Thane

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{{Hatnote|Not to be confused with Thegn.

This article is about the city in Maharashtra, India. For its namesake district, see Thane district.
For other uses, see Thane (disambiguation).
Thane
ठाणे

City and District Headquarters

(Mumbai Metropolitan Region)
Hiranandani Meadows in Thane
Hiranandani Meadows in Thane
Thane is located in Maharashtra
Thane
Thane
Coordinates: 19°10′21″N 72°57′25″E / 19.172431°N 72.957019°E / 19.172431; 72.957019Coordinates: 19°10′21″N 72°57′25″E / 19.172431°N 72.957019°E / 19.172431; 72.957019
Country India
State Maharashtra
District Thane
Government
 • Mayor H. S. Patil
 • Municipal Commissioner R. Rajeev
Area
 • Total 147 km2 (57 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 1,818,872
 • Density 12,000/km2 (32,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Marathi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 400 6xx
Telephone code 022
Vehicle registration MH-04
Lok Sabha constituency Thane
Vidhan Sabha constituency Thane
Website www.thanecity.gov.in

Thane (Marathi: ठाणे) (IPA: [ˈʈʰaːɳeː]) is a city in Maharashtra, India, at the head of the Thane Creek. The name comes from an anglicization of Shri Sthanak, its earlier name based on a temple of Ganesha. Thane also known as 'the city of lakes' is the administrative headquarters of Thane district. On 16 April 1854, the G.I.P. Railway’s first train ever to run in India rolled out from "Boree Bunder" (now the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus) to "Thane" (previously pronounced and written as "Thana"), 34 kilometers away. This marked the dawn of the Railway Age in Asia. Thane covers an area of 147 km2 and has a population of more than 1.8 million within its municipal limits, according to the 2011 census. Thane comes under Mumbai Metropolitan Region and also the proximity to Mumbai has made it culturally a part of it.

Geography[edit]

Panaromic view of Sanjay Gandhi National Park from Wagle estate, Thane
Upvan Lake

It is located to the northeast of Mumbai, partly on Salsette Island (it shares that island with the Mumbai City District, with Mumbai Suburban District and with Mira-Bhayandar Municipal Corporation), and partly on the mainland across Thane Creek. Spanning an area of about 147 km², the city is located at an elevation of 7 meters above sea level. It is surrounded by hills, including the hill of Yeoor and Parsik Hill. It is divided politically into two parts by the Thane Creek, a stream that courses from the Ulhas River to the Arabian Sea. Two road bridges and one rail bridge connect the two parts of the city. It is one of the oldest cities of India, with its history dating back to about 2,000 years.[citation needed] Thane Municipal Corporation City's limits includes Kopri to the south, Wagle estate, Lokmanya Nagar Naupada, Pachpakhadi to the west, Kalwa, Mumbra and Diva to the east and Manpada, Bramand, Kolshet, Kasarwadavli, Owala, Gaimukh, Kapurbawdi to the north.

City of Lakes[edit]

View of Masunda Lake (Talav Pali) from St. John Baptist High School.
View of Masunda Lake (Talav Pali) from St.John The Baptist High School.

Thane is also known as the City of Lakes. The city has around 35 lakes.[1] The most famous of them is the Masunda Lake, also known as Talao Pali.[2] The lake offers boating and water scooter facilities. On the lake front stands the Gadkari Rangayatan, a drama theatre which is a very popular hub for entertainment in Thane. The Kopineshwar Temple located on the banks of this very same lake is the oldest temple to be found in the entire district of Thane. It was built and renovated centuries back, in about 1750 AD by Chimajji Appa.[2] The Upvan Lake is located at the foot-hills of the Yeoor hills and is a scenic spot. It is flanked by the Yeoor hills, and is a common spot for recreation. Other lakes include:

  • Ambe Ghonsali Lake.
  • Bramhala-Kolbad Lake.
  • Haryali-Chendani Koliwada Lake.
  • Joshi Lake.
  • Kachrali Lake, Pachpakhadi.
  • Kausa Lake.
  • Kharegaon Lake.
  • Makhmali Lake.
  • Masunda Lake Talao Pali.
  • Raila Devi Lake.
  • Rewale Lake.
  • Siddheshwar Lake.
  • Upvan Lake.
  • Wagle Lake.
  • Yashasvi Nagar Lake.

Climate[edit]

Thane has a tropical monsoon climate that borders on a tropical wet and dry climate. Overall climate is equable with high rainfall days and very few days of extreme temperatures. In Thane, temperature varies from 22 °C to 36 °C. Winter temperatures can fall as low as 12 °C at night while summer temperatures can rise to over 40 °C at noon. The lowest day time temperatures are witnessed during the peak of summer monsoon in July and August when temperatures can drop to about 25 °C. Out of total rainfall, 80% rainfall is experienced during June to October. Average annual rainfall is 2000–2500 mm and humidity is 61-86%, making it a humid-perhumid zone. City may experience multiple days at stretch without direct sunshine due to continuous cloud cover during the peak summer monsoon months of July and August. The driest days are in winter while the wettest days are experienced in July.

Climate data for Thane
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.6
(87.1)
31.3
(88.3)
32.7
(90.9)
33.1
(91.6)
33.3
(91.9)
31.9
(89.4)
29.8
(85.6)
29.3
(84.7)
30.1
(86.2)
32.9
(91.2)
33.4
(92.1)
32.0
(89.6)
31.7
(89.1)
Average low °C (°F) 16.4
(61.5)
17.3
(63.1)
20.6
(69.1)
23.7
(74.7)
26.1
(79)
25.8
(78.4)
24.8
(76.6)
24.5
(76.1)
24.0
(75.2)
23.1
(73.6)
20.5
(68.9)
18.2
(64.8)
22.1
(71.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 3.1
(0.122)
1.0
(0.039)
1.5
(0.059)
2.3
(0.091)
25.1
(0.988)
541.3
(21.311)
922.0
(36.299)
539.7
(21.248)
326.9
(12.87)
93.2
(3.669)
19.1
(0.752)
2.3
(0.091)
2,477.5
(97.539)
Source: Government of Maharashtra

Demographics[edit]

The population of thane according to 2011 census is 2,486,941.[3] Average literacy rate of Thane city is 91.36 percent of which male and female literacy was 94.19 and 88.14 percent. The sex ratio of Thane city is 882 per 1000 males. Child sex ratio of girls is 900 per 1000 boys.Total children (0-6) in Thane city are 186,259 as per figure from Census India report on 2011. There were 98,017 boys while 88,242 are girls. The child forms 10.24% of total population of Thane City.[4]

Religions in Thane
Religion Percent
Hindus
  
70%
Muslims
  
14%
Buddhists
  
8%
Christians
  
4%
Jains
  
3.7%
Others†
  
0.3%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (0.2%), Buddhists (<0.2%).

People[edit]

Thane was inhabited with people of the Agri, Koli, Ghati and Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu communities, and their villages still exist today as "Chendani Koliwada", "Kopari Goan", and "Uthalsar". It also includes Majiwade, Balkum, Dhokali, Kolshet, Wadavli, and others. Most of the landlords and officers of Maratha Empire in Thane were from Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu community. The Karkhanis or the chief officer of Thane Fort was Kesha Ramji Gupte. In 1825, the British explored their newly annexed territories in Bassein. The local villagers, like Kolis (fishermen), are converted into indigenous Catholics mostly from villages of Chendani, Koliwada, and Majiwada. The Agri and Koli community people had their own culture.[citation needed] Some of the upper class East Indian families in the Khatri ward of Thane still speak Portuguese.[5]

Culture[edit]

The cultural fabric of Thane is predominantly Maharashtrian, although, like its neighbouring city Mumbai, it has a cosmopolitan culture as well. Because of the huge residential boom, the city has witnessed a large number of immigrants from the nearby city of Mumbai as well as from other pockets of state and country. Beside Marathi, sizable populations of North Indians, South Indians, Sindhis, Gujaratis and Marwari and other people from different regions live in Thane, mainly because of its proximity to Mumbai. Thane is bordered by the Yeoor Hills on one side and is dotted with numerous beautiful lakes, which are a cause of cooler weather than that of Mumbai. Festivals such as Ganesh Chaturthi, Diwali, Gudhi Padwa, Holi, Durga Puja, Mahashivratri and Shivaji Jayanti are celebrated with great zest in the city. Thane offers high rewards amounting to 1 million rupees (US$ 25,000) for winners of Dahi Handi sport during the Gokulashtami festival. Thane also hosts the Upvan Arts Festival at the scenic 15 acre Upvan Lake area. This TMC & MTDC supported Festival hosts works of over 200 artistes from various fields. Besides, Thane also hosts a no. of cottage industry/Swadeshi fairs, food and literary fests throughout the year.

Hiranandaniestate.jpg

History[edit]

Nomenclature[edit]

Throughout recorded history the city has left its mark under various names. The earliest evidence of Thane appears in the works of the Greek geographer, Ptolemy, who, in his writings ( 135 – 150 AD) refers to a place called Chersonesus, which, according to researches, is the area around Thane creek. It is also believed that this place was referred to as 'Sri Sthanaka',named after a temple of Lord Ganapati. Later it was baptized to 'Cacabe de Tana' by the Portuguese and then 'Thana' by the British.

References[edit]

The city crops up again in the Middle Ages and slabs and copper plates dating back to the period have been discovered in Thane. One of them, dug up from the foundations of Thane Fort in 1787, dated 1078 AD, is apparently a land grant from Arikesara Devaraja, sovereign of the city of Tagara, wherein he address the inhabitants of a city called Sri Sthanaka.[6] Friar Jordanus, a great traveler, who visited the Bombay city between AD 1321 and 1324, describes it as being under a Muslim governor. He leaves a detailed sketch of early converted Christians in Bombay and refers to the martyrdom of four Christian priests in the region, more than 200 years before the Portuguese ever set foot in India. The celebrated Ibn Batuta and Abul Feda, contemporaries of Friar Jordanus, also came here. They refer to Thane as Kukin Tana[7] and speak of its fame as a port from which ships sailed to the gulf carrying a kind of cloth called 'Tanasi' which was produced in Thane. Duarte Barbosa, a noted traveler, described Thane by the name Tana Mayambu[7] 25 years before the Portuguese conquest. He paints a vivid picture of the town as one of Moorish mosques and temples, with many pleasant gardens. The Portuguese came to Thane about 1530 and ruled for over 200 years till 1739. Work on the Thane Fort began in 1730. The Marathas, who conquered Bassein and Thane in 1737 and 1739, held sway over the region till 1784, when the British captured the Fort and ruled Thane. They made it the headquarters of the district administration with a district collector stationed in Thane. The Thane Municipal Council was formed in 1863 when the city's population reached above 9000.

Economy[edit]

Thane city, as such, is more of a residential city than an industrial one.

Transport[edit]

TMT New Bus

Rail[edit]

Thane was the terminus for the first ever passenger train in India. On 16 April 1853, the first passenger train service was inaugurated between Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) and Thane.[8] Covering a distance of 34 kilometres (21 mi), it was hauled by three locomotives – Sahib, Sindh and Sultan.

Thane is well connected with neighbouring suburbs through Central and Trans-Harbour Line Suburban railway network. Thane is a railway junction for the Thane-Vashi Harbour Line and Central Line. Also, it is a major halting point for many outstation trains moving in and out of Mumbai. It one of the major railway stations of Mumbai Suburban Railway. It has become the busiest suburban station in Mumbai which handles 6.54 lakh passengers daily.[9] For the smooth flow of such a crowd, escalators have been launched recently in the 3rd and 4th platform. Another escalator is also being constructed on 5th and 6th platform.

There are plans of extending the Ghatkopar-Mulund Metro line up to Thane. So there will be a metro corridor from Wadala to Kasarvadavali on Ghodbunder Road.[10]

Road[edit]

Thane Municipal Transport (TMT), Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST), Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport (NMMT), Mira Bhayander Municipal Transport (MBMT), State Transport (ST) corporations provide public bus service to the city. Auto rickshaws on meter is available to travel within city along with taxis. The fares of taxis and auto rickshaws are same that of Mumbai.

Entertainment[edit]

Thane has a botanical garden which was inaugurated in 2011.[11] The garden is a joint initiative of TMC and Forest Department. It is located at Kopri near Bara Bunglow area and is named after late Shiv Sena leader Dattaji Salvi. There are a few other gardens and open spaces for children's recreation purposes.

For the elite, The Blue Roof Club at Ovala, The Golden Swan Club at Yeoor and United 21 are three full fledged clubs with facilities such as swimming, gymnasium, sports and restaurant facilities. United 21 also has a discotheque, which is the first in Thane.

For Eating Facilities, Thane has a host of fast-food and fine-dine restaurants catering to local as well as global tastes.

Several Lakes are present here that has started acquiring lots of crowd in the evening time especially the scenic Upvan Lake near the Yeour Hills which hosts the famous Upvan Arts Festival


Tertiary Care Hospitals[edit]

  • Vedant Super Speciality Hospitals

List of Schools[edit]

  • A. K. Joshi English Medium High School.
  • Alpha Academy.
  • Arunodaya Public School.
  • Arya Cambridge International School.
  • B. S. M. English Medium School.
  • B. S. M. Maharashtra Vidyalaya.
  • Bedekar Vidyalaya.
  • Bharatratna Shrimati Indira Gandhi Vidyamandir.
  • Billabong High Intl. School.
  • Carmel High School.
  • D .A. V. Public School.
  • Euro School.
  • G. S. S. English High School, Majiwada.
  • Hiranandani Foundation School.
  • Holy Cross Convent High School.
  • K. E. S. Bhagavati Vidyalaya.
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya Air Force Station, Kolshet.
  • Laurel Public School.
  • Little Angel English Medium High School.
  • Little Flower High School.
  • Lodha World School.
  • J.V.M's New English School & Junior College
  • Lok Puram Public School.
  • R.H.ideal high school.
  • Motilal Hargovinddas Vidyalaya.
  • Navodaya English High School.
  • New English School.
  • New Girls School.
  • New Horizon Scholar's School.
  • Orchids - The International School, Thane
  • R. J. Thakur School & College.
  • Rainbow Pre-School, Eden Woods.
  • S. E. S. High School & Jr. College, Panchpakhadi.
  • S. V. P. T. Saraswati Vidyalaya High School & Jr. College, Rabodi.
  • Saraswati Secondary School, Naupada (S.S.S.)
  • Shiv Samarth Vidyalay, Opp. Gadkari Rangayatan.
  • Shreeram Vidyamandir.
  • Shreerang Vidyalaya.
  • Smt. Savitridevi Thirani Vidyamandir.
  • Smt. Sulochanadevi Singhania School.
  • Sri Ma Vidalaya.
  • Sri. Ma Bal Niketan High School & Jr. College.
  • St. John The Baptist High School & Jr. College.
  • St. Xavier's English High School.
  • Thane Police School.
  • Universal High School.
  • Vasant Vihar School.
  • W. E. E. S., Shreenagar, Wagle Estate.
  • Rajashree Shahu Maharaj Vidyalaya Thane(w)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://thanecity.gov.in/uploadpdf/MasterPlan1344664341.pdf
  2. ^ a b "Masunda Talao, Thane". Native Planet. Retrieved 5 December 2012. 
  3. ^ Census of India: Sub-District Details. Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
  4. ^ Thane City Population Census 2011 | Maharashtra. Census2011.co.in. Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
  5. ^ Thane Gazetteer: Ppolation: Christians – Speech. Maharashtra.gov.in. Retrieved on 2012-01-21.
  6. ^ Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland - Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
  7. ^ a b Notes on the History and Antiquities of Chaul and Bassein - J. Gerson Da Cunha - Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
  8. ^ Colonialism: An International, Social, Cultural and Political encyclopedia By Melvin Eugene Page, Penny M. Sonnenburg, page 135
  9. ^ Thane is busiest railway station in Mumbai - Times Of India. Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com (2013-05-19). Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
  10. ^ Soon, take a metro from south Mumbai to Thane. Hindustan Times (2013-04-23). Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
  11. ^ Aphale, Apoorv. "State-of-the-art botanical garden inaugurated". Mumbai Mirror. Retrieved 7 December 2012. 

External links[edit]