|Classification and external resources|
Radiogram of a baby born with thanatophoric dwarfism
Thanatophoric dysplasia is a severe skeletal disorder characterized by a disproportionately small ribcage, extremely short limbs and folds of extra skin on the arms and legs.
Infants with this condition have disproportionately short arms and legs with extra folds of skin. Other signs of the disorder include a narrow chest, small ribs, underdeveloped lungs, and an enlarged head with a large forehead and prominent, wide-spaced eyes. Thanatophoric dysplasia is a lethal skeletal dysplasia divided into two subtypes. Type I is characterized by extreme rhizomelia, bowed long bones, narrow thorax, a relatively large head, normal trunk length and absent cloverleaf skull. The spine shows platyspondyly, the cranium has a short base, and, frequently, the foramen magnum is decreased in size. The forehead is prominent, and hypertelorism and a saddle nose may be present. Hands and feet are normal, but fingers are short. Type II is characterized by short, straight long bones and cloverleaf skull. It presents with typical telephone handled shaped long bones and a H-shaped vertebrae.
Infants with type 1 thanatophoric dysplasia also have curved thigh bones, flattened bones of the spine (platyspondyly) and shortened thoracic ribs. Note: Prenatal ultra-sound images of the ribs sometimes appear asymmetrical when in fact they are not. In certain cases, this has caused a misdiagnosis of Osteogenisis Imperfecta (OI) type II.
The term thanatophoric is Greek for "death bearing". Children with this condition are usually stillborn or die shortly after birth from respiratory failure, however a small number of individuals have survived into childhood and a very few beyond. Survivors have difficulty breathing on their own and require respiratory support such as high flow oxygen through a canula or ventilator support via tracheostomy. There may also be evidence of spinal stenosis and brain seizures. The oldest known living TD survivor is a 25-year old male. Another male lived to age 20. Two children with TD aged 10 and 12, a male and a female, are known in Germany. There is also a 6-year old male living with TD and two 1-year old males.
This condition affects about 1 in 60,000 births.
- ‘Cloverleaf skull’: this is due to lateral temporal bulging
- Small thorax
- Short ribs with wide costochondral junctions
- Small scapulae
- severe platyspondyly (Decreased Height of Vertebral Body)
- horizontal acetabular roofs with medial spikes
- small sacroiliac notches
- marked shortness and bowing of the long bones. ‘Telephone handle’ appearance of the long bones: this is due to metaphyseal flaring
- irregular metaphyses
- short broad tubular bones in the hands and feet
- Polyhydramnios, 75%
- Nonimmune hydrops
- Bonaventure J, Gibbs L, Horne WC, Baron R (2007). "The localization of FGFR3 mutations causing thanatophoric dysplasia type I differentially affects phosphorylation, processing and ubiquitylation of the receptor". FEBS J. 274 (12): 3078–93. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2007.05835.x. PMID 17509076.
- Lievens PM, Liboi E (2003). "The thanatophoric dysplasia type II mutation hampers complete maturation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), which activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) from the endoplasmic reticulum". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (19): 17344–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M212710200. PMID 12624096.
- Norman AM, Rimmer S, Landy S, Donnai D (1992). "Thanatophoric dysplasia of the straight-bone type (type 2)". Clin. Dysmorphol. 1 (2): 115–20. doi:10.1097/00019605-199204000-00008. PMID 1345514.
- Baker, K. M.; Olson, D. S.; Harding, C. O.; Pauli, R. M. (1997). "Long-term survival in typical thanatophoric dysplasia type 1". American Journal of Medical Genetics 70 (4): 427–436. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19970627)70:4<427::AID-AJMG18>3.0.CO;2-J. PMID 9182787.
- Vajo, Zoltan, Francomano CA, Wilkin DJ (2000). "The molecular and genetic basis of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 disorders: the achondroplasia family of skeletal dysplasias, Muenke craniosynostosis, and Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans". Endocr. Rev. 21 (1): 23–39. doi:10.1210/er.21.1.23. PMID 10696568.
- GeneReview/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Thanatophoric Dysplasia
- Thanatophoric dysplasia at NLM Genetics Home Reference