The Adventures of Pinocchio
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|The Adventures of Pinocchio|
illustration from 1911 edition by Attilio Mussino
|Genre||Fiction, Literature, Fantasy, Children's book, Adventure|
The Adventures of Pinocchio (//, US dict: pĭ·nō′·kē·ō; Italian: Le avventure di Pinocchio) is a novel for children by Italian author Carlo Collodi, written in Florence. The first half was originally a serial in 1881 and 1882, and then later completed as a book for children in February 1883. It is about the mischievous adventures of Pinocchio (pronounced [piˈnɔkkjo] in Italian), an animated marionette; and his poor father, a woodcarver named Geppetto. It is considered a classic of children's literature and has spawned many derivative works of art, such as Disney's 1940 animated movie of the same name, and commonplace ideas such as a liar's long nose.
The Adventures of Pinocchio is a story about an animated marionette, boys who turn into donkeys and other fairy tale devices. The setting of the story is the Tuscan area of Italy. It was a unique literary melding of genres for its time. The story's Italian language is peppered with Florentine dialect features, such as the protagonist's Florentine name.
In the 1850s, Collodi began to have a variety of both fiction and non-fiction books published. Once, he translated some French fairy-tales so well that he was asked whether he would like to write some of his own. In 1881, he sent a short episode in the life of a wooden puppet to a friend who edited a newspaper in Rome, wondering whether the editor would be interested in publishing this "bit of foolishness" in his children's section. The editor did, and the children loved it. The Adventures of Pinocchio were serialized in the paper in 1881–2, and then published in 1883 with huge success.
In the original, serialized version, Pinocchio dies a gruesome death: hanged for his innumerable faults, at the end of Chapter 15. At the request of his editor, Collodi added chapters 16–36, in which the Fairy with Turquoise Hair (or "Blue Fairy", as the Disney version names her) rescues Pinocchio and eventually transforms him into a real boy, when he acquires a deeper understanding of himself, making the story more suitable for children. In the second half of the book, the maternal figure of the Blue-haired Fairy is the dominant character, versus the paternal figure of Geppetto in the first part.
Children's literature was a new idea in Collodi's time, an innovation in the 19th century. Thus in content and style it was new and modern, opening the way to many writers of the following century.
Collodi, who died in 1890, was respected during his lifetime as a talented writer and social commentator, and his fame continued to grow when Pinocchio was first translated into English by Mary Alice Murray in 1892, whose translation was added to the widely read Everyman's Library in 1911. Other well regarded English translations include the 1926 translation by Carol Della Chiesa, and the 1986 bilingual edition by Nicolas J. Perella.
The popularity of the story was bolstered by the powerful philosopher-critic Benedetto Croce, who greatly admired the tale.
A carpenter finds a talking piece of wood and gives it to his poor neighbor, Geppetto, who wants to build a marionette. Geppetto carves the block into a marionette puppet and names him his son, Pinocchio. However, Pinocchio runs away as soon as he learns to walk. The marionette is caught by a Carabiniere, but he assumes that Pinocchio has been mistreated and imprisons Geppetto. Pinocchio goes back to Geppetto's house where he accidentally kills a talking cricket who had warned Pinocchio of the perils of disobedience and hedonism. That evening, Pinocchio falls asleep with his feet on the stove, and wakes to find that they have burned off. Geppetto is released from prison and makes Pinocchio a new pair of feet. In gratitude, Pinocchio promises to attend school and Geppetto sells his only coat to buy him a school book. On his way to school the next morning, Pinocchio encounters the Great Marionette Theatre and he sells his school book in order to buy a ticket for the show. The marionettes on stage recognize him in the audience and call out to him angering the puppet master Mangiafuoco. The puppet master initially decides to use Pinocchio as firewood, but ultimately releases him and gives him five gold pieces to give to Geppetto.
As Pinocchio travels home to give the coins to his father, he meets a fox and a cat. A white blackbird tries to warn Pinocchio of their lies, but is eaten by the Cat. They convince him that if he plants his coins in the Field of Miracles outside the city of Catchfools, they will grow into a tree with one or two thousand gold coins. On the way to the field, they stop at an inn, where the Fox and Cat gorge themselves on food at Pinocchio's expense and asked to be awaken by midnight. Two hours before the set time, the pair abandon Pinocchio leaving him to pay for the meal with one of his coins. They instruct the innkeeper to tell Pinocchio that they left after receiving a message stating that the Cat's eldest kitten had fallen ill and that they would meet Pinocchio at the Field of Miracles in the morning. They take off ahead of Pinocchio and disguise themselves as bandits while Pinocchio continues on toward Catchfools, despite warnings from the Ghost of the Talking Cricket he had killed earlier. The disguised Fox and Cat ambush Pinocchio, but the puppet escapes to a white house after biting off the Cat's paw. Upon knocking on the door, the Pinocchio is greeted by a young fairy with turquoise hair who says she is dead and waiting for a hearse. Unfortunately, while Pinocchio is speaking with the fairy, the bandits catch him and hang him in a tree. After a while, the Fox and Cat get tired of waiting for the puppet to suffocate and leave.
The fairy calls in three famous doctors to tell her whether Pinocchio is dead where two of them are an Owl and a Crow. The third doctor is the Ghost of the Talking Cricket who says that the puppet is fine, but has been disobedient and hurt his father. The fairy administers medicine to Pinocchio who consents to take it after four Undertaker Rabbits arrive to carry away his body, as he will be dead soon if he doesn't take the medicine. Recovered, Pinocchio lies to the fairy when she asks what has happened to the gold coins, and his nose grows until it is so long that he cannot turn around in the room. The fairy explains that Pinocchio's lies are making his nose grow, and calls in a flock of woodpeckers to chisel it down to normal size. The fairy sends for Geppetto to come and live with them in the forest cottage.
When Pinocchio heads out to meet his father, he once again encounters The Fox and The Cat, who are no longer are wearing their disguises. When Pinocchio notices the Cat's missing paw, the Fox claimed that they had to sacrifice it to feed a hungry wolf. They remind the puppet of the Field of Miracles, and finally he agrees to go with them and plant his gold. After half a day's journey, they reach the city of Catchfools, where everyone in town has done something exceedingly foolish and now suffers as a result. Pinocchio buries his coins, and then leaves for the twenty minutes it will take for his gold to grow into gold coin trees. After Pinocchio leaves, the Fox and the Cat dig up the coins and run away. Once he returns, he finds no trees and no gold coins. He reports the theft of the coins to a gorilla judge in Catchfools and is sentenced to prison for four months for the crime of foolishness. Fortunately, all prisoners are released early when the Emperor of Catchfools declares a celebration.
Pinocchio then heads back to the fairy's house in the forest. While sneaking into a farmer's yard to take some grapes, Pinocchio is caught in a weasel trap. The farmer finds Pinocchio and ties him up in a doghouse to guard his chicken coop. When Pinocchio foils the chicken-stealing plot of a group of weasels, the farmer frees the puppet as a reward. Pinocchio finally comes to where the cottage was and finds nothing but a gravestone, and believes that the Fairy has died of sorrow.
A friendly pigeon sees Pinocchio mourning the Fairy's death, and offers to give him a ride to the seashore, where Geppetto is building a boat in which to search for Pinocchio. They fly to the seashore and Pinocchio sees Geppetto out in a boat, but Pinocchio is washed ashore when he tries to swim to his father and Geppetto is swallowed by The Terrible Dogfish. Pinocchio then accepts a ride from a dolphin to the nearest island called the Island of Busy. Pinocchio can only get food in return for labor. Pinocchio finally offers to carry a lady's jug home in return for food and water.
When they get to the lady's house, Pinocchio recognizes the lady as the Fairy, now miraculously old enough to be his mother. She says she will act as Pinocchio's mother and Pinocchio will begin going to school. She hints that if Pinocchio does well in school and tries his hardest to be good for one whole year, he will become a real boy. Pinocchio studies hard and rises to the top of his class, but this makes the other schoolboys jealous. The other boys trick Pinocchio into playing hookey by saying they saw a large sea monster at the beach, the same one that swallowed Geppetto. However, the boys were lying and a fight breaks out. One boy named Eugene is hit by Pinocchio's school book, though Pinocchio did not throw it. Pinocchio is accused of injuring Eugene by two police officers, but the puppet escapes. During his escape, Pinocchio saves a drowning English Mastiff named Alidoro (who works as a police dog) who was chasing him. In exchange, Alidoro later saves Pinocchio from The Green Fisherman who was going to eat the marionette. Pinocchio returns home to the Fairy, who says she will give him another chance.
Pinocchio does excellently in school and passes with high honors. The Fairy promises that Pinocchio will be a real boy next day and says he should invite all his friends to a party. He goes to invite everyone, but he is sidetracked when he meets a boy nicknamed Lampwick who is about to go to a place called Toyland where everyone plays all day and never works. Pinocchio goes along with him when they are taken there by The Coachman and they have a wonderful time. One morning, Pinocchio and Lampwick awake with donkey ears. A squirrel tells Pinocchio that boys who do nothing but play and never work always grow into donkeys while they are in Toyland. As a donkey, Pinocchio is sold to a circus and trained by its ringmaster to do tricks until he falls and sprains his leg. The ringmaster then sells Pinocchio to a man who wants to skin him a make a drum. The man throws the donkey into the sea to drown him. But when the man goes to retrieve the corpse, all he finds is a living marionette. Pinocchio explains that the fish ate all the donkey skin off him and he is now a puppet again.
Pinocchio dives back into the water and swims out to sea when he is swallowed by The Terrible Shark. Inside the Terrible Dogfish, Pinocchio sees a light from far off and he follows it. At the other end is Geppetto who has been living on a ship inside the Shark. Pinocchio and Geppetto manage to escape the Terrible Dogfish and try to find a place to stay. They pass two beggars who are the Fox and the Cat, now disabled and poor with the Fox also having chopped off his tail to sell for money. The Fox and the Cat plead for food or money, but Pinocchio rebuffs them and tells them it serves them right for their wickedness. They arrive at a small house and living there is the talking cricket, who says they can stay. Pinocchio gets a job doing work for a farmer named Giangio and recognizes the farmer's dying donkey as his friend Lampwick.
After long months of working for the farmer and supporting the ailing Geppetto, Pinocchio goes to town with the forty pennies he has saved to buy himself a new suit. He discovers that the Fairy is ill and needs money. Pinocchio instantly gives the snail all the money he has, promising that he will help his mother as much as he is helping his father. That night, he dreams he is visited by the Fairy, who kisses him. When he wakes up, he is a real boy at last. His former puppet body lies lifeless on a chair. Furthermore, Pinocchio finds that the Fairy has left him a new suit and boots, and a bag which he thinks is the forty pennies he originally loaned to her. The boy is shocked to find instead forty freshly-minted gold coins. He is also reunited with Geppetto, now healthy and resuming woodcarving.
- Pinocchio – Pinocchio is a naughty, pine-wood marionette who gains wisdom through a series of misadventures which lead him to becoming a real human as reward for his good deeds.
- Mister Geppetto – Geppetto is an elderly, impoverished woodcarver and the creator (and thus father) of Pinocchio. He wears a yellow wig that looks like cornmeal mush (or polendina), and subsequently the children of the neighborhood (as well as some of the adults) call him "Polendina", which greatly annoys him. "Geppetto" is a nickname for Giuseppe.
- Mister Antonio ([anˈtɔːnjo] in Italian, /ɑːnˈtoʊnjoʊ/ ân·tō′·nyō in English; Maestro Antonio): Antonio is an elderly carpenter. He finds the log that eventually becomes Pinocchio, planning to make it into a table leg until it cries out "Please be careful!" The children call Antonio "Mastro Cherry" because of his red nose.
- The Talking Cricket (il Grillo parlante) – The Talking Cricket is a cricket whom Pinocchio kills after it tries to give him some advice. The Cricket comes back as a ghost to continue advising the puppet.
- Mangiafuoco ([mandʒaˈfwɔːko] in Italian, /ˌmɑːndʒəˈfwoʊkoʊ/ mân′·jə·fwō′·kō in English; literally "Fire-Eater") – Mangiafuoco is the wealthy director of the Great Marionette Theater. He has red eyes and a black beard which reaches to the floor, and his mouth is "as wide as an oven [with] teeth like yellow fangs". Despite his appearances, however, Mangiafuoco (which the story says is his given name) is not evil.
- Harlequin (Arlecchino), Punch (Pulcinella), and Signora Rosaura – Harlequin, Punch, and Signora Rosaura are marionettes at the theater who embrace Pinocchio as their brother.
- The Fox and the Cat (la Volpe ed il Gatto) – Greedy animals pretending to be lame and blind respectively, the pair lead Pinocchio astray, rob him and eventually try to hang him.
- The Innkeeper (l'Oste) – An innkeeper who is in tricked by the Fox and the Cat where he unknowingly leads Pinocchio into an ambush.
- The Fairy with Turquoise Hair (la Fata dai capelli turchini) – The Blue-haired Fairy is the spirit of the forest who rescues Pinocchio and adopts him first as her brother, then as her son.
- The Owl (la Civetta) and the Crow (la Cornacchia) – Two famous doctors who diagnose Pinocchio.
- The Judge (il Giudice) – The gorilla judge of Catchfools.
- The Emperor of Catchfool – The ruler of Catchfools.
- The Farmer (il Contadino) – An unnamed farmer whose chickens are plagued by weasel attacks.
- Melampo – A watch dog.
- The Terrible Dogfish (Il terribile Pescecane) – A mile-long, five-story-high fish. Pescecane, while literally meaning "dog fish", generally means "shark" in Italian.
- The Dolphin – A dolphin who gives Pinocchio a ride to Busy Bee Island.
- Alidoro (del can mastino) ([aliˈdɔːro] in Italian, /ˌɑːliˈdɒroʊ/ â′·lē·dŏr′·ō in English). The old mastiff of a carabineer.
- The Green Fisherman (Il Pescatore verde) – A green-skinned ogre who catches Pinocchio in his fishing net and attempts to eat him.
- Romeo ([roˈmɛːo] in Italian, /ˈroʊmi.oʊ/ rō′·mē·ō in English)/"Lampwick" or "Candlewick" (Lucignolo) – A tall, thin boy (like a wick) who is Pinocchio's best friend and a trouble-maker.
- The Little Man (l'Omino) – The owner of the Land of Toys.
- The Squirrel – A squirrel who tells Pinocchio about the Land of Toys' magic.
- The Ringmaster (il Direttore) – The unnamed ringmaster of a circus.
- The Master (il Padrone) – A man who wants to make Pinocchio's hide into a drum.
- The Tuna Fish (il Tonno) – A tuna fish as "large as a two-year-old horse" who has been swallowed by the Terrible Shark.
- Giangio ([ˈdʒandʒo] in Italian; /ˈdʒɑːndʒoʊ/ jân′·jō in English) – The farmer who buys Romeo as a donkey.
The story has been adapted into many forms on stage and screen, some keeping close to the original Collodi narrative while others treat the story more freely. There are at least fourteen English-language films based on the story (see also:The Adventures of Pinocchio), not to mention the Italian, French, Russian, German, Japanese and many other versions for the big screen and for television, and several musical adaptations.
- Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy wrote a famous Russian adaptation of the book, entitled The Little Gold Key or the Adventures of Buratino (1936) illustrated by Alexander Koshkin, translated from Russian by Kathleen Cook-Horujy, Raduga Publishers, Moscow, 1990, 171 pages, SBN 5-05-002843-4 (burattino is Italian for "puppet"). Leonid Vladimirski later wrote and illustrated a sequel, Buratino in the Emerald City, bringing Buratino to the Magic Land that Alexander Melentyevich Volkov based on the Land of Oz, and which Vladimirski had illustrated.
- The Adventures of Pinocchio (1936), a historically-notable, unfinished Italian animated feature film.
- The Disney animated film Pinocchio (released February 7, 1940). It loosely follows Collodi's story and is considered a masterpiece of the art of animation. It was deemed culturally significant by the Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry.
- Pinocchio, a 1957 TV musical broadcast live during the Golden Age of Television, directed and choreographed by Hanya Holm, and starring such actors as Mickey Rooney (in the title role), Walter Slezak (as Geppetto), Fran Allison (as the Blue Fairy), and Martyn Green (as the Fox). This version featured songs by Alec Wilder and was shown on NBC. It was part of a then-popular trend of musicalizing fantasy stories for television, following the immense success of the Mary Martin Peter Pan, which made its TV debut in 1955.
- The New Adventures of Pinocchio A series of 5 minute stop-motion animated vignettes by Jules Bass and Arthur Rankin Jr.
- The Prince Street Players' musical version, starring John Joy as Pinocchio and David Lile as Geppetto, was broadcast on CBS Television in 1965.
- Turlis Abenteuer an East German version released in 1967. In 1969 it was dubbed into English and shown in the US as Pinocchio.
- Pinocchio (1968), a musical version of the story that aired in the United States on NBC, with pop star Peter Noone playing the puppet. This one bore no resemblance to the 1957 television version.
- Un burattino di nome Pinocchio (1972) (in English A Puppet Named Pinocchio in Spanish Las Fantasias de Pinocho), directed by Giuliano Cenci, was an extraordinary technical and artistic animation achievement, featuring some of the greatest Italian actors of the age such as Lauro Gazzolo and Renato Rascel. Carlo Collodi's grandchildren, Mario and Antonio Lorenzini advised the production.
- Le avventure di Pinocchio (1972), an exceptional high-quality TV mini-series by Italian director Luigi Comencini, starring Andrea Balestri as Pinocchio, Nino Manfredi as Geppetto and Gina Lollobrigida as the Fairy.
- Mokku of the Oak Tree (1972 TV program) Tatsunoko Productions
- Pinocchio (1976), still another live-action musical version for television, with Sandy Duncan in a trouser role as the puppet, Danny Kaye as Geppetto, and Flip Wilson as the Fox. It was telecast on CBS, and is available on DVD.
- Piccolino no Bōken (1976 TV program) Nippon Animation
- Pinocchio no Boken (1979 TV program) DAX International
- A 1984 episode of Faerie Tale Theatre starring Paul Reubens as the puppet.
- Golden Films's Pinocchio, released in 1993 and produced by Diane Eskenazi.
- The Adventures of Pinocchio (1996), a film by Steve Barron starring Martin Landau as Geppetto and Jonathan Taylor Thomas as Pinocchio, David Doyle as Pepe the Cricket.
- Geppetto (2000), a television film broadcast on The Wonderful World of Disney starring Drew Carey in the title role, Seth Adkins as Pinocchio, Brent Spiner as Stromboli and Julia Louis-Dreyfus as the Blue Fairy.
- Pinocchio (2002), a live-action film directed by and starring Roberto Benigni.
- An opera, The Adventures of Pinocchio, composed by Jonathan Dove to a libretto by Alasdair Middleton, was commissioned by Opera North and premièred at the Grand Theatre in Leeds, England, on 21 December 2007.
- Pinocchio (2012), an Belgian-French-Italian animated film directed by Enzo D'Alò.
- Cherubini, E (1911), Pinocchio in Africa, Italy.
- Tolstoy, Aleksey Nikolayevich (1936), The Golden Key, or the Adventures of Buratino, Russia, a loose adaptation.
- Fontana a Pinocchio, Milan, 1956, "bronze statues of Pinocchio, the Cat, and the Fox".
- Pinocchio in Outer Space, 1965, "feature": Pinocchio has adventures in outer space, with an alien turtle as a friend.
- The Erotic Adventures of Pinocchio, 1971 was advertised with the memorable line, "It's not his nose that grows!"
- Weldon, John (1977), Spinnolio (parody), National Film Board of Canada.
- Pinocchio and the Emperor of the Night, 1987, "animation, a follow up".
- Edward Scissorhands, 1990, "movie, contains elements both of Frankenstein and Pinocchio".
- Coover, Robert (1991), Pinocchio in Venice, "novel, continues the story of Pinocchio, the Blue Fairy, and other characters".
- Pinocchio's Revenge, 1996.
- Spielberg, Steven (2001), A.I. Artificial Intelligence, "film, based on a Stanley Kubrick project that was cut short by Kubrick's death, recasts the Pinocchio theme; in it an android with emotions longs to become a real boy".
- Shrek, 2001, "movie: Pinocchio was a character in the first three movies".
- Shrek the Musical, Broadway, December 14, 2008.
- Pinocchio 3000, Canada, "2003 CGI film".
- Teacher's Pet, 2004 contains elements and references of the 1940 adaptation and A.I. Artificial Intelligence.
- Dine, James ‘Jim’ (2006), Pinocchio, Steidl, "illustrations".
- ———— (2007), Pinocchio, PaceWildenstein.
- Costantini, Vito (2011), The other Pinocchio, "musical, the first musical sequel to 'Adventures of Pinocchio'". The musical is based on The other Pinocchio, Brescia: La Scuola Editrice, 1999, "book". The composer is Antonio Furioso. Vito Costantini wrote "The other Pinocchio" after the discovery of a few sheets of an old manuscript attributed to Collodi and dated 21/10/1890. The news of the discovery appeared in the major Italian newspapers. It is assumed the Tuscan artist wrote a sequel to 'The Adventures of Pinocchio' he never published. Starting from handwritten sheets, Costantini has reconstructed the second part of the story. In 2000 'The other Pinocchio' won first prize in national children's literature Città of Bitritto.
- Carter, Scott William (2012), Wooden Bones, "novel, described as the untold story of Pinocchio, with a dark twist. Pino, as he’s come to be known after he became a real boy, has discovered that he has the power to bring puppets to life himself".
- Marvel Fairy Tales, a comic book series by C. B. Cebulski, features a retelling of The Adventures of Pinocchio with the robotic superhero called The Vision in the role of Pinocchio.
- Once Upon a Time, (2011) ABC television series. Pinocchio and many other characters from the story have major roles in the episodes "That Still Small Voice" and "The Stranger".
- "Pinocchio", Geoffrey Brock, transl.; Umberto Eco, introd., New York Review Books, 2008.
- The Adventures of Pinocchio (in Italian & English), Nicolas J. Perella, transl., 1986, ISBN 0-520-07782-2, ISBN 0-520-24686-1.
- The Story of a Puppet or The Adventures of Pinocchio, Mary Alice Murray, transl., Wikisource, 1892.
- The Adventures of Pinocchio, Carol Della Chiesa, transl., Wikisource.
- * Pinocchio: the Tale of a Puppet at Project Gutenberg, Alice Carsey, illustr., 1916.
- The Adventures of Pinocchio, Carol Della Chiesa, transl.; Attilio Mussino, illustr., Illuminated books, 1926.
- Collodi, The Adventures of Pinocchio (in Italian), IT: Liber Liber.
- Collodi, The Adventures of Pinocchio (in English and Italian), IT: Libero
Media related to Le avventure di Pinocchio at Wikimedia Commons
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Facebook page (Spanish)
- Le Avventure di Pinocchio (in Italian), Polyglot project.
- Pinocchio, IT: Carlo Collodi National Foundation.
- Comencini, Luigi, Pinocchio, IT: Andrea Balestri.
- Verger, Mario, Un burattino di nome Pinocchio [The Adventures of Pinocchio] (in Italian), Carlo Rambaldi, introd., Rapporto confidenziale.
- "Pinocchiate", AlterVista illustrated guidebooks.
- Collodi, Carlo, Le avventure di Pinocchio (MP3) (in Italian), Valerio di Stefano, reader, Classici Stranieri
- The Adventures of Pinocchio, Ciff Ciaff.
- Pinocchio (film character) at the Internet Movie Database
- L'Altro Pinocchio (musical) (in Italian), IT.