|Franchise(s):||International joint operation
service began 1996
|Main stations(s):||Paris Nord,
Bruxelles Midi/Brussel Zuid,
Cologne Central Station
|Other stations(s):||Antwerpen-Centraal, Bruges, Charleroi-Sud, Ghent-Sint-Pieters, Liège-Guillemins, Mons, Namur, Oostende, Aachen Hauptbahnhof, Albertville, Bourg-St-Maurice, Moûtiers, Chambéry-Challes-les-Eaux, Schiphol, Rotterdam Centraal|
|Fleet size:||9 Thalys PBA sets
17 Thalys PBKA sets
|Stations called at:||26|
|Parent company:||SNCF, NMBS/SNCB, Deutsche Bahn|
|Thalys route map|
Thalys is an international high-speed train operator originally built around the high-speed line between Paris and Brussels. This track is shared with Eurostar trains that go from Paris or Brussels to London via Lille and the Channel Tunnel and with French domestic TGV trains. Thalys reaches Amsterdam and Cologne, and its system is operated by Thalys International. Its capital is divided up between SNCF (62%), NMBS/SNCB (28%) and Deutsche Bahn (10%).
The decision to build a high-speed railway between Paris, Brussels, Cologne and Amsterdam was made in 1987. On 28 January 1993, SNCF, NMBS/SNCB, Nederlandse Spoorwegen and Deutsche Bahn (then still Deutsche Bundesbahn) signed an agreement to jointly operate the axis through the brand Thalys, and in 1995 Westrail International was created by the French and Belgium national railways to operate the services. On 4 June 1996 the first train left Paris using the LGV Nord until Belgium, taking 2:07 hours to Brussels and 4:47 hours to Amsterdam.
In 1997, the Belgian HSL 1 line, allowing 300 km/h and running from the French border to the outskirts of Brussels, was ready for service. On 14 December 1997 the first Thalys train from Paris to Brussels ran on the HSL 1, reduced travel time to 1:25 hours. At the same time service commenced to Cologne and Aachen in Germany, and Bruges, Charleroi, Ghent, Mons, Namur and Ostend in Belgium. On 19 December 1998 the Thalys Neige service started to the ski resorts of Tarentaise Valley and Bourg St. Maurice. In May 1999, the new high-speed line serving Charles de Gaulle Airport opened, and Thalys started direct services from the Airport to Brussels, including code sharing agreements with Air France, American Airlines and Northwest Airlines. On 28 November 1999, the company changed its name to Thalys International.
In 2000, the Thalys Soleil started services to the summer resort Valence—this service was extended in 2002 to Marseille and Avignon. Service between Brussels and Cologne was improved in December 2002 when trains began running on the new HSL 2 in Belgium. In 2003, services started to Brussels International Airport and the Thalys Nuits d’Eté service to Marne-la-Vallée. Deutsche Bahn purchased 10% of the company in 2007.
Beginning 14 June 2009 the journey between Brussels and Cologne was shortened by 19 minutes when the new high speed line HSL 3 between Liège and Aachen opened using Deutsche Bahn's thrice-daily ICE trains running between Brussels and Frankfurt. HSL 3 was completed in 2007, but Thalys trains had not yet been equipped with the ETCS signalling equipment necessary to use the new line. After installation and testing, Thalys began operating on HSL 3 on 13 December 2009. For the same reasons, Thalys started operating on the HSL 4/HSL-Zuid high-speed line between Antwerp and Amsterdam 13 December 2009, two years after the line's construction.
Since 29 August 2011, one return journey to Cologne has been extended to Essen Hauptbahnhof., and since 30 October 2011, one return journey to Brussels had been extended to Brussels National Airport.
Beyond Brussels, the main cities Thalys trains reach are Antwerp, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Liège, Bruges, Ghent, Charleroi, Aachen and Cologne. Trains to these destinations run partly on dedicated high-speed tracks, and partly on conventional tracks shared with normal-speed trains. The high-speed lines used by Thalys are HSL 1 between Paris and Brussels, HSL 4/HSL-Zuid between Antwerp and Amsterdam, and the HSL 2 and HSL 3 between Brussels and Aachen. For its seasonal operations within France, other high-speed lines are used.
Plans to continue the line past Cologne to Frankfurt had to be abandoned because the Thalys train sets are very inefficient under Germany's 15 kV electric system and thus unable to operate at full speed on the Cologne-Frankfurt high-speed rail line.
Journeys from Brussels (Brussels-South) to Paris (Gare du Nord) are normally 1 hour, 22 minutes, for a distance of approximately 300 kilometres (190 mi). Peak speed is 300 km/h (186 mph) on a dedicated high-speed railway track.
The LGV (ligne à grande vitesse) link with Charles de Gaulle Airport allowed Air France to withdraw its air service between Paris and Brussels; instead, Air France books seats on Thalys trains. Thalys has been given the IATA designator 2H. This is used in conjunction with American Airlines and Delta Air Lines. American Airlines has a code sharing agreement with Thalys for rail service from Charles de Gaulle airport to Brussels-South. The airline alliance SkyTeam also has a code sharing agreement with Thalys for rail service connecting its hub Amsterdam Schiphol Airport with Antwerp-Centraal and Bruxelles Midi/Brussel Zuid. Indian carrier Jet Airways has formed a codeshare agreement with the Thalys rail service between Brussels and Paris.
||This section is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay rather than an encyclopedic description of the subject. (October 2010)|
Thalys targets a passenger market in France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany.
The percentage of income coming from different routes demonstrates on which routes the company is most used:
- Paris-Brussels: 55.6%
- Paris-Belgium (outside Brussels): 8.9%
- Paris-Belgium-Netherlands: 21.3%
- Paris-Belgium-Germany: 11.8%
- Others: 2.4%
52% of customers are from the leisure market; 48% from the business market.
A large segment of Thalys's total sales and income comes from the connection between Paris and Brussels. A comparison is made below between different modes of transport on this route in order to demonstrate the service offered by Thalys and alternative competitors in this particular market.
The comparison has been made for a single trip from Brussels to Paris, for a ticket bought within 24 hours of departure. Despite the European Directive on Competition in Rail Transport (EU Directive 91/440), active since 1 January 2010, there is no alternative provision of high speed train connections on this route (last checked in March 2010). Potential competitors are Deutsche Bahn, Trenitalia and Veolia, as this is regularly stated in the specialized reference newspaper “Ville, Rail et Transport”.
|Transport and purchase mode||Description and comments||Duration||Single fare (without reduction, at a peak hour)|
|Thalys train||Standard ticket purchased at railway station||1h22||€88|
|Other direct high speed trains||No offer as of 25 September 2010|
|Thalys train through ads||Online resale of Smoove tickets||1h22||Easier access to cheapest tickets (Smoove)|
|Other high speed trains||1. Brussels - Lille by TGV or Eurostar;
2. Lille - Paris by TGV
|1h30, plus transfer time at Lille. If Eurostar, add advance boarding time (30 mn)||€64.90 - €80|
|Regional trains||1. Brussels – Lille via Ghent or Mouscron (Belgium) by regional trains;
2. Lille - Paris by TGV
|3h, plus transfer time||Brussels – Lille: €26 - €44.90;
Lille – Paris: €38.90 - €54; Total: €64.90 - €98.90
|Bus||Eurolines bus||3h45, plus 30 mn boarding time||€21 - €23|
|Car||Many car pooling websites allow to connect car drivers and those looking for a ride on a car trip.||3h||€12 - €20 as passenger, depending on agreements with the driver.
About €37 for a driver (€12 highway toll, €25 for 400 km petrol/diesel)
|Flights||Brussels Airlines||1h00 flight time, plus at least 1h boarding time||€188.06 (one way) and €335.55 (return fare )|
Other information concerning the transport offer:
Before Thalys, in 1996, the train called Etoile du Nord (Northern Star), a Trans Europe Express, was connecting Paris and Brussels in 2h20.
The prices of Thalys tickets vary widely, even for the same journey and same level of comfort. Here is an example of prices for Paris to Brussels, Comfort 2 (equivalent to 2nd class), maximum price, by ticket category:
|Tariff name||Description and comments||Price|
|Smoove||Ticket purchased in advance
(from 3 months to 15 days)
|Up to €35 if booked 15 days in advance
|Youth||Until 25 years old||€44 (limited seats)|
|Senior||From 60 years old||€62 (limited seats)|
|Kid||Child||Up to €29|
|Kid & Co||Child accompanier||Up to €43|
Until the 1990s, regular travelers remember that it was easy to find reduced price tickets at usual departure times (as 8 AM or 6 PM), through the promotional pages of Thalys website. In December 2009, tests effectuated on this site have evidenced that these reduced price tickets have become quite rare, and essentially for unusual departure times (between 6 and 8 am or after 9 pm.
About Kid and Kid & Co:
Unlike many national train companies, Thalys does not allow children below 12 years old to travel alone. This has been interpreted as a way to rise profits, according categories of users impacted by this measure.
Since 24 August 2010, there is a supplement of €7 to Thalys (as well as other international high speed tickets) tickets bought at NMBS/SNCB ticket offices at train stations. This is due to a reduction of a sales fee paid by Thalys and Eurostar to the Belgian rail company.
All figures in millions. Revenue in millions of euro.
Thalys trains are wheelchair-accessible, with assistance of the train staff. Bicycles are not allowed on Thalys, unless disassembled or packed in special wrap. Folding bikes are allowed.
Rolling stock 
|PBA||Electric multiple unit||186||300||9||1996||Tri-current; Operates only on the Paris-Brussels-Amsterdam route.|
|PBKA||Electric multiple unit||186||300||17||1997||Quadri-current; Operates on Paris-Brussels-Cologne-Amsterdam route.|
Accidents and Incidents 
- On 9 May 1998 a truck was struck by a Thalys PBKA on an unprotected level crossing; it had attempted to cross the tracks at the crossing when the train arrived. The truck driver was killed in the impact and the train's power unit and first two trailers derailed; the trainset was left heavily damaged. Six passengers were injured and tracks and catenary were broken in the incident. Trailers R1 and R2 had to be scrapped. The trainset was later repaired with the R1 and R2 trailers from a regular TGV trainset.
- On 11 October 2008 a Thalys PBA set bound for Amsterdam collided with a local ICM train set at Gouda railway station in The Netherlands. The Thalys train set had been diverted via Gouda due to engineering work on its usual route. None of the passengers were seriously injured, but both trains incurred serious damage. An investigation concluded that staff of the local ICM was to blame as they left the platform whilst still under a red signal.
See also 
- LGV Nord
- HSL 1
- HSL 2
- HSL 3
- HSL 4
- Cologne–Aachen high-speed railway
- Train categories in Europe
- "Thalys: Key figures". Thalys. Retrieved 2009-07-29.
- Thalys: Thalys : corporate
- Thalys. "1976–1995 The train: economic development drive". Retrieved 2008-10-04.
- Thalys: Thalys : corporate
- Thalys. "History". Retrieved 2008-10-04.
- Hermsen, Stephan (22 December 2010). "Thalys verbindet das Ruhrgebiet mit Paris" [Thalys connects the Ruhr area with Paris]. DerWesten (in German) (Essen).
- Belga (14 September 2011). "Brussels Airport à 1h47 de Paris via Thalys" [Brussels Airport 1h47 away from Paris with Thalys]. La Libre Belgique (in French) (Brussels).
- [2013 Thalys winter schedule]
- "railfaneurope.net". 2009-03-07. Retrieved 2009-03-15.
- Alain Jeunesse and Michel Rollin (2004-03). "La motorisation du TGV POS" (in French). Retrieved 2007-07-04.
- United States Government Accountability Office (1994). Intermodal Transportation. DIANE Publishing. p. 27. ISBN 1-4289-3337-9.
- Source: http://www.thalys.com/be/fr/a-propos-de-thalys/chiffres-cles, consulted 17 April 2010.
- Sources of information: http://www.thalys.fr, http://www.covoiturage.fr, http://www.mitfahrzentrale.de, http://www.trocdestrains.com, http://www.zepass.com, http://www.kelbillet.com, consulted in June 2009, and by direct observation at the same period.
- An alternative connexion, if needed, is the following: Mouscron – Tourcoing by taxi (5 km), then Tourcoing – Lille in subway
- Paris-Bruxelles, ou les joies du monopole - Coulisses de Bruxelles, UE
- Les enfants interdits de Thalys - Autonomie, indépendance des enfants - FORUM Famille
- Lalibre.be - Thalys et Eurostar économisent sur le dos de la SNCB
- Unknown (20 januari 1999). "Thalys trook 57 procent meer treinreizigers in 1998; NMBS: Internationaal treinverkeer zit duidelijk in de lift.". De Financieel-Economische Tijd. p. 26.
- Unknown (8 februari 2000). "Thalys vervoert bijna 5 miljoen passagiers". NRC Handelsblad. p. 15.
- Unknown (10 january 2001). "Opnieuw goed jaar voor Thalys". De Financieel-Economische Tijd. p. 9.
- Van der Heide, Lolke (27 July 2002). "Vliegen zonder vleugels ; Hogesnelheidstrein komt nog niet los van strijd om nationaal belang". NRC Handelsblad. p. 11.
- Unknown (6 januari 2003). "Thalys: zes miljoen passagiers in 2002". Nieuws.nl.
- Unknown (16 januari 2004). "Thalys vervoert minder passagiers". BN/De Stem.
- Unknown (20 januari 2005). "Recordjaar voor Thalys". Rotterdams Dagblad (Rotterdam). p. 716.
- Unknown (3 januari 2006). "Kort Nieuws". AD/Algemeen Dagblad. p. 15.
- Unknown (10 januari 2007). "6,5 miljoen reizigers voor Thalys". De Tijd. p. 4.
- Unknown (16 januari 2008). "Thalys verliest reizigers maar behoudt omzet". De Tijd. p. 6.
- Thalys.com 2008
- Volkskrant (2011)
- Press release Thalys
- Press release Thalys
- Botman, Hans (27 maart 1999). "Thalys raast door". Algemeen Dagblad. p. 49.
- Van Gelder, Harry (26 maart 1999). "Belgen, Fransen, Duitsers en Nederlanders exploiteren hogesnelheidslijn liever samen ; Europese spoorbedrijven verwerpen concurrentie". De Volkskrant (Brussels). p. 2.
- Thalys Trains, European Trains | Rail Europe
- "Railway Gazette: Manufacturers must share the risk". Retrieved 2011-02-21.
- nu.nl. "Accident". Retrieved 2008-10-11.
- IVW.nl. "Rapport". Retrieved 2009-05-18.
Further reading 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Thalys|
- Brunhouse, Jay (1999). Traveling Europe's Trains. Pelican Publishing Company. ISBN 1-56554-854-X.
- Solomon, Brian (2001). Bullet trains. MBI Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7603-0768-7.
- International railway journal (2003). A star is born: International railway journal. Simmons-Boardman Pub. Corp.