|• Total||19,638 km2 (7,582 sq mi)|
|• Density||46.6/km2 (121/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
Tharparkar (Urdu: تھرپارکر ,Sindhi: ٿرپارڪر ) is the only fertile desert in the world. The region derives its names from Thar and Parkar. The name Thar is from Thul, the general term for sand region or sand ridges and Parkar literary means “to cross over”. The region was earlier known as Thar and Parkar, later they became one word.
It was in 1843 when Sir Charles Napier became victor of Sindh and this part was merged into Katchh political agency in Hyderabad collect-orate, later on in 1858 the entire area became part of Hyderabad. Subsequently in 1860 it was renamed as “Eastern Sindh frontier” with its Head Quarter Umerkot, controlled by Political Superintendent. In 1882 it was renamed as district and its administrative head was Deputy Commissioner. Lastly in 1906 Head Quarter of the district was shifted from Umerkot to Mirpurkhas. Until 1990 the present district of Tharparkar, Umerkot and Mirpurkhas comprised one separate district in 1990 i.e. Mirpurkhas and Thar established the town on Mithi as the new head quarters of the Tharparkar district, while Umerkot was bifurcated on 17 April 1993.
There is no stream of fresh water in the region. However, in Nagarparkar there are two perennial springs, namely Anchlesar and Sardhro. as well as temporary streams called Bhatuyani River and Gordhro River which flow during the rainy season. There are some hilly tracks called Parkar. The Granite Marble has been found there. “Karoonjhar Mountain” is near to Nagarparkar. There are no lakes, glaciers, plains in the district. This district is mainly a desert area.
The Thar Region forms part of the bigger desert of the same name that sprawl over a vast area of Pakistan and India from Cholistan to Nagarparkar in Pakistan and from the south of the Haryana down to Rajasthan in India.
The area is mostly deserted and consists of barren tract of the sand dunes covered with thorny bushes. The ridges are irregular and roughly paralleled that thy often closed shattered valleys which they raise to a height to some 46 meters. When there is rain these valleys are moist enough admit cultivation and when not cultivated they yield luxuriant crops of rank grass. But the extra ordinary salinity of the subsoil land consequent shortage of portable water renders many tracks quite picturesque salt lakes which rarely a day up.
The only hills are in Nagarparkar, on the Northern edge of the Runn of Kutchh belongs to quite a different geological series. It consist Granite rocks. Probably an outlying mass of the crystalline rocks of the Arravelli range. The arravelli series belongs to Archean system which constitutes the oldest rocks of the earth crust. This is a small area quite different from the desert. The tack is flat a level expect close to Nagarparkar itself. The principle range Karoonjhar is 19 km in length and attains a height of 305 m. smaller hills rise in the east, which is covered with sars jungle and pasturage and gives rise to two springs named Anchlesar and Sardhro as well as temporary streams called Bhatyani and Gordhro after the rain.