Metropolitan Police Marine Policing Unit
The Marine Policing Unit (MPU) (previously named Thames Division, then Marine Support Unit) is a Central Operations (CO) branch of London's Metropolitan Police. It is headquartered on Wapping High Street.
The MPU is responsible for waterborne policing of the River Thames within Greater London. Based at a police station in Wapping and with 22 vessels at its disposal, the unit also provides support to the rest of the Metropolitan Police and to the City of London Police when dealing with incidents in or around any waterway in London. A specialist underwater and confined spaces search team carries out specialist searches throughout the Metropolitan Police District. The unit also has 24 officers who are trained in rope access techniques and trained to carry out searches and counter demonstrator operations at height.
Thames Division was formed in 1839 when the Marine Police Force was absorbed into the Metropolitan Police Force. The original marine force is considered the first preventive police in the history of policing in England. It began when a merchant and magistrate, Patrick Colquhoun, teamed up with mariner John Harriott and Jeremy Bentham to persuade shipping companies to finance a police force to stop the theft of cargo from the docks. The first death in the line of duty occurred shortly thereafter, when Gabriel Franks was killed in a skirmish with dock workers protesting against the new force. Impressed by the economic impact of the initiative, the government passed the Marine Police Bill on 28 July 1800, making it one of the first publicly funded police forces, and also the first uniformed police force in the world.
Initially patrols were conducted in rowing boats, some of which remained in use until 1905. Impetus to change was provided when, on 3 September 1878 the steam collier Bywell Castle ran into the pleasure steamer Princess Alice in Galleons Reach with the loss of over 600 lives. The subsequent inquest and inquiry recommended that Thames Division should have steam launches, as rowing galleys had shown themselves to be inadequate for police duty, and the first two were commissioned in the mid-1880s. In 1910 the first motor vessels were introduced.
On 20 August 1989 the Marchioness disaster occurred when an aggregate dredger, the Bowbelle, collided with a passenger vessel, the Marchioness, near Cannon Street Railway Bridge. Four MSU patrol boats assisted in the rescue of 87 people. Fifty-one passengers died, though, and following subsequent inquiries the government asked the Maritime and Coastguard Agency, the Port of London Authority and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution to work together to set up a dedicated search and rescue service for the tidal River Thames. Consequently, on 2 January 2002, the RNLI set up four lifeboat stations at Gravesend, Tower Pier, Chiswick Pier and Teddington, taking over the role of primary search and rescue service on the Thames from the MSU.
In 2001, Thames Division was renamed the Marine Support Unit, and again in 2008 to the Marine Policing Unit. It is responsible for the 14 miles of the river lying between Hampton Court and Dartford Creek. Above Hampton court, Surrey Police have responsibility for policing but a launch is supplied by the Environment Agency. Below Dartford Creek, responsibility lies with Essex and Kent Police, who have combined forces and formed a joint marine unit, with Kent based in Sheerness and Essex based in Burnham-on-Crouch.
- Dick Paterson, "Thames Police History - The Police Establishment," Thames Police Museum. Retrieved 7 February 2007.
- Dick Paterson, "Thames Police History - Government Sponsorship," Thames Police Museum. Retrieved 7 February 2007.
- History of the Marine Support Unit accessed 7 Feb 2007 Archived 16 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine