institute Dictionary (1999), select อ enter เอก
  8. ^ Digital Dictionaries of South Asia Sir Ralph Lilley Turner (1888-1983) A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages entry 6455
  9. ^ ORID (Online Royal Institute Dictionary (1999), select ท enter โท
  10. ^ ORID (Online Royal Institute Dictionary (1999), select ย enter ยี่
  11. ^ Digital Dictionaries of South Asia Sir Ralph Lilley Turner (1888-1983) A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages entry 5994
  12. ^ ORID (Online Royal Institute Dictionary (1999), select ต enter ไตร
  13. ^ ORID (Online Royal Institute Dictionary (1999), select ห enter โหล
  14. ^ ORID (Online Royal Institute Dictionary (1999), select ซ enter ซาว
  15. ^ ORID (Online Royal Institute Dictionary (1999), select ก enter กุรุส
  16. ^ ORID (Online Royal Institute Dictionary (1999), select ก enter โกฏิ

External links[edit]